To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article examines the Baluba Association of Katanga (Balubakat) from its creation in 1957 until its dissolution in 1964, as well as its leader Jason Sendwe. Despite not receiving much scholarly coverage hitherto, Sendwe and the Balubakat played an important part in undermining the Katangese secession, along with the UN and the Congolese National Army (ANC). This article's focus on the Balubakat and Sendwe challenges the traditional historical focus on top parties, such as the National Congolese Movement (MNC), and their leaders, such as Patrice Lumumba, when examining Congolese decolonisation. Sendwe's pragmatic, non-aligned stance helped the Balubakat maintain the support of powerful institutions, such as the Great Lakes Railway Company (CFL). His ability to hold the Balubakat together also derived from its members’ common wish to oppose the Katangese secession. Yet the efficacy of Sendwe's leadership was best demonstrated after the party disbanded following his assassination.
This chapter looks at the major energy-related problems facing Africa, including costs, environmental pollution, social inequities, and infrastructure challenges. It provides an understanding of the major challenges of energy poverty, including: (i) The problem of lack of access to electricity, options to address this problem, strategies and policies to implement these options, and examples where the problem has been addressed; (ii) The problem of dependence on dirty cookstoves for major energy needs, options to address this problem, strategies and policies to implement these options, and examples where the problem has been addressed. The chapter also looks at the potential for African countries to leapfrog traditional energy sources and infrastructure to distributed renewable energy systems and innovative transportation systems.
Although several studies have underlined the advantages of using insect-proof nets to improve yields while reducing the use of pesticides, one obstacle to the diffusion of this technique in tropical conditions is the associated increase in temperature in the tunnel. The aim of this work was to assess the interest of combining the physical protection provided by nets against insect pests with the beneficial impacts of using shade nets to grow cabbages. A two-season experiment was set up to compare temperature conditions, insect pest populations, yields, and the quality of cabbage crops grown in the open field and in low tunnels covered with nets providing different degrees of shading, 17.2% by white and 50.1% by silver nets. During the day, the temperature under the white and silver nets was 10.4 °C and 6.3 °C higher, respectively, than in the open field in the first season, and 6.5 °C and 5.9 °C higher in the second season. Both insect-proof nets significantly reduced insect pest populations and hence the need for insecticide treatments. The white nets increased marketable yield by 45.4% in the first season and by 16.4% in the second compared to yields in the open field, whereas silver nets reduced yield by 18.6% and 15.0%, respectively. The reduction in yield under silver nets was attributed to excessive shading that prevented the light requirements of cabbage crops from being fulfilled. Economic analysis raised some concerns about the profitability of the use of netting to grow cabbage due to investment costs and the lack of premium prices for vegetables produced with fewer pesticides in local markets.
To (i) describe the infant feeding practices of South African women living in Soweto and (ii) understand from the mothers’ perspective what influences feeding practices.
Semi-structured focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted, and data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Soweto, South Africa.
Nineteen mothers were stratified into three FGD according to their baby’s age as follows: 0–6-month-olds, 7–14-month-olds and 15–24-month-olds. Four mothers from each FGD then attended an IDI.
Although mothers understood that breast-feeding was beneficial, they reported short durations of exclusive breast-feeding. The diversity and quality of weaning foods were low, and ‘junk’ food items were commonly given. Infants were fed using bottles or spoons and feeding commonly occurred separately to family meal times. Feeding practices were influenced by mothers’ beliefs that what babies eat is important for their health and that an unwillingness to eat is a sign of ill health. As such, mothers often force-fed their babies. In addition, mothers believed that feeding solid food to babies before 6 months of age was necessary. Family matriarchs were highly influential to mothers’ feeding practices; however, their advice often contradicted that of health professionals.
In South Africa, interventions aimed at establishing healthier appetites and eating behaviours in early life should focus on: (i) fostering maternal self-efficacy around exclusive breast-feeding; (ii) challenging mixed feeding practices and encouraging more responsive feeding approaches and (iii) engaging family members to promote supportive household and community structures around infant feeding.
