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Modernists of the African diaspora rethink liberal governance after 1919 through subtle critique (as in René Maran’s Batouala), through direct engagement (as in the Pan-African Congresses organized by W. E. B. Du Bois), and through diasporic romance (as in Claude McKay’s Amiable with Big Teeth). The chapter commences with the “new internationalism” claimed for African-American art by Alain Locke in 1919, and ends with the global response to the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, the occasion for Claude McKay’s Amiable with Big Teeth and wide range of other engaged poetry and prose. These and other diasporic African modernisms respond to the paternalism of post-Wilsonian rhetoric by reworking the narratives of reproduction, education, and labor that subtended liberal internationalist rhetoric and continued neo-imperial rule. Connecting the global response to 1919 to Pan-African aesthetics and Harlem Renaissance internationalism allows us to articulate a distinctive black diasporic response to interwar liberal order, a modernism attuned to what Du Bois called the “global color-line.”
Co-morbid depression is common in people with tuberculosis (TB). Symptoms of depression (low energy, impaired concentration, decreased motivation and hopelessness) may affect help-seeking; however, this impact has not been studied so far. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of co-morbid depression on diagnostic delay, pathways to care, and to identify if it mediates other factors associated with diagnostic delay.
We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 592 adults with newly diagnosed TB. We assessed probable depression using Patient Health Questionnaire, nine items (PHQ-9) at a cut-off 10. Data on diagnosis delay, pathways to TB care, socio-demographic variables, stigma, types of TB, substance use, co-morbid chronic illnesses, and perception about TB were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Generalized structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data.
A total of 313 (52.9%) participants had probable depression. Pathway to TB care was direct for 512 (86.5%) of the participants and indirect for 80 (13.5%) of them. The median diagnosis delay was 12.0 weeks. Depression did not have a statistically significant association with pathways to TB care (β = −0.45; 95% CI−1.85 to 0.96) or diagnostic delay [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.90; 0.77–1.06]. Indirect pathway to TB care was positively associated with diagnosis delay (AOR = 2.72; 95% CI 1.25–5.91).
People with TB who had co-morbid probable depression visited the modern health care as directly as and as soon as those without co-morbid depression. How socio-demographic factors influence pathways to care and diagnosis delay require qualitative exploration.
Archaeological reconnaissance and test excavation conducted in south-central Ethiopia reveal the region's rich Stone Age and Holocene archaeology. Ongoing lithic, faunal and dating analyses aim to understand chronological and behavioural contexts of prioritised rockshelters as part of a newly launched project. Speleothems in some of the caves promise high-resolution palaeoclimatic reconstruction.
To examine the contribution of child, maternal and household factors in stunting, wasting and underweight among children under 5 years in Ethiopia.
Quantitative cross-sectional design based on nationally representative data.
Urban and rural areas of Ethiopia.
Younger (0–24 months; n 4199) and older age groups (25–59 months; n 5497), giving a total of 9696 children.
Among the younger age group, 29 % were stunted, 14 % were wasted and 19 % were underweight; and among the older age group, the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight was 47, 8 and 28 %, respectively. Being female, intake of multiple micronutrients, household having a piped source of drinking-water, high maternal BMI, higher household wealth and higher maternal education were associated with decreased odds of at least one form of undernutrition in both groups. On the other hand, children who were anaemic, had low birth weight, drank from a bottle, and children of stunted or wasted or working mothers were more likely to be stunted, wasted or underweight in both groups (P<0·05). While most predictors and/or risk factors followed a similar pattern across the two age groups, child factors had higher leverage in the younger than the older group across the three forms of undernutrition.
Multiple set of factors predicted childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. The study underscores the importance of intervening in the first 1000 days through promoting maternal education, maternal–child health services, mother’s nutrition and improving intrahousehold food distribution.
To investigate whether maternal/caregiver’s age, infant age (0–6 months) and discarding colostrum affects timely initiation of breast-feeding (TIBF) and exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in Ethiopia.
