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The present study aimed to assess the longitudinal associations of coffee and tea consumption with metabolic syndrome and its component conditions in a group of Australian older adults who participated in the Blue Mountains Eye Study (n 2554, mean age: 64 years, 43 % female). Participants’ coffee and tea intake were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) over a 10-year period were estimated using Cox hazard regression models adjusting for lifestyle factors. Results showed that coffee consumption was not associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome, high fasting glucose, high triglycerides, central obesity, high blood pressure and low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Tea consumption was not associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome and the component conditions except for the risk of having low HDL-C, in which a nominally inverse association was observed (multivariate-adjusted HR at 2–3 cups/d: 0⋅48, 95 % CI 0⋅26, 0⋅87, P = 0⋅016; 4 cups/d or more: 0⋅50, 95 % CI 0⋅27, 0⋅93, P = 0⋅029). After stratifying for fruit consumption (Pinteraction between tea and fruit = 0⋅007), consuming four cups of tea per day was nominally associated with lower incidence of metabolic syndrome among those with high fruit consumption (multivariable-adjusted HR: 0⋅44, 95 % CI 0⋅20, 0⋅93, P = 0⋅033). Our results did not support a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome. Tea consumption may be associated with a lower risk of having low HDL-C, while high tea and fruit consumption together may be associated with a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Triglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) are the key enzymes in the first step of the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). In mammals, there are four isoforms of GPATs. GPAT1 and GPAT2 are localised in the outer mitochondrial membrane, while GPAT3 and GPAT4 are localised in the endoplasmic reticulum. Previous research has emphasised that GPAT plays a critical effect on the development of metabolic syndromes, such as liver steatosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. In this review, we will critically evaluate the regulatory effects of GPATs isoforms in metabolic syndrome. In addition, we also discuss perspectives on clinical intervention strategies for the neurometabolic disease.
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is highly prevalent in patients with bipolar disorder(BD), and may affect the functionality of this population.The increased rate of MS in BD might be due to poorer access to physical health care, unhealthy lifestyle related with psychiatric symptoms and adverse effects of pharmacological treatments.
We sought to compare differences in clinical features of patients with Bipolar Disorder Type 1 (BPD-1)with and without MS in euthymic period.
This study included 67 euthymic BPD-1 patients without MS and 33 age- and sex-matched BPD-1 patients with MS. All participants completed a sociodemographic form; took the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Young Mania Rating Scale score. MS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
Age at onset of disease was significantly lower in BPD-1 group with MS than without MS (p < 0.05). Number of suicide attempts, psychiatric hospitalisation, was significantly higher in BPD-1 group with MS than without MS (p < 0.05). Catatonic and melancholic depression were significantly more prevalent in the BPD-1 with MS than without MS (p < 0.05). Having history of comorbid psychiatric diseases, mixed episodes, are significantly more prevalent in the BPD-1 with MS than without MS (p < 0.05). There was not significant difference between groups in terms of the medication between groups (p>0.05)
Our findings suggest that MS might have an effect on the course of BD patients. The development and testing of interventions for preventing and treating the MS and its components in patients with BD might be important .
Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) have a higher risk of weight gain, dyslipidemia and insulin-resistance. It was observed that insulin resistance has a pathoplastic effect: in Schizophrenia it was associated with a greater severity of negative symptoms, whereas in Bipolar Disorder it was associated with more chronicity and rapid cycling. Moreover a correlation was observed between obesity and a worse outcome in Bipolar Disorder type I.
We aimed at assessing the influence of dysmetabolisms on clinical characteristics in patients with SMI.
We recruited 78 patients with SMI consecutively hospitalized in the Psychiatry Clinic of the Ospedali Riuniti of Ancona, Italy. We administered a checklist for socio-demographic and clinical features (diagnosis, age of onset, illness duration, number of episodes, number of episodes per year, suicidal attempts and comorbidities), and evaluated the following metabolic parameters: weight, height, BMI, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glycemia and insulinemia. We determined insulin-resistance according to the HOMA-IR model. We performed bivariate Pearson correlations to compare metabolic and socio-demographic/clinical parameters.
The analyses showed positive correlations between BMI and disease duration (P = 0.003), and BMI and the number of episodes (P = 0.022). Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between HOMA-IR and the number of episodes per year (P = 0.008). The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for age through partial correlations.