In 1921 and 1924 Muhammadu Dikko, the emir of Katsina, traveled to Britain on a sightseeing trip, becoming the first emir or chief from Northern Nigeria to visit the British imperial metropole. This article analyzes the colonial relationship that put Dikko in the colonizers’ orbit and favor and paved the way for him to embark on the trips, the colonial logistics and networks that facilitated the journeys, Dikko's experiences and adventures in Britain, and, most importantly, his perspectives on British society, institutions, goods, and forms of leisure. I argue that Dikko, though constrained by serving as a prop in a colonial performance of power, used travel to Britain as a platform to advance metropolitan modernity as an aspirational if distant model of socioeconomic advancement and to give his peers and subjects in Northern Nigeria a textual reference for navigating colonial culture in relation to their own natal Islamo-Hausa cultural norms.
This article deals with marriage as mobilized by the Ethiopian Empire as part of its consolidation processes after 1941. It particularly concentrates on post-liberation anxiety and how the Ethiopian Empire envisioned tackling this disquiet by reforming marriage. Within the context of (re)building the empire, policies, laws, and discourses around monogamous marriage instilled normative ideas to produce the imperial subjects — procreative and productive — that a modernizing empire required. Sex was articulated within the confines of a heterosexual union, not only as a legitimate act but also as a responsibility of couples who were accountable for the consolidation of the empire. Sexual relations out of marriage were condemned as a source of degeneracy and the ensuing danger that confronted the empire. New laws were introduced to legislate sex to tackle the unease the empire felt about non-normative sex and associated pleasure(s). What started out as a battle against the Italian legacy continued more forcefully in the 1950s and 1960s with the rise of ‘new problems’ that educated young women and men posed. The article relies on a range of sources such as policy, legal, religious, and travel documents; newspapers; and novels, as well as self-help books produced between the 1940s and 1960s.
To assess the burden of iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Africa using estimated pregnancy median urinary iodine concentration (pMUIC).
pMUIC for each African country was estimated using a regression equation derived by correlating the school-age children (SAC) median UIC (mUIC) and pMUIC from countries around the globe, and the SAC mUIC data for African countries obtained from the Iodine Global Network (IGN) 2017 and 2019 Score cards.
Iodine deficiency was endemic in many African countries before the introduction of iodine fortification, mainly through universal salt iodisation programmes about 25 years ago. There is a scarcity of data on the level of iodine nutrition in pregnancy in Africa. Women living in settings with pMUIC below 150 µg/l are at risk of iodine deficiency-related pregnancy complications.
Fifty of the fifty-five African countries that had data on iodine nutrition status.
A cut-off school age mUIC ≤ 175 µg/l is correlated with insufficient iodine intake in pregnancy (pregnancy mUIC ≤ 150 μg/l). Twenty-two African countries had SAC mUIC < 175 μg/l, which correlated with insufficient iodine intake during pregnancy (pMUIC < 150 μg/l). However, nine of these twenty-two countries had adequate iodine intake based on SAC mUIC.
There is likely a high prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnancy, including in some African countries classified as having adequate iodine intake in the general population. A SAC mUIC ≤ 175 µg/l predicts insufficient iodine intake among pregnant women in these settings.
The current study aimed to develop a modified Mediterranean diet (MMD) score adjusted to the southern Mediterranean countries’ cultural specificities and to evaluate associations between adherence to this modified score and overweight/obesity risk in Moroccan adults.
Population-based cross-sectional study.
Rural and urban areas of the five greatest provinces of Morocco.
In total, 1516 participants were recruited between September 2009 and February 2017. Dietary assessment was obtained using a validated Moroccan FFQ. We constructed a MMD score focusing on twelve components. The MMD score ranged from 0 (no adherence to the traditional southern Mediterranean diet (MD)) to 12 (maximal adherence) and was categorised as low (scores 0–4), moderate (scores 5–7) and high (scores 8–12).
