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Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) was approved by Food and Drug Administration for Parkinson’s Disease, essential tremor, primary generalized or segmental dystonia and obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment. The exact mechanism of DBS remains unclear which causes side effects. The aim of this review was to assess variables causing stimulation-induced chronic psychiatric/ personality-changing side effects.
The analysis of scientific database (PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE) was conducted. The included articles had to be research study or case report and DBS to be conducted in therapeutic purposes. The researches with mental disorders in patients’ medical histories were excluded.
17 articles were used in the review. In the group of movement disorders the characteristic of side effects was strongly related to the placement of the electrode implantation. Tiredness/ fatigue was correlated with DBS in thalamus. Implantations in subthalamic nucleus were mostly followed by affective side effects such as depression or suicide. The higher voltage of electrode was connected with more severe depression after implantation. The analysis of affective disorder contained only 3 articles – 2 about obsessive-compulsive disorder and 1 about depression. Forgetfulness and word-finding problems as activities connected with cognition may be an inevitable side effect if obsessive thoughts are to be inhibited.
DBS of subthalamic nucleus should be seen as the most hazardous place of implantation. As a result there is a strong need of “gold standards” based on the connectivity research and closer cooperation of scientists and clinicians.
According to cognitive behavioural theory, cognitive factors (i.e. underlying general dysfunctional beliefs and (situation) specific illness beliefs) are theorized to lead to outcomes like anxiety and depression. In clinical practice, general dysfunctional beliefs are generally not tackled directly in short-term-therapy.
The goal of the present study was to investigate the associations of general versus specific illness beliefs on anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychiatric disorders among a subgroup of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with poor mental quality of life (QoL).
This study concerns cross-sectional data, collected at baseline from a randomized clinical trial. One hundred and eighteen patients, recruited at four Dutch hospitals, with poor QoL (score ≤23 on the mental health subscale of the Short-Form 36-item Health-Survey; SF-36) were included. General dysfunctional beliefs were measured by the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), specific illness beliefs by the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), anxiety and depressive symptoms by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and psychiatric disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I).
Univariate analyses showed associations between the level of anxiety and/or depression and general dysfunctional beliefs and four specific illness beliefs (consequences, personal control, emotional representations and treatment control). Among patients with IBD with psychiatric disorders, only the DAS was significantly associated with anxiety and depression (DAS added to IPQ-R and IPQ-R added to DAS).
Psychological interventions may have to target general dysfunctional beliefs of patients with IBD with co-morbid psychiatric disorders to be effective. These patients with IBD are especially in need of psychological treatment.
Cognitive impairments reported across psychiatric conditions (ie, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) strongly impair the quality of life of patients and the recovery of those conditions. There is therefore a great need for consideration for cognitive dysfunction in the management of psychiatric disorders. The redundant pattern of cognitive impairments across such conditions suggests possible shared mechanisms potentially leading to their development. Here, we review for the first time the possible role of inflammation in cognitive dysfunctions across psychiatric disorders. Raised inflammatory processes (microglia activation and elevated cytokine levels) across diagnoses could therefore disrupt neurobiological mechanisms regulating cognition, including Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity, neurogenesis, neurotrophic factor, the HPA axis, and the kynurenine pathway. This redundant association between elevated inflammation and cognitive alterations across psychiatric disorders hence suggests that a cross-disorder approach using pharmacological and nonpharmacological (ie, physical activity and nutrition) anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory strategies should be considered in the management of cognition in psychiatry.
