A genetic linkage between W, (Cu, Mo)-mineralization and chlorite minerals, and the discrimination of different mineralization events in the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Borralha, northern Portugal, is discussed on the basis of textural relationships, crystal chemistry and stable isotopic data obtained from chlorite. Chlorite minerals were identified in assemblages with quartz, feldspars, tungstates and sulfides. X-ray diffraction studies of selected chlorite minerals shows a trioctahedral structural type. Electron probe micro-analyses identified four different compositions and associations: (1) Fe,Mn-chlorite with scheelite I; (2) Fe-chlorite with wolframite + scheelite II ± sulfide; (3) Fe,Mg-chlorite with molybdenite + bismuthinite; and (4) Mg,Fe-chlorite with chalcopyrite. The composition of Fe-chlorite (Al3.01Fe3+0.25Fe2+7.95Mn0.26Mg0.19)11.66(Si5.44Al2.56)8O20(OH)8 corresponds to daphnite and Fe,Mn-chlorite (Al2.69Fe3+0.02 Fe2+7.54Mn1.08Mg0.62)11.89(Si5.31Al2.68)4O20(OH)8 to a mixed composition between daphnite and amesite. The Fe,Mg-chlorite (Al2.89Fe3+0.24Fe2+6.42Mn0.21Mg2.08)11.84 (Si5.31Al2.79)8F0.31O20(OH)8 corresponds to ripidolite and Mg,Fe-chlorite (Al2.63Fe3+0.37Fe2+1.72Mn0.01Mg6.40Ca0.26)11.39(Si6.02Al1.98)8O20(OH)8 to pychnochlorite.
Chlorite geothermometry estimates a temperature for Fe,Mn-chlorite (scheelite I) from 400°C to 500°C, for Fe-chlorite (Mn-rich wolframite + scheelite II ± sulfide) from 250 to 350°C, for Fe,Mg-chlorite (Mo-mineralization) from 200°C to 250°C and for Mg,Fe-chlorite at ~150°C. Oxygen isotopes (V-SMOW) yielded values of +3.8 (1σ) (Fe-chlorite), +6.91 (1σ) (Fe,Mn-chlorite) and +1.5 (1σ) (Fe,Mg-chlorite). The calculated δ18OF of Fe- and Fe,Mg-chlorite is ~+3.75 (1σ) and +1.45 (1σ) for the mineralizing fluid, whereas for Fe,Mn-chlorite it is +8.17 (1σ). The δ18O data obtained from quartz in W- and Mo-mineralization yielded values of +12.6 and +11.4 (1σ), whereas for adularia δ18O is about +10 (1σ). These estimates allow us to conclude that the Fe,Mn-chlorite crystallized from a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, whereas the Fe- and Fe,Mg-chlorite quartz and adularia resulted from a mixed contribution between meteoric and magmatic-hydrothermal fluid.