Among the whole population, 754 (50·5 %) were women and 738 (49·5 %) were men, and the mean age was about 55·60 ± 13·70. In total, 58 % of participants were moderately active. Regarding educational level, 50·7 % were illiterate. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 43·3 and 8·6 %, respectively. In multivariate analyses, close adherence to MMD (scores 8–12) was associated with reduced overweight/obesity risk (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·84).
The prevalence of overweight and obesity was very high among Moroccan adults. Adherence to the traditional southern MD may help prevent overweight and obesity.
Czechoslovak ‘people's democracy’ supplied a model for the development of a South African notion of a ‘national democratic’ revolution as well as providing key skills and resources. Czechoslovak support for this project in the 1960s and 1970s was both a source of confidence and fragility for South African Communists, boosting morale but confirming their subordinate status in their partnership with African nationalism. Drawing upon Czech archival materials as well as memoirs and interviews, this paper explores encounters and connections between South African Communists and the Czechs against the backdrop of the broader strategic concerns that shaped Soviet and Eastern European support for South African liberatory politics.
In contrast with the imperial period, historians have overlooked African exile politics during the subsequent decades of one-party and military rule. Focusing on the Malian case, this article proceeds in three parts. The first section explores the creation in Africa, in particular in Ivory Coast and Senegal, of clandestine opposition movements to Moussa Traoré's regime. The second section focuses on Europe, particularly France, where dissidents benefitted from an unparalleled openness of the political system compared to that seen in African countries. The final section investigates the influence of these networks spanning Africa and Europe on the formation of pro-democracy organizations in Mali and the final overthrow of the Traoré regime in 1991. Theorizing exile as a process which enabled activists to operate in abeyance despite repression – before being able to emerge more openly – refines our understanding of political transitions which were driven by the juncture of internal and external dynamics.
To explore adolescents’ perceptions, knowledge and behaviours regarding nutrition and physical activity in low-income districts of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, taking into consideration their caregivers’ perspectives.
Two investigators conducted six focus group discussions.
The study was carried out in two low-income suburbs, Yopougon and Port-Bouët, in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
Adolescents and their caregivers were recruited into the study via local head teachers and heads of settlement.
Overall, seventy-two participants, including forty-six adolescents and twenty-six caregivers, took part. Participants demonstrated good nutrition knowledge, relating nutritional health to a balanced diet and hygiene. Sustained physical activity was reported. However, adopting good practices was challenging due to participant’s economic circumstances. Their environment was a barrier to improving health due to dirtiness and violence, with a lack of space limiting the possibility to practice sport. Adolescents and their caregivers differed in their response to these constraints. Many caregivers felt powerless and suggested that a political response was the solution. Alternatively, adolescents were more likely to suggest new creative solutions such as youth-friendly centres within their community.
Participants were aware that their nutritional habits were not in line with what they had learnt to be good nutritional practices due to socio-economic constraints. Physical activity was part of adolescent life, but opportunities to exercise were restricted by their environment. Strategies for improving adolescent health in these settings need to be developed in collaboration with adolescents in a manner that accommodates their opinions and solutions.
Sudan is a vitally important region for understanding the migrations of Anatomically Modern Humans from the African continent. Here, the authors present the results of a preliminary survey in the Kerma region, during which, 16 new Middle Stone Age sites were discovered.
People believed to be witches have been killed in many parts of Africa since precolonial times. Belief in witchcraft persists today among many people, occasionally resulting in the killing of the suspected witch. The killer views witchcraft as an attack similar in nature to the use of physical force and therefore kills the witch in an attempt to end the perceived attack. As it stands today, the law in Uganda fails to strike a balance between the rights of the deceased victim violated through murder and those of the accused who honestly believes that he or she or a loved one was a victim of witchcraft. This article argues that the defenses that are currently available—mistake of fact, self-defense, insanity, and provocation by witchcraft—are insufficient, as they fail to strike that delicate balance. A more pragmatic approach to the issue of witch-killing, one that deals with the elimination of belief in witchcraft, is necessary.