There is an enormous interest in identifying the causes of psychiatric disorders but there are considerable challenges in identifying which risks are genuinely causal. Traditionally risk factors have been inferred from observational designs. However, association with psychiatric outcome does not equate to causation. There are a number of threats that clinicians and researchers face in making causal inferences from traditional observational designs because adversities or exposures are not randomly allocated to individuals. Natural experiments provide an alternative strategy to randomized controlled trials as they take advantage of situations whereby links between exposure and other variables are separated by naturally occurring events or situations. In this review, we describe a growing range of different types of natural experiment and highlight that there is a greater confidence about findings where there is a convergence of findings across different designs. For example, exposure to hostile parenting is consistently found to be associated with conduct problems using different natural experiment designs providing support for this being a causal risk factor. Different genetically informative designs have repeatedly found that exposure to negative life events and being bullied are linked to later depression. However, for exposure to prenatal cigarette smoking, while findings from natural experiment designs are consistent with a causal effect on offspring lower birth weight, they do not support the hypothesis that intra-uterine cigarette smoking has a causal effect on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct problems and emerging findings highlight caution about inferring causal effects on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Hearing loss is one of the most common yet unrecognized impairments experienced by adults, especially as they age. Mental health investigators and practitioners require better understanding of hearing loss, its association with psychiatric disorders, and the treatment of these disorders in the presence of hearing loss as well as the treatment of hearing loss itself. In this review, the authors briefly explore the global burden of hearing loss. Next we provide an overview of the extant literature on hearing loss associated with cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety disorders, psychoses, and quality of life with attention focused on the strength of the association, possible mechanisms explaining the association, data on treatment options specific to these disorders, and future research opportunities for these disorders. Current approaches to the treatment of hearing loss are presented, including hearing aids, rehabilitation including psychotherapies, surgical procedures (specifically cochlear implants), and induction loops connected to telecoils. Finally, cutting edge research into the pathophysiology and potential biological treatments of hearing loss is described.
A late onset frontal lobe syndrome (LOF) refers to a clinical syndrome with apathy, disinhibition, or stereotypical behavior arising in middle or late adulthood. Diagnostics are challenging, and both clinicians and patients need reliable predictors of progression to improve clinical guidance. In this longitudinal multicenter and genetically screened prospective study, 137 LOF patients with frontal behavior (FBI score≥11) and/or stereotypical behavior (SRI≥10) were included. Progression was defined as institutionalization, death, or progression of frontal or temporal atrophy at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after two years of follow up. Absence of progression at MRI in addition to stable or improved Mini Mental State Examination and Frontal Assessment Battery scores after two years was indicative for non-progression. The presence of stereotypy and a neuropsychological profile with executive deficits at baseline were found to be predictive for progression, while a history and family history with psychiatric disorders were predictors for non-progression. The combination of these clinical markers had a predictive value of 80.4% (p < 0.05). In patients presenting with late onset behavioral symptoms, an appraisal of the rate of deterioration can be made by detailed mapping of clinical symptoms. Distinction of progressive discourses from non-progressive or treatable conditions is to be gained.
To explore the correlations between observer ratings and instrumental parameters across domains of psychomotor functioning in depression.
In total, 73 patients with major depressive disorder underwent extensive psychomotor and clinical testing. Psychomotor functioning was assessed with (i) an observer-rated scale (the CORE measure) and also objectively with (ii) 24-h actigraphy, and (iii) a fine motor drawing task.
Observer ratings of retardation correlated with instrumental assessments of fine and gross motor functioning. In contrast, observer ratings of agitation did not correlate with observer ratings of retardation or with the instrumental measures. These associations were partly influenced by age and, to a lesser extent, by depression severity.
Psychomotor disturbance is a complex concept with different manifestations in depressed patients. Although observer ratings of retardation correspond well with instrumental measures of the motor domains, objective measurement of agitation and other aspects of psychomotor disturbance require further research.
