This paper discusses recent data on, and approaches to, the Neolithization of the Iberian Peninsula. A brief outline is given of new discoveries and archaeological evidence, together with an analysis of the main sites and their contexts, with special emphasis on Neolithic pioneer communities and the role of the hunters–gatherers in the Neolithization process. The analysis concentrates mainly on pottery, as it accounts for most of the archaeological evidence, although other components of the ‘Neolithic package’ are also considered, such as evidence of agriculture, animal husbandry and other materials. A hypothesis on the Neolithization of Iberia is proposed, as well as a brief summary of alternative ideas and models. This hypothesis explains the Neolithisation of this territory in a specific chronological framework (between 5700–5600 and 5400–5300 BC), where one can assume the existence of Neolithic pioneer communities and the important role played in the spread of the Neolithic across this area by both local Mesolithic groups and colonization processes (leapfrog phenomena).