To evaluate the effect of school-based nutrition interventions (SBNI) involving schoolchildren and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) on child nutrition status and nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.
A systematic review on published school nutrition intervention studies of randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after studies or quasi-experimental designs with control. Nine electronic bibliographic databases were searched. To be included, interventions had to involve changes to the school’s physical and social environments, to the school’s nutrition policies, to teaching curriculum to incorporate nutrition education and/or to partnership with parents/community.
Schools in SSA.
School-aged children and adolescents, aged 5–19 years.
Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. While there are few existing studies of SBNI in SSA, the evidence shows that food supplementation/fortification is very effective in reducing micronutrient deficiencies and can improve nutrition status. Secondly, school nutrition education can improve nutrition knowledge, but this may not necessarily translate into healthy nutrition behaviour, indicating that nutrition knowledge may have little impact without a facilitating environment. Results regarding anthropometry were inconclusive; however, there is evidence for the effectiveness of SBNI in improving cognitive abilities.
There is enough evidence to warrant further trials of SBNI in SSA. Future research should consider investigating the impact of SBNI on anthropometry and nutrition behaviour, focusing on the role of programme intensity and/or duration. To address the high incidence of micronutrient deficiencies in low- and middle-income countries, food supplementation strategies currently available to schoolchildren should be expanded.
Within international relations the normative agency of African actors is often downplayed or derided. This article develops the concept of bricolage to offer a novel understanding of norm development and contestation in international relations, including the role African actors play in this. We contend that a norm's core hypothesis can be thought of as the nucleus of a norm. In the case of complex international norms, if this core hypothesis is sufficiently vague and malleable, the norm will continue to attract a range of actors who may claim to share a commitment to enacting the core hypothesis even if they simultaneously promote a variety of potentially conflicting and contradictory meanings-in-use of the norm when doing so. Each meaning-in-use, we argue, might be thought of as a product of bricolage: a process of combining and adapting both new and second-hand materials, knowledges, values, and practices by an actor to address a problem in hand. Through a detailed study of the contestation of transitional justice between South Africa and the International Criminal Court, we elucidate how bricolage can help to illuminate the normative agency of African actors in shaping transitional justice. Processes of bricolage add complexity and potentially confusion to a norm's development, but bricolage also offers the potential for a creative and dynamic means by which a range of actors can inject pluralism, dexterity, and vitality into debates about a norm's meaning and operationalisation.
To examine the associations of dietary diversity with anaemia and iron status among primary school-aged children in South Africa.
An analysis was conducted with pooled individual data from the baseline surveys from three previously conducted independent intervention studies. Two different dietary diversity scores (DDS) were calculated based on data from 1-day (1-d) and 3-day (3-d) dietary recall periods, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations of dietary diversity with anaemia and iron status.
KwaZulu-Natal and North West provinces, South Africa.
Children (n 578) 5- to 12-year-old.
A DDS ≤ 4 was associated with higher odds of being anaemic (1-d P = 0·001; 3-d P = 0·006) and being iron deficient (ID) (3-d P < 0·001). For both recall periods, consumption of ‘vegetables and fruits other than vitamin A-rich’ and ‘animal-source foods (ASF)’ was associated with lower odds of being anaemic (both P = 0·002), and ‘organ meats’ with lower odds of being ID (1-d P = 0·045; 3-d P < 0·001). Consumption of ‘meat, chicken and fish’ was associated with lower odds of being anaemic (P = 0·045), and ‘vegetables and fruits other than vitamin A-rich’, ‘legumes, nuts and seeds’ and ‘ASF’ with lower odds of being ID for the 3-d recall period only (P = 0·038, P = 0·020 and P = 0·003, respectively).
In order to improve anaemia and iron status among primary school-aged children, dietary diversification, with emphasis on consumption of vegetables, fruits and ASF (including organ meats), should be promoted.