A systematic search of PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science and WHO Global Health Library electronic databases was done for all articles published in English from 2000 to January 2018. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted and graded the quality of studies using Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. A weighted inverse-variance random-effects model meta-analysis, cumulative meta-analysis and mixed-effects meta-regression analysis were done.
All observational studies conducted in Ethiopia.
Mothers of children aged less than 2 years.
A total of forty articles (fourteen studies on TIBF and twenty-six on EBF) were included. TIBF was associated with colostrum discarding (OR=0·38; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·68) but not with maternal/caregiver’s age (OR=0·98; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·15). In addition, colostrum discarding (OR=0·53; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·78) and infant age (OR=1·77; 95 % CI 1·38, 2·27) were significantly associated with EBF but not maternal/caregiver’s age (OR=1·09; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·41).
There was no association between maternal/caregiver’s age and breast-feeding practice (EBF and TIBF). Colostrum discarding was associated with both EBF and TIBF. This evidence could be helpful to counsel all mothers of reproductive age and who discard colostrum.
Abattoirs are vital for gathering information on animal diseases and protecting the public from consuming infected or unhygienic meat. To assess the major reasons for organ and carcass condemnations and their financial implications, we reviewed 10-year abattoir records of slaughtered bovines between January 2005 and December 2014 at Kombolcha ELFORA abattoir, north-east Ethiopia. Of the 46,913 cattle slaughtered during that period, 17,963 (38.3%) had at least one disease condition. Lungs (10.67%) and liver (25%) were the most affected and condemned organs, followed by heart (1.53%), head (0.56%), tongue (0.17%) and kidney (0.32%). The major conditions responsible for condemnation were fasciolosis (49.89%), hydatid cyst (55.55%), pericarditis (78.2%), hydronephrosis (35.8%), abscess (71.7%) and abscess (43.9%), in liver, lung, heart, kidneys, head and tongue, respectively. The direct financial losses incurred from organ and carcass condemnation over the 10-year period amounted to ETB 1,219,399 (USD 61,946.9), with parasitic diseases such as fascioliasis and hydatidosis accounting for ETB 256,837.5 (USD 13,047.64) and ETB 170,827.5 (USD 8678.23) in losses, respectively. This study describes a significant loss of cheap and reliable sources of protein due to non-utilization of infected organs or carcasses, emphasizing the need to implement integrated approaches in disease surveillance and control programmes.
The Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), victor in the civil war in 1991, has since transformed into an authoritarian party. While this transition is well covered in the literature, few studies have explored how the party’s ideology has adapted after its position was consolidated. This article addresses this gap, by analysing the EPRDF’s ideology of revolutionary democracy, and how the interpretation of it has changed over time. The Ethiopian case shows that wartime ideologies should not be considered as static remnants of the past. Instead, the ideology has served as a flexible political tool for controlling the state and for justifying or concealing major policy changes. More recent protests and ruptures in the ruling party, however, indicate that revolutionary democracy may have an expiry date. There seems thus to be a limit to how long a wartime ideology can provide power to uphold a rebel government’s hegemony and coherence.
In tropical regions the extent of agricultural land is increasing rapidly at the expense of natural forest, with associated losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Agroforestry has long been proposed as a more sustainable agricultural system, conserving biodiversity while providing significant local livelihoods. In this context, camera traps were deployed to compare communities of large mammals between natural forest (22,272 hours across 24 deployments) and extensively managed coffee forest (19,059 hours, 23 deployments) for the first time in the south-west Ethiopian highlands. Mammal communities in the two forest types were similar in species richness and Shannon diversity but differed in community composition. Significant indicator species of coffee forest were the crested porcupine Hystrix cristata and the Ethiopian hare Lepus fagani, whereas leopards Panthera pardus and civets Civettictis civetta had a preference for natural forest. The number of detections of mammals was higher in coffee forest, where activity patterns were predominantly crepuscular and nocturnal, which may be a direct adaptation to frequent human disturbance. In natural forest, mammal activity peaked during daytime. Despite the high mammal diversity in extensively managed coffee forest, it cannot fully replace natural forest as a habitat for large mammals. We suggest that a balanced landscape mosaic of coffee and natural forest may be a valuable combination for both conservation and coffee cultivation.