Weight gain and insulin-resistance in severe mental illness are associated with a more severe SMI, as suggested by the greater number of acute episodes.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in individuals with SMI. The sedentary lifestyle that usually guides these individuals associated with the use of some psychotropic drugs increases the risk of adverse events related to these pathologies
Presentation of the Study Protocol for the Implementation of a Psychoeducational Group directed to Prevention and Monitoring Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in patients with SMI
It is intended to implement a psychoeducational program, which includes a 30-minute walk, focused on healthy lifestyle habits, for 16 weeks.
It is intended to include SMI individuals, from a convenience sample, who present any of these criteria: Excess weight; At risk or diagnosed with DM; Sedentary lifestyle; Smoker. Data regarding socio-demographic, clinical and motivational for and about physical activity will be collected from the intervention group. Patients who refuse to join the study will only receive information about lifestyle changes at the beginning and will continue with their usual care.
According to available literature, it is expected that the monitoring and control of these parameters will translate into a benefit in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and optimizing the treatment of MS, contributing to the empowerment of patients in managing their disease and increasing their quality and years of life.
The impact of lifestyle changes proved to be effective and are sometimes lasting, with objective gains in quality of life of these patients. The main measure to face this issue, improve the well-being and physical health of these individuals, is to reduce weight and increase baseline physical activity.
41 years-old man diagnosed of schizophrenia and peripheral spondyloarthropathy HLA-B27 (-) in treatment with methotrexate. Psychiatric background: First psychotic episode at 18, with no further medical monitoring. In 2018 he underwent a new episode consisting in auditory hallucinations, delusional ideas and clinophilia of months of evolution. He was sent to a Psychiatric Rehabilitation Unit and prescribed aripiprazole 20mg. The routine blood analysis revealed triglycerides level of 414mg/dL, with previous normal levels (123 mg/dL), without no other cause to justify it.
To study the relationship between aripiprazole treatment and acute hypertriglyceridemia.
A clinical case is presented and available bibliography about the relation between aripiprazole and acute hypertriglyceridemia is reviewed.
Hypertriglyceridemia was confirmed in the second analysis, so we concluded it was due to the start of aripiprazole, after rejecting other potential causes. Aripiprazole was replaced by cariprazine 3mg because of its similar profile. The analysis was repeated after a month and the normalization of the triglyceridemia (159mg/dL) was verified, while cholesterol levels remain stable. Moreover, the patient experienced an improvement in akathisia and sedation.
Although metabolic impact is not expected with aripiprazole, after reviewing the bibliography we have found a clinical trial and a case series that described this adverse effect. Our case highlights the importance of closely monitoring of patients in whom an antipsychotic treatment is started due to the high mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases.
Weight gain and obesity are important health problems associated with psychiatric disorders and/or with psychotropic drug treatments. There is a high inter-individual variability in the susceptibility to drug induced weight gain and/or other cardiometabolic disorders.
To study the genetic and environmental risk factors for weight gain and onset of metabolic syndrome during psychotropic treatment
Analysis in PsyMetab, a large (n>3000) ongoing longitudinal prospective cohort study investigating cardiometabolic disorders in psychiatric patients.
Aside from well-known clinical risk factors for metabolic worsening (e.g. young age, first episode status, rapid weight gain during the first month of treatment and/or low initial BMI), additional risk factors have been recently identified. We showed an inverse association between socio-economic status (SES) and worsening of cardiometabolic parameters, adult patients with a low SES having a three-fold higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome over one year versus patients with a high SES (n=366). In addition, a causal inverse effect of educational attainment on BMI was revealed using Mendelian randomization in the UKBiobank (n=30’069). Results from an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) performed in 78 patients before and after one month of treatment and from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1924 patients will also be presented.
Differences in clinical, genetic and environmental factors contribute to the differences in weight gain and metabolic disorders induced by psychotropic drugs. When starting a psychotropic drug at risk, a prospective monitoring of clinical (e.g. weight and blood pressure) and biochemical (fasting glucose, lipid levels) parameters is essential.
Prof. Eap received honoraria for conferences or teaching CME courses from Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Sandoz, Servier, Sunovion, Vifor-Pharma, and Zeller in the past 3 years. The other authors report no potential conflicts of interest. This work has
There is evidence that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is common in chronic psychosis but also exists in the early stages.
