Oil and gas development generates socio-ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. Within the Caribbean region, rural communities depend heavily on wetland resources, however attitudes and beliefs of these communities regarding the impacts of oil and gas drilling are ambiguous. This paper assesses factors influencing attitudes and behaviours among rural communities of the Nariva Swamp (Trinidad) toward oil development. Interviews and structured questionnaires indicated varying levels of beliefs, concerns and behaviours based on distance of the village from the swamp, gender and type of livelihood the respondent engaged in. Villagers who lived in closer proximity to the swamp demonstrated the greatest health and environmental concerns, pro-environmental beliefs and behaviours, probably due to their greater dependence on the resource for livelihoods. Females illustrated a higher affinity for altruistic and egoistic concerns, while males, engaged in outdoor employment and recreational opportunities, demonstrated greater biospheric concerns and environmental behaviours. Given their intimacy with the natural environment, farmers engaged in environmental behaviours to a greater extent than other groups within the villages. The varying levels of beliefs, concerns and behaviours among villagers toward drilling should be given full consideration by public officials, industrial managers and other decision makers when addressing resource management.