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Chapter 8 discusses the arrival of vaccination in Portugal and Spain. An early recipient of cowpox, Portugal proved barren ground until the Prince Regent promoted the practice. Given its long rejection of smallpox inoculation, Spain moved surprisingly rapidly to embrace the new prophylaxis, with the first vaccination at the end of 1800, with vaccine sent from Paris. During 1801, vaccination was established in Madrid and other major centres and there was a flurry of publications on the procedure, some original, others customised translations. Grandees patronised vaccination in the provinces and local initiatives led to good coverage in Barcelona and Navarra. In 1803, the Royal and Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition was organised to extend the practice through the Spanish empire, beginning in the Canary Islands. War and political upheaval frustrated measures to consolidate vaccination in Spain and Portugal, but the authorities, political and medical, and some communities retained their commitment to the practice.
Each of these chapters contains a case study of a couple from the relevant country. Each includes a description of the everyday life of the couple with respect to the division of housework and childcare, a recounting of the history of their relationship and how it became equal, a discussion of how they balance paid work and family, and an analysis of the factors that facilitate their equality. Those factors include their conviction in gender equality, their rejection of essentialist beliefs, their familism, and their socialization in their families of origin. By showing how and why they undo gender, these couples provide lessons on how equality at home can be achieved.
How do anthropologists think with comparison? This is the core question addressed in this chapter. I draw on examples from my own research to show how comparison, as an epistemological stance, suggests not only questions to be explored during research but also avenues of interpretation and insight during analysis. I argue that comparison (1) helps to illuminate the significance of context in explanation; (2) makes similarities and differences more visible and hence deepens and extends our understanding of critical social and cultural processes; and (3) addresses the tension between the general and the particular, a tension fundamental to anthropology throughout its history. The chapter focuses on three projects where I used comparison to study migrant populations. These projects highlight the role of comparative thinking in relation to distinct scales or units of analysis: different national contexts (Portugal and Ireland), different regions of immigration settlement (French Canadian immigrants in the eastern and midwestern United States), and between immigrant populations of different national origins (Indians and Vietnamese) who have settled in one US city.
This study aimed to evaluate the association between socio-economic factors and the food consumption of a young population. Participants were from the Portuguese National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF 2015–2016) aged from 3 to 17 years (n 1153). Food consumption was assessed using two non-consecutive days of food diaries in children and two 24-h recalls for adolescents. A latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify children’s socio-economic status (socio-economic composite classification (SCC)), categorised in low, middle or high. The associations between socio-economic variables and food consumption were evaluated through linear or logistic regression models, weighted for the Portuguese population distribution. A positive association was found between belonging to a higher level of SCC and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), by children (β = 2·4, 95 % CI 1·1, 3·8) and by adolescents (β = 52·4, 95 % CI 9·6, 95·3). A higher SCC, but particularly higher maternal education, was positively associated with consumption of ‘white meat, fish and eggs’. Both higher SCC and parental education were positively associated with salty snack consumption in the adolescents’ group. In conclusion, children and adolescents with higher educated parents and belonging to a high socio-economic level have a higher daily intake of FV and white meat, fish and eggs. Socio-economic factors play an important role in justifying differences in the food consumption of children and adolescents and must be considered in future interventions. The relationship between higher socio-economic position and salty snack consumption in adolescents needs to be further explored in other populations.
The War on Drugs failed and public opinion is turning against punishing marijuana users in much of the world and within the US. Individual states have become the “laboratories of democracy”, beginning with California’s legalization of medical marijuana in 1996. Latin American countries have become less likely to accept US military assistance to combat drug production. Portugal decriminalized all drugs in 2001 without experiencing increased rates of use and Uruguay legalized marijuana in 2013. In 2016 the UN declared the War on Drugs a failure while calling for “an end to the criminalization and incarceration of users….” In 2011 the California Medical Association (CMA) proposed a regulated legal marijuana market and the California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) proposed a public health framework emphasizing directing tax revenue to services for adolescent substance users. Colorado and Washington state legalized marijuana in 2012, Oregon in 2014 and California in 2016. Implementation of the new industry is currently having difficulty suppressing the previously existing underground market. It still remains to be seen whether a legal marijuana industry that pays for whatever damage its products produce in vulnerable populations can successfully replace an illegal market already in place for years.
Post-1945 Spanish and Portuguese emigration and immigration histories encapsulate the Iberian region's long-standing interconnectedness with the wider world (particularly Latin America and Africa) and other parts of Europe alike. Portugal and Spain have both been part of multiple migration systems as important sending countries that ultimately experienced an international migration turnaround owing to their transition to democracy, decolonisation, and accession to a European Union in which internal freedom of movement counted among its core principles. With the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis and Europe's migration crisis of the 2010s serving as its vantage point, this article considers these topics as they intersect with issues that include nationality and citizenship, race and racism, and religion and Islamophobia in multicultural Spain and Portugal.