Psychological distress (PSYCH), somatic distress (SOMA), affective disorders (AD), and substance use (SU) frequently co-occur. The genetic relationship between PSYCH and SOMA, however, remains understudied. We examined the genetic and environmental influences on these two disorders and their comorbid AD and SU using structural equation modeling. Self-reported PSYCH and SOMA were measured in 1,548 twins using the two subscales of a 12-item questionnaire, the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. Its reliability and psychometric properties were examined. Six ADs, involvement of licit and illicit substance, and two SU disorders were obtained from 1,663–2,132 twins using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and/or from an online adaption of the same. SU phenotypes (heritability: 49–79%) were found to be more heritable than the affective disorder phenotypes (heritability: 32–42%), SOMA (heritability: 25%), and PSYCH (heritability: 23%). We fit separate non-parametric item response theory models for PSYCH, SOMA, AD, and SU. The IRT scores were used as the refined phenotypes for fitting multivariate genetic models. The best-fitting model showed the similar amount of genetic overlap between PSYCH–AD (genetic correlation rG = 0.49) and SOMA–AD (rG =0.53), as well as between PSYCH–SU (rG = 0.23) and SOMA–SU (rG = 0.25). Unique environmental factors explained 53% to 76% of the variance in each of these four phenotypes, whereas additive genetic factors explained 17% to 46% of the variance. The covariance between the four phenotypes was largely explained by unique environmental factors. Common genetic factor had a significant influence on all the four phenotypes, but they explained a moderate portion of the covariance.
Cannabinoid signalling modulates several aspects of brain function, including the generation and survival of neurons during embryonic and adult periods. The present review intended to summarise evidence supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system on the control of neurogenesis and neurogenesis-dependent functions. Studies reporting participation of cannabinoids on the regulation of any step of neurogenesis and the effects of cannabinoid compounds on animal models possessing neurogenesis-dependent features were selected from Medline. Qualitative evaluation of the selected studies indicated that activation of cannabinoid receptors may change neurogenesis in embryonic or adult nervous systems alongside rescue of phenotypes in animal models of different psychiatric and neurological disorders. The text offers an overview on the effects of cannabinoids on central nervous system development and the possible links with psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, brain ischaemia/stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cannabinoid signalling influences developmental and adult neurogenesis will help foster the development of new therapeutic strategies for neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and neurological disorders.
Probands with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for several psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The risk of these disorders among the siblings of probands has not been thoroughly assessed in a population-based cohort.
Every child born in Finland in 1991–2005 and diagnosed with ADHD in 1995–2011 were identified from national registers. Each case was matched with four controls on sex, place, and date of birth. The full siblings of the cases and controls were born in 1981–2007 and diagnosed in 1981–2013. In total, 7369 cases with 12 565 siblings and 23 181 controls with 42 753 siblings were included in the analyses conducted using generalized estimating equations.
44.2% of the cases and 22.2% of the controls had at least one sibling diagnosed with any psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorder (risk ratio, RR = 2.1; 95% CI 2.0–2.2). The strongest associations were demonstrated for childhood-onset disorders including ADHD (RR = 5.7; 95% CI 5.1–6.3), conduct and oppositional disorders (RR = 4.0; 95% CI 3.5–4.5), autism spectrum disorders (RR = 3.9; 95% CI 3.3–4.6), other emotional and social interaction disorders (RR = 2.7; 95% CI 2.4–3.1), learning and coordination disorders (RR = 2.6; 95% CI 2.4–2.8), and intellectual disability (RR = 2.4; 95% CI 2.0–2.8). Also, bipolar disorder, unipolar mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, other neurotic and personality disorders, substance abuse disorders, and anxiety disorders occurred at increased frequency among the siblings of cases.
The results offer potential utility for early identification of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in at-risk siblings of ADHD probands and also argue for more studies on common etiologies.
Early life experiences could determine brain and behavioral development. Neurotrophic factors are likely to mediate the effects of the experience on brain structures and function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a central role in psychiatric disorders. To investigate the effects of early rearing condition on the amygdala – and serum – BDNF levels, we reared male Wistar rats from weaning (postnatal days 21) to adulthood (postnatal days 119) in three different rearing conditions: (1) enriched, (2) standard and (3) isolated. We found that long-term post-weaning environmental enrichment leads to lower amygdala – and serum – BDNF levels as well as lower brain weights. Grouped rearing in standard laboratory cages enhanced body weight. Thus, early rearing condition might play a crucial role in adult healthiness by predetermining individual BDNF profiles.