To study the prevalence and course of MetS over a period of 2 year after a first episode psychosis. To determine whether there may be differences in its prevalence according to the type of antipsychotic used over two years.
A sample of 300 patients participate in the PEPsNa Early Intervention Programme. SMet was determined at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The type of antipsychotic used at each assessment moment is collected (none, aripiprazole, paliperidone, others). Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria were used to define MetS.
The prevalence of MetS at baseline is 4.44% and increases to 7.96% at 6 months, 10.1% at 12 months, 8.62% at 18 months and 9.01% at 24 months. The prevalence of MetS increases at 6 (p<0.021) and 12 months (p<0.003) compared to baseline and then remains stable. Only at 6 months assessment there are significant differences (F-Ficher p<0.022) in the presence of MetS (15.8%) in the paliperidone group treatment (oral or LAI).
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) exists from the early stages of psychosis and increases in the first 6-12 months and remains stable thereafter. The type of antipsychotic treatment only seems to have an influence at 6 months, with no differences at other follow-up times.
The metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial condition and functional foods need more investigation as novel adjunct treatments for this group. This study aimed to determine the effects of daily consumption of a functional acorn cake in conjunction with energy restriction (119.50 kJ) on individuals with overweight or obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In this randomised double-blinded study, eighty-four participants were randomly allocated to either an energy-restricted diet plus two servings (2 × 30 g)/d of functional acorn cake (a cake made of acorn for the intervention group) (FC) (n 42) or an energy-restricted diet plus placebo cake (PC) (n 42). Body composition and biochemical parameters were measured before and after 10 weeks of intervention. Seventy-three participants completed this trial. No differences in loss of body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure were shown between two groups. Body weight decreased by 4·2 (sd 1·9) kg and 5·1 (sd 2·8) kg in PC and FC groups, respectively. Compared with PC, the consumption of FC resulted in a significant reduction in serum insulin (P = 0·02), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (P = 0·02), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0·04) and a significant increase in adiponectin concentration (P = 0·04). Although lipid metabolism did not differ among groups, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol improved non-significantly in the FC group. Functional acorn cake as an adjunct to energy restriction could possibly improve insulin resistance in individuals with obesity. Further research is needed to elucidate whether functional acorn cake can be used as a preventive strategy for the metabolic syndrome in individuals with obesity.
The consistently high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has urged the need for punctual and effective prevention. Extended research on this specific area has demonstrated the influence of fetal and neonatal periods on the risk of developing CVD in adulthood. Thus, the role of traditional and novel biological markers to the effective screening of CVD among the neonatal population is widely investigated. The objective of the present narrative review is to examine those neonatal biomarkers that may play a role in the development of CVD, to exhibit scientific data that appertain to their association with various perinatal conditions leading to CVD predisposition, and their potential role on prediction and prevention strategies. Multiple biomarkers, traditional and novel, have been mined across the studied literature. Adiposity, insulin resistance, altered lipid profile, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction seem among the headliners of CVD. Even though various novel molecules have been studied, their clinical utility remains controversial. Therefore, it is quite important for the scientific community to find elements with strong predictive value and practical clinical use.
Experiencing mental ill-health has long been recognised as being associated with a range of physical conditions that shorten life or impose limitations on physical well-being. Although the causes of this association are uncertain, it is absolutely clear that the experience of enduring mental ill-health in both Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand will be associated with a shorter life span (Firth et al. 2019; Cunningham, Peterson et al., 2014). The chapter addresses the more commonly experienced co-occurrring physical conditions (also known as comorbidities), looking at the prevalence and specific characteristics of each among those experiencing recurring mental ill-health. The effects of medication on physical health and well-being are explored. Complementary approaches to augmenting well-being are addressed. This includes exercise, diet and stress-reduction strategies as well as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). The final part of the chapter looks at approaches that are useful in preventing, or limiting the effects of co-occurring physical ill-health.
Meal timing is a key factor in synchronising the circadian clock in peripheral tissues. Circadian disorders are associated with the metabolic syndrome. Previously, we demonstrated that a skipping breakfast regimen (SBR) with a high-fat diet increased body weight gain in rats. In this study, we investigated whether SBR with a normal diet led to abnormal lipid metabolism and muscle metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed during zeitgeber time (ZT) 12–24 in the control group and ZT 16–24 in the SBR group for 2 weeks. SBR mice showed increased body weight gain and perirenal adipose tissue weight. The plantar muscle weight was decreased in the SBR group compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, SBR delayed the circadian oscillations in clock gene expression in peripheral tissues, such as the liver, adipose tissue and muscle, as well as the oscillations in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver and adipose tissue. These results suggest that skipping breakfast over a long period of time is associated with a risk of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and muscle loss, such as sarcopenia.