This chapter examines the history of racial violence in Portuguese America as a transatlantic coercive pedagogy. It considers the ideas and methods refined by secular and ecclesiastical authorities to teach peoples of indigenous and African descent, as well as white settlers, about the parameters governing the permissible use of force. Concentrating on the enslavement of Indians and blacks, it examines how colonisers came to accept violence organised along racial lines. The Portuguese devised an array of practices intended to inflict physical and psychological harm on early Brazil’s non-white majority population. Imperial authorities rationalised physical aggression as necessary, virtuous and just, deeming violence indispensable as an instructional practice intended to communicate and secure the dominant position of Portuguese settlers. They did so by making biologised judgements about native, African and mixed-race peoples. They then translated these judgements into punitive acts orchestrated to achieve didactic effects. The chapter concentrates on sixteenth- and seventeenth-century efforts to assemble and control the largest enslaved workforce in the Americas.
Challenging current ideas in mainstream scholarship on differences between female labour force participation in southern and north-western Europe and their impact on economic development, this article shows that in Portugal, neither marriage nor widowhood prevented women from participating in the labour market of mid-eighteenth-century. Our research demonstrates that marriage provided women with the resources they needed to work in various capacities in all economic sectors.
This article also argues that single Portuguese women had an incentive to work and did so mostly as wage earners. Finally, the comparison of our dataset on female occupations from tax records with other European cases calls for a revision of the literature and the development of a more nuanced picture of the north-south divide.
In September 1939, Portugal made a realist strategic choice to preserve the Portuguese Empire maintaining by its neutrality and also remaining an ally of Great Britain. While the Portuguese could rely largely on their colonies for raw materials to sustain the mainland, the country had long depended on British transportation for these goods and the Portuguese military. With the British priority now given to war transportation, Portugal's economy and Empire were particularly vulnerable. The Portuguese dictator Antonio Salazar sought to mitigate this damage by maintaining particularly friendly financial relations with the British government, including increased exports of Portuguese merchandise and services and permission to accumulate credits in Sterling to cover deficits in the balance of payments. This paper gives an improved set of comprehensive statistics for the Anglo-Portuguese and German–Portuguese relationships, reported in Pounds and according to international standards. The reported statistics include the trade in merchandise, services, capital flows, loans and third-party transfers of funds in favour of the British account. When compared with the German statistics, the Anglo-Portuguese figures show the Portuguese government favoured the British in financial relations, an active choice by Salazar to maintain the Portuguese Empire.
Saudade is a psychological reaction to the absence of significant others or familiar places. The correlates of the experience of saudade were examined using a sample of Portuguese adults. Two hundred and twenty-seven participants of both genders, aged 20–65, were presented with (a) the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), (b) the Positive and Negative Affect Schedules (PANAS), (c) the brief Loneliness Scale (ULS-6), (d) the Neo Five-Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI), and (e) an experience of saudade two-item scale. Experience of saudade was more often reported by females than by males, and positively correlated with negative affect, loneliness, and neuroticism.
In this paper we show that Portugal benefitted from comparatively low-interest rates from the 13th century onwards, well before the generalised drop in interest rates in Europe. Contrary to the thesis that frontier economies struggle with high-interest rates and scarcity of capital, we find that the country's low and stable interest rates can be explained by its wide availability of land, combined with monetary stability and a favourable institutional network. These conclusions are built upon an entirely new dataset of interest rates and returns on capital for Portugal in the period 1230–1500.
In the spring of 2015, I found myself standing outside the walls that led to a courtyard in front of a local church. The doors were supposed to be open according to the hours provided by the tourist office; after waiting a while, I went in search of help. Around the corner was a municipal library, where a librarian offered assistance. As he attempted to find more up-to-date information about the church (which was in the custody of a confraternity), he asked: “Why do you want to go inside the church?” I told him that I was writing a book about black saints and that I wanted to see the image of Benedict of Palermo inside. Before I finished talking, the man began shaking his head: “No, no, no, there is no black saint in that church.
In this paper, I examine the current geographical location of Portuguese courts and the effects this territorial redefinition has had on the relationships between the justice system and the territories/populations in a context in which external and internal political factors, rather than a mere need to improve the justice system, have played a major role. Such an analysis entails three key elements: the geographic impacts on access to justice, in view of the emblematic presence of the state in the territories, both contrasted with the conflict between specialisation and the proximity of jurisdiction.
We assess the numeracy (age heaping) of religious minorities, particularly Jews, and other defendants of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions, and compare it with the general Iberian population. Our database includes 13,000 individuals who took part in Inquisition trials, and 17,000 individuals recorded in censuses and parish registers who serve as a control group. We thoroughly discuss the representativeness of our samples for the populations we aim to capture. Our results point at a substantial numeracy advantage of the Judaism-accused over the Catholic majority. Furthermore, Catholic priests and other groups of the religious elite who were occasional targets of the Inquisition had a similarly high level of numeracy.