A restricted Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-6) with the six schizophrenia specific items from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) has been investigated. These six items from the PANSS have recently been found to have both clinical validity and ‘unidimensionality’ in measuring the severity of schizophrenic states. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the BPRS-6. The secondary objective was to evaluate the ‘unidimensionality’ of the BPRS-6 by an ‘item response theory’ model.
The BPRS-6 was scored independently by two psychiatrists and two psychologists while viewing six open-ended videotaped interviews in patients with a DSM-III diagnosis of schizophrenia. The interviews were conducted by Heinz E. Lehmann, an experienced psychiatrist. They were focused on the psychopathology that contributed most to the ‘severity’ of the patient’s clinical state.
The BPRS-6 with three positive symptoms (delusions, conceptual disorganisation, hallucinations) and three negative symptoms (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, poverty of speech) was found to be clinically valid and captured the variables that contribute most to the severity of schizophrenia. The BPRS-6 was also found to have acceptable ‘unidimensionality’ (coefficient of homogeneity 0.45) and inter-rater reliability (inter-class-coefficient 0.81).
The BPRS-6 was found to capture the information that translates into the severity of schizophrenia. It has also acceptable psychometric validity.
Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses.
Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old.
Rates of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) decreased from preschool to middle childhood and early adolescence, whereas rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased. Rates of any psychiatric disorder and depression increased from preschool to early adolescence only. Preschoolers with a diagnosis were over twice as likely to have a diagnosis during later periods. Homotypic continuity was present for anxiety disorders from preschool to middle childhood, for ADHD from preschool to early adolescence, and for DBD through both later time points. There was heterotypic continuity between preschool anxiety and early adolescent depression, and between preschool ADHD and early adolescent DBD. Dimensional symptom scores showed homotypic continuity for all diagnostic categories and showed a number of heterotypic associations as well.
Results provide moderate support for the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Psychopathology in preschool is a significant risk factor for future psychiatric disorders during middle childhood and early adolescence.
The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure.
We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478–15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA).
A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor.
These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.
Sexual offenses cause harm to the victims’ physical and psychological functions. This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of incident psychiatric disorders in sexual assault victims. Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study to assess the risk of incident psychiatric disorders in sexual assault victims and to further evaluate the respective risk estimates on the basis of diagnostic patterns. A total of 81 sexual assault victims and 324 controls matched by sex, age and residential area were included. The mean age of the sexual assault victims was 18.39 (sd 10.23) years, and 93.83% (76/81) of the sample were females. Sexual assault victims had a higher incidence density of psychiatric disorders than did the control group (9.2% per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–33.2% per year v. 1.1% per year, 95% CI .4–15.7% per year; p=.037). Sexual assault was an independent risk factor for incident psychiatric disorders, with an incidence rate ratio of 3.40 (95% CI 1.04–26.41) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Assessment of psychiatric disorders should be implemented in the integrative care of sexual assault victims. Physicians providing clinical care to the sexual assault victims should receive more all-round training to understand and manage this type of violence.
Mental health problems have been reported as one of the principal causes of incapacity and morbidity. According to the World Health Organization approximately 15% of adults aged 60+ and over suffer from a mental disorder. In the oldest old population, a higher deterioration in the mental state is expected, which is ought to increase the risk of incidence of mental problems and use of healthcare services. The aim of this study is to examine inpatient episodes with a mental disorder coded as primary discharge diagnosis between 2000 and 2014 by patients aged 80+ in Portugal mainland.
Exploratory descriptive analyses of data regarding the number of episodes and coded diagnosis on admission were performed.
From a total of 1,837,613 inpatient episodes, 16,430 (0.9%) correspond to episodes having a psychiatric disorder as a primary discharge diagnosis. Delirium, dementia and amnestic and other cognitive disorders (60.1%), alcohol-related disorders (17.7%) and mood disorders (8.6%) were the most common diagnosis. An analysis by age group revealed that among octogenarians and nonagenarians delirium, dementia, and amnestic and other cognitive disorders were the most common diagnosis; in the centenarian group; however, these were outweighed by alcohol-related disorders.
