The present study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary fat and vitamin E on concentrations of cholesterol oxidation products (COP) in broiler muscle. A total of 144 1-d-old broiler chicks were fed diets with either palm oil, soyabean oil or linseed oil and vitamin E concentrations of 20, 40 or 200 mg/kg for 35 d. COP concentrations were analysed in raw, heat-processed (180°C, 20 min) and frozen-stored (−20°C, 6 months) breast and thigh muscles. COP concentrations were influenced by dietary vitamin E concentration, dietary fat, treatment and type of muscle (P<0·001). Increasing the dietary vitamin E concentration generally reduced the concentration of COP. This effect was strongest in broilers fed linseed oil and weakest in broilers fed palm oil; the effect of vitamin E was also stronger in heated muscles than in raw or frozen-stored muscles. Moreover, the concentration of COP in thigh muscle was more strongly influenced by dietary vitamin E than that in breast muscle. COP concentrations in muscles were on average highest in broilers fed linseed oil and lowest in broilers fed palm oil, but the effect of the dietary fat also depended on the vitamin E concentration, the treatment and the type of muscle. In conclusion, our study shows that dietary fat and vitamin E influence the concentrations of total COP in broiler muscle. However, the effects of these factors were not only influenced by interactions between each other, but also depended on the treatment of the muscle and the type of muscle.