Recruitment of the limpet Patella ulyssiponensis was investigated in relation to the presence of living crustose coralline algae (CCA) in rocky-shore habitats. Juvenile limpets (≤10 mm maximum shell length) were counted in CCA-present and CCA-absent habitats, on three shores in SW Portugal during summer 2007 and winter 2009. Furthermore, the settling response of laboratory-reared larvae of P. ulyssiponensis to CCA-covered substratum, and bare-rock, was examined. Across the intertidal zone, we found a clear association between the distribution and abundance of juveniles and the presence of CCA. Although the presence of CCA was not an absolute requisite for juvenile occurrence, null juvenile densities were mostly recorded in CCA-absent areas. The highest juvenile densities (maximum of 64 individuals in 15 × 15 cm) were consistently found in CCA-dominated habitats, namely steep wave-exposed areas at low-shore and rock-pools. The hypothesis of CCA-enhanced settlement was not supported, as settlement intensities of laboratory-reared larvae were similar between chips of rock encrusted by CCA and chips of bare-rock. From the overall number of settlers onto CCA-encrusted rock chips, 51% were found in tiny pits lacking CCA. This was the first study of the settlement patterns of larvae of the genus Patella using naturally occurring rocky substrata. These results are preliminary and should be confirmed with choice-experiments and improved monitoring of the position of settlers. We suggest that CCA plays a role in the recruitment of P. ulyssiponensis, potentially promoting survivorship of early benthic stages, but possibly not enhancing settlement.
Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonosis, considered an endemic disease of dogs and cats in several countries of Western Europe, including Portugal. This study assesses the levels of D. immitis exposure in humans from Northern Portugal, to which end, 668 inhabitants of several districts belonging to two different climate areas (Csa: Bragança, Vila Real and Csb: Aveiro, Braga, Porto, Viseu) were tested for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia surface proteins (WSP) antibodies. The overall prevalence of seropositivity to both anti-D. immitis and WSP antibodies was 6.1%, which demonstrated the risk of infection with D. immitis in humans living in Northern Portugal. This study, carried out in a Western European country, contributes to the characterisation of the risk of infection with D. immitis among human population in this region of the continent. From a One Health point of view, the results of the current work also support the close relationship between dogs and people as a risk factor for human infection
The aim of the current study was to evaluate energy intake misreporting prevalence, its associated factors and its effects on nutrient intake, in the Portuguese population aged from 18 to 84 years.
Adults participants from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, IAN-AF, 2015–2016, who provided two complete 24 h dietary recall and complete covariate information.
Under, plausible and over-reporters were identified according to the Goldberg method. Total misreporting prevalence was 29·9 %, being 28·5 % of under-reporting and 1·4 % of over-reporting. The current study found higher odds of being classified as an under-reporter especially in participants with higher BMI and in those who self-reported health perception status as non-favourable. Energy intake estimation increases by 853.5 kJ/d (204 kcal/d) when misreporters are excluded, and the same tendency is observed for macro and micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the prevalence of inadequacy for protein intake decreases by about 5 % when considering plausible reporters.
The exclusion of misreporters has a small impact on the crude energy and nutrient estimates as well as on assessing the contribution of nutrients to total energy intake. However, a moderate impact was observed in the estimation of nutrient inadequacy prevalence.
How do parties that have long been confined to opposition behave once they take the decision to support government? This article analyses the case of the three Portuguese radical left parties that took such a move in the wake of the post-bailout 2015 election. Leveraging the concept of contract parliamentarism and the analysis of different data sources through different methods, we show that the three parties adopted a similar strategy after agreeing deals with the centre-left socialists. Specifically, while keeping close scrutiny on the executive action, the parties have voted consensually on most of the legislation proposed by the government. In exchange, the majority of policy pledges agreed with the socialists were implemented by the beginning of the legislature. Based on these findings, the article underlines the importance for supporting parties of conducting a thorough negotiation of policy goals and the timing of their implementation before joining the government, and of pursuing an autonomous discursive agenda.
Portuguese gypsum deposits utilized by the cement industry were characterized mineralogically, chemically and technologically for possible application in dermocosmetics. The deposits studied (Loulé, Óbidos and Soure) correspond to small outcrops in diapiric anticline areas. In principle, they represent gypsites which are white, and generally of higher quality for traditional applications (e.g. white cement), or greyish, and generally not adequate for cements and mortars. The analytical methods used to characterize the materials were wet sieving and X-ray sedimentation, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and assessment of abrasiveness, plasticity, texturometrics (adhesivity and firmness), oil absorption and cooling rate. The Óbidos gypsum displayed greater mineralogical and chemical quality (almost pure calcium sulfate) and had a finer grain size (<63 μm), whereas Loulé and Soure gypsums contain mineralogical impurities (mainly quartz). The Óbidos gypsum shows good characteristics in general for application in dermocosmetics because of its absorption, plasticity, adhesivity, firmness and low abrasiveness.