The effects of maternal moderate–low physical training on postnatal development, glucose homeostasis and leptin concentration in adult offspring subjected to a low-protein diet during the perinatal period were investigated. Male Wistar rats (aged 150 d old) were divided into four groups according to maternal group: untrained (NTp, n 8); trained (Tp, n 8); untrained with a low-protein diet (NT+LPp, n 8); trained with a low-protein diet (T+LPp, n 8). The trained mothers were subjected to a protocol of moderate physical training over a period of 4 weeks (treadmill, 5 d/week, 60 min/d, at 65 % VO2max) before mating. At pregnancy, the intensity and duration of exercise was progressively reduced (50–20 min/d, at 65–30 % VO2max). The low-protein diet groups received an 8 % casein diet, and their peers received a 17 % casein diet during gestation and lactation. The pups' birth weight and somatic growth were recorded weekly up to the 150th day. Fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, serum leptin concentration, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were evaluated. The Tp animals showed no changes in somatic and biochemical parameters, while the NT+LPp group showed a greater abdominal circumference, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, glucose intolerance and lower plasma leptin. In the T+LPp animals, all of those alterations were reversed except for plasma leptin concentration. In conclusion, the effects of a perinatal low-protein diet on growth and development, glucose homeostasis and serum leptin concentration in the offspring were attenuated in pups from trained mothers.