Strategic use of international courts by weaker states becomes a mechanism by which African states have taken advantage of the ICC. This instrumental use of norms of international justice shows that the argument about justice cascade may not be as convincing as previously thought. The supposedly widespread adoption of norms of individual criminal accountability and prosecutions in the wake of massive violation of human rights may actually be symptomatic of an instrumental adoption. Chapter 7 analyzes other ICC situations (DRC, CAR, Mali, Sudan, Burundi, and the Philippines) and South Africa’s and The Gambia’s attempts to withdraw from the Court to highlight the ways in which these cases also support the arguments developed in this book’s analytical framework.
A new project maps mobility patterns and social networks from prehistory to historical times in the western piedmont of the Maloti-Drakensberg, South Africa, and considers how rock art sites relate to seasonal or transhumance patterns in the region.
This article traces recent changes of the practices and justifications of the use of force in intervention, in the context of African security governance, highlighting how these changes interact with norm transformations at the scale of the global order. In doing so, it conveys how a long-standing pattern of norm contestation between international and African actors over external intervention vs sovereignty, has started to give way to a mutually accepted division of labour. After 9/11, the paradigm of liberal interventionism has been incrementally replaced by the framework of stabilisation, with a re-prioritisation of sovereigntist agendas. This has increased collaboration between international and African actors, specifically prompting the United Nations and the African Union to divide tasks of mandating and enforcement, thereby increasing inter-institutional ‘order’. This consensus, however, far from signifying wider compliance with ‘liberal ordering’ principles, rather indicates the need to revisit central assumptions of the International Relations norm diffusion literature. While the latter emphasises the diffusion of ‘good’ international norms, especially pertaining to human rights and democratisation, the growing consensus on ‘intervention as stabilisation’ instead exposes how post-9/11 justifications of practices that carry the potential to downsize the scope of such norms, are starting to resonate across international, regional and national sites of policy and practice.
Although East Africa is home to one of the most advanced dairy industries in Sub-Saharan Africa, regional annual milk production is insufficient to meet the demand. The challenge of increasing milk yields (MYs) among smallholder dairy cattle farmers (SDCFs) has received considerable attention and resulted in the introduction of various dairy management strategies (DMSs). Despite adoption of these DMSs, MYs remain low on-farm and there is a large discrepancy in the efficacy of DMSs across different farms. Therefore, the present study sought to: (1) identify on-farm DMSs employed by East African SDCFs to increase MYs and (2) summarize existing literature to quantify the expected MY changes associated with these identified DMSs. Data were collected through a comprehensive literature review and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 experts from the East African dairy sector. Meta-analysis of the literature review data was performed by deriving four multivariate regression models (i.e. models 1 to 4) that related DMSs to expected MYs. Each model differed in the weighting strategy used (e.g. number of observations and inverse of the standard errors) and the preferred model was selected based on the root estimated error variance and concordance correlation coefficient. Nine DMSs were identified, of which only adoption of improved cattle breeds and improved feeding (i.e. increasing diet quality and quantity) consistently and significantly (P < 0.05) increased daily MYs across the available studies. Improved breeds alongside adequate feeding explained ≤50% of the daily MYs observed in the metadata while improved feeding explained ≤30% of the daily MYs observed across the different models. Conversely, calf suckling significantly (P < 0.05) reduced MYs according to model 2. Other variables including days in milk, trial length and maximum ambient temperature (used as a proxy for heat stress) contributed significantly to decreasing MYs. These variables may explain some of the heterogeneity in MY responses to DMSs reported in the literature. Our results suggest that using improved cattle breeds alongside improved feeding is the most reliable strategy to increase MYs on-farm in East Africa. Nevertheless, these DMSs should not be considered as standalone solutions but as a pool of options that should be combined depending on the resources available to the farmer to achieve a balance between using dairy cattle genetics, proper husbandry and feeding to secure higher MYs.