The present study examines how alcohol intake from wine and non-wine alcoholic beverages (non-wine) in g/d, as well as cups of coffee and tea included as continuous covariates and mutually adjusted are associated with all-cause, cancer, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Consumption was assessed in 354 386 participants of the UK Biobank cohort who drank alcohol at least occasionally and survived at least 2 years after baseline with 20 201 deaths occurring over 4·2 million person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models and beverage intake fitted as penalised cubic splines. A significant U-shaped association was detected between wine consumption and all-cause, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Wine consumption with lowest risk of death (nadir) ranged from 19 to 23 g alcohol/d in all participants and both sexes separately. In contrast, non-wine intake was significantly and positively associated in a dose-dependent manner with all mortality types studied except for CVD in females and with the nadir between 0 and 12 g alcohol/d. In all participants, the nadir for all-cause mortality was 2 cups coffee/d with non-coffee drinkers showing a slightly increased risk of death. Tea consumption was significantly and negatively associated with all mortality types in both sexes. Taken together, light to moderate consumption of wine but not non-wine is associated with decreased all-cause and non-cancer mortality. A minor negative association of coffee consumption with mortality cannot be excluded whereas tea intake is associated with a consistently decreased risk of all mortality types studied.
Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) might be an alternative valuable target in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess whether alternative Mediterranean (aMED) diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were favourably associated with obesity and MHO phenotype in a Chinese multi-ethnic population. We conducted this cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study that enrolled 99 556 participants from seven diverse ethnic groups. Participants with self-reported cardiometabolic diseases were excluded to eliminate possible reverse causality. Marginal structural logistic models were used to estimate the associations, with confounders determined by directed acyclic graph (DAG). Among 65 699 included participants, 11·2 % were with obesity. MHO phenotype was present in 5·7 % of total population and 52·7 % of population with obesity. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH diet score had 23 % decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0·77, 95 % CI 0·71, 0·83, Ptrend < 0·001) and 27 % increased odds of MHO (OR = 1·27, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·48, Ptrend = 0·001) in population with obesity. However, aMED diet showed no obvious favourable associations. Further adjusting for BMI did not change the associations between diet scores and MHO. Results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, DASH diet rather than aMED diet is associated with reduced risk of obesity and presents BMI-independent metabolic benefits in this large population-based study. Recommendation for adhering to DASH diet may benefit the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders in Chinese population.
The purpose of the study was to verify the effect of 4 weeks of a high-fructose diet (HFD) associated with aerobic training on the risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. Twenty-one young adults were randomised into three groups: HFD (HFD: 1 g/kg body weight of fructose/day), high-glucose diet (HGD: 1 g/kg body weight of glucose/day) and high-fructose diet and exercise (HFDE: 1 g/kg body weight of fructose/day + 3 weekly 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercise). Before and after the 4 weeks of the intervention, blood samples were taken and flow-mediated dilatation, insulin resistance index, pancreatic beta cell functional capacity index, insulin sensitivity index and 24-h blood pressure were evaluated. HFD showed an increase in uric acid concentrations (P = 0·040), and HGD and HFDE groups showed no changes in this outcome between pre- and post-intervention; however, the HFDE group showed increased uric acid concentrations from the middle to the end of the intervention (P = 0·013). In addition, the HFD group showed increases in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P = 0·022) and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0·009). The HGD group exhibited decreases in nocturnal SBP (P = 0·028) and nocturnal DBP (P = 0·031), and the HFDE group showed a decrease in 24-h SBP (P = 0·018). The consumption of 1 g/kg of fructose per day may increase uric acid concentrations and blood pressure in adults. Additionally, aerobic exercises along with fructose consumption attenuate changes in uric acid concentrations and prevent impairment in nocturnal blood pressure.