In this paper, I have explored the link between grazing and water resource scarcity and per capita food consumption expenditure as a proxy for welfare and food security using distance and shadow price as a resource scarcity indicator in Northern Ethiopia based on a unique data set for 518 sample farmers. To address my objectives, I employed an IV 2SLS model for estimating welfare and probit for analyzing food security, drawing on a separable farm household model. My results confirmed the theoretical prediction that grazing and water affect households’ welfare and food security adversely, as predicted by the downward spiral hypothesis.
Gona in the Afar region of Ethiopia has yielded the earliest Oldowan stone tools in the world. Artefacts from the East Gona (EG) 10 site date back 2.6 million years. Analysis of the lithic assemblage from EG 10 reveals the earliest-known evidence for refitting and conjoining stone artefacts. This new information supplements data from other Oldowan sites in East Africa, and provides an important insight into the technological capacities and evolutionary development of hominins during this period.
Hitherto, the ‘African part’ of the history of international law has often been limited to the (critical engagement with) ‘the acquisition of Africa’ since the 1880s and questions of ‘state succession’ and international borders following independence starting in the 1950s. In this historical narrative, the dominance of colonialism is evident. It seems that ‘Africa’ as a narrative concept in international legal history remains tied to abstract contrasts such as ‘foreign domination’ versus ‘independence’, or ‘exploitation’ versus ‘development’. However, if twenty-first century writings about ‘international law in Africa’ and its histories remain shaped by this perspective, historians may lose sight of issues, questions, or ideas formed in historical Africa that do not fit into this preconceived dichotomous matrix. After discussing methodological challenges, this article asks for other ‘contacts’, other arenas of ‘internationality’ and international law in Africa’s pre-colonial past. These contacts reach back very far in history. Three arenas are mentioned: the Red Sea area and Ethiopian-Arab relations; the Indian Ocean rim; and finally, the case of nineteenth-century Ethiopia.
Early nutrition and growth have been found to be important early exposures for later development. Studies of crude growth in terms of weight and length/height, however, cannot elucidate how body composition (BC) might mediate associations between nutrition and later development. In this study, we aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during infancy were followed up for outcome variable, and were included in the statistical analysis. The study sample was restricted to mothers living in Jimma town who gave birth to a term baby with a birth weight ≥1500 g and no evident congenital anomalies. The relationship between the exposure and outcome variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression. Intervention studies are needed to assess whether nutrition interventions increasing FFM also increase cognitive development.
Despite gains in national income, Ethiopia’s cities have seen a steady increase of homeless women and children. This study focuses on the lives of twenty-five adult women and twenty-seven children living on the streets of Hawassa, Ethiopia. Nearly all were driven to the streets by poverty compounded by abuse and violence and/or loss of supporting family members, illness, and lack of social supports. The Ethiopian government offers a food-for-work program, but this is an inadequate social safety net. Recommendations include government provision of long-term shelter, food assistance, school supplies for children, legal and economic assistance, and access to medical care.
This article investigates food security and well-being in the context of “development-forced displacement” in Ethiopia. In the lower Omo, a large hydroelectric dam and plantation schemes have forced people to cede communal lands to the state and business speculators, and indigenous communities have been targeted for resettlement in new consolidated villages. The authors carried out a food access survey in new villages and in communities not yet subjected to villagization and complemented this with ethnographic research carried out over a period of four years. The results of the two methodological approaches were inconsistent. The survey data suggest that household food access was poor in both places but better in villagization sites than in the other communities. The ethnographic research, however, suggests that village settlers were unable to feed themselves from the irrigated plots they were allotted and were therefore dependent on food aid. They spoke of indignity, bodily discomfort, and the severance of meaningful social relations. This article discusses the contrast between the information generated by the different research methods and asks how this tension relates to two major narratives about development: development as a process through which the state actualizes a national dream, and development as a process that creates affluence for some by impoverishing others.