Findings from this study document the importance of neurocognitive disorders as a primary reason for hospitalization in the oldest old, but also highlights the need of paying attention to other mental disorders among this age group. Further studies should examine the prevalence of medical comorbidities in patients with mental disorders.
Terrorist behavior represents a subtype of human aggression probably determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors, as well as by peculiar environmental influences and group dynamics. As regards terrorists’ psychological characteristics, the available studies (mostly carried out with no sound scientific design) have failed to identify the common or typical pathological personality traits of modern terrorists. The popular opinion that terrorists must be insane or psychopathic is still widespread; however, no evidence exists that terrorist behavior may be caused either by prior or current psychiatric disorders or psychopathy. Not surprisingly, some theories have proposed social factors and non-pathological psychological traits as predisposing elements for terrorist acts, but they generally lack of empirical validation. Moreover, most of these theories do not explain why, even if so many people are exposed to the same social factors or show the same psychological traits, only a tiny minority of them join a terrorist group. Therefore, it is mandatory that systematic and scientific investigations be carried out in order to understand the possible bases for terrorist aggression, including the early detection of possibly associated psychopathology, and to design an appropriate counterterrorism prevention policy.
To evaluate the performances of two auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as potential biomarkers and diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively, in an investigator-initiated blinded study design.
Male and female patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and adult ADHD (n=24) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic criteria and healthy controls (n=58) comprised the analysis set (n=108) of the total number of study participants (n=119). Coded sets of randomized ABR recordings were analysed by an independent party blinded to clinical diagnoses before a joint code-breaking session.
The ABR profiling test for schizophrenia identified schizophrenia patients versus controls with a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 93.1%. The ADHD test identified patients with adult ADHD versus controls with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 91.4%.
The ABR profiling tests discriminated schizophrenia and ADHD versus healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The methods deserve to be further explored in larger clinical studies including a broad range of psychiatric disorders to determine their utility as potential diagnostic biomarkers.
Little is known about outcomes of drug abuse related to attainment of stable housing. This study examined outcomes of cocaine use and service provision in an urban homeless sample.
Two-year longitudinal study of systematically selected homeless individuals (N = 255) in St. Louis, Missouri from 1999 to 2001. The sample was interviewed three times annually using a structured diagnostic interview. Urine drug testing was conducted at every interview, and service utilisation data were obtained from the structured interviews and the agency-provided service use data.
Cocaine use disorder and cocaine use proved to be distinct concepts because they predicted different outcomes across time. Cocaine use predicted subsequent poor housing outcomes, but stable housing had no apparent effect on subsequent use of cocaine. Service use predicted neither subsequent reduced cocaine use nor attainment of stable housing. Services used were appropriate to type of mental health need, but cocaine use may have reduced successful utilisation of appropriate psychiatric services.
These findings reinforce the concept that homelessness represents a complex phenomenon and consequently, service systems need to address multiple problems. Service approaches are needed that simultaneously address the complex needs of homeless individuals.
The identification of the factors that influence the persistence of psychiatric disorder may assist practitioners to focus on young people who are particularly prone to poor outcomes, but population-based samples of sufficient size are rare.
This secondary analysis combined data from two large, population-based cross-sectional surveys in Great Britain (1999 and 2004) and their respective follow-ups (2002 and 2007), to study homotypic persistence among the 998 school-age children with psychiatric disorder at baseline. Psychiatric disorder was measured using the Development and Well-Being Assessment applying DSM-IV criteria. Factors relating to the child, family, and the severity and type of psychopathology at baseline were analysed using logistic regression.
Approximately 50% of children with at least one psychiatric disorder were assigned the same diagnostic grouping at 3-year follow-up. Persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety were predicted by poor peer relationship scores. Persistent conduct disorder was predicted by intellectual disability, rented housing, large family size, poor family function and by severer baseline psychopathology scores.
Homotypic persistence was predicted by different factors for different groups of psychiatric disorders. Experimental research in clinical samples should explore whether these factors also influence response to interventions.