The metabolic syndrome is common in older adults and may be modified by the diet. The aim of this study was to examine associations between a posteriori dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in an older New Zealand population. The REACH study (Researching Eating, Activity, and Cognitive Health) included 366 participants (aged 65–74 years, 36 % male) living independently in Auckland, New Zealand. Dietary data were collected using a 109-item FFQ with demonstrated validity and reproducibility for assessing dietary patterns using principal component analysis. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome, adjusted for age, sex, index of multiple deprivation, physical activity, and energy intake were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Three dietary patterns explained 18 % of dietary intake variation – ‘Mediterranean style’ (salad/leafy cruciferous/other vegetables, avocados/olives, alliums, nuts/seeds, shellfish and white/oily fish, berries), ‘prudent’ (dried/fresh/frozen legumes, soya-based foods, whole grains and carrots) and ‘Western’ (processed meat/fish, sauces/condiments, cakes/biscuits/puddings and meat pies/hot chips). No associations were seen between ‘Mediterranean style’ (OR = 0·75 (95 % CI 0·53, 1·06), P = 0·11) or ‘prudent’ (OR = 1·17 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·59), P = 0·35) patterns and the metabolic syndrome after co-variate adjustment. The ‘Western’ pattern was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (OR = 1·67 (95 % CI 1·08, 2·63), P = 0·02). There was also a small association between an index of multiple deprivation (OR = 1·04 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·06), P < 0·001) and the metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study provides further support for a Western dietary pattern being a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome in an older population.
In recent years, a wealth of factors are associated with increased risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NAFLD is now thought to increase the risk of multiple extra-hepatic diseases. The aim of this review is first to focus on the role of ageing and sex as key, poorly understood risk factors in the development and progression of NAFLD. Secondly, we aim to discuss the roles of white adipose tissue (WAT) and intestinal dysfunction, as producers of extra-hepatic factors known to further contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Finally, we aim to summarise the role of NAFLD as a multi-system disease affecting other organ systems beyond the liver. Both increased age and male sex increase the risk of NAFLD and this may be partly driven by alterations in the distribution and function of WAT. Similarly, changes in gut microbiota composition and intestinal function with ageing and chronic overnutrition are likely to contribute to the development of NAFLD both directly (i.e. by affecting hepatic function) and indirectly via exacerbating WAT dysfunction. Consequently, the presence of NAFLD significantly increases the risk of various extra-hepatic diseases including CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and certain extra-hepatic cancers. Thus changes in WAT and intestinal function with ageing and chronic overnutrition contribute to the development of NAFLD – a multi-system disease that subsequently contributes to the development of other chronic cardiometabolic diseases.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
Antipyschotic medications have benefited countless people with a wide variety of pyschiatric disorders. However, they do have potential to induce metabolic disturbances in a population that is known to have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. This can result in the development of metabolic syndrome and associated complications. There is a strong association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and developing type 2 diabetes. Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This is likely due to a number of factors, including higher rates of smoking, poor diet and disordered lifestyle with minimal physical activity. In addition, this population is less likely to receive prompt diagnosis and treatment for modifiable risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and prediabetes. Overall, second-generation antipsychotic agents have a stronger association with these adverse effects compared to their first-generation counterparts, and previously untreated patients are at highest risk. With this in mind, healthcare professionals and patients should be well informed on this issue and institute close monitoring and prompt treatment of at-risk individuals.
We assessed the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the development of metabolic syndrome in the elderly over 55 years in Northern China. The data of 1936 Chinese adults aged 55 years and over from a community-based neurological disease cohort study from 2018 to 2019 were analysed. Multiple logistic regression and restricted cubic splines regression were used for analysis, and social demographics, lifestyle and health-related factors were adjusted. In the fully adjusted model, the risk of metabolic syndrome increased by 1·28-fold in people with a pro-inflammatory diet. When we divide the metabolic syndrome by its components, high pro-inflammatory diet and hyperglycaemia, TAG, hypertension and abdominal obesity, we failed to observe a significant association between a high pro-inflammatory diet and HDL-cholesterol. However, these associations are moving in the expected direction. At the same time, the results of BMI subgroup analysis showed that with the increase of DII, obese people are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycaemia, high TAG, hypertension and abdominal obesity. Also in overweight people, the increase in DII is accompanied by an increased risk of hyperglycaemia and abdominal obesity. Higher inflammatory diet is related to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. Further research is needed to confirm the role of inflammation and diet in the development of metabolic syndrome; however, it is desirable to reduce the dietary components associated with inflammation.