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Knowing Women is a study of same-sex desire in West Africa, which explores the lives and friendships of working-class women in southern Ghana who are intimately involved with each other. Based on in-depth research of the life histories of women in the region, Serena O. Dankwa highlights the vibrancy of everyday same-sex intimacies that have not been captured in a globally pervasive language of sexual identity. Paying close attention to the women's practices of self-reference, Dankwa refers to them as 'knowing women' in a way that both distinguishes them from, and relates them to categories such as lesbian or supi, a Ghanaian term for female friend. In doing so, this study is not only a significant contribution to the field of global queer studies in which both women and Africa have been underrepresented, but a starting point to further theorize the relation between gender, kinship, and sexuality that is key to queer, feminist, and postcolonial theories. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The intentional spread of falsehoods – and attendant attacks on minorities, press freedoms, and the rule of law – challenge the basic norms and values upon which institutional legitimacy and political stability depend. How did we get here? The Disinformation Age assembles a remarkable group of historians, political scientists, and communication scholars to examine the historical and political origins of the post-fact information era, focusing on the United States but with lessons for other democracies. Bennett and Livingston frame the book by examining decades-long efforts by political and business interests to undermine authoritative institutions, including parties, elections, public agencies, science, independent journalism, and civil society groups. The other distinguished scholars explore the historical origins and workings of disinformation, along with policy challenges and the role of the legacy press in improving public communication. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Over the last five years, widespread concern about the effects of social media on democracy has led to an explosion in research from different disciplines and corners of academia. This book is the first of its kind to take stock of this emerging multi-disciplinary field by synthesizing what we know, identifying what we do not know and obstacles to future research, and charting a course for the future inquiry. Chapters by leading scholars cover major topics – from disinformation to hate speech to political advertising – and situate recent developments in the context of key policy questions. In addition, the book canvasses existing reform proposals in order to address widely perceived threats that social media poses to democracy. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The satiating efficiency of food has been increasingly quantified using the Satiety Quotient (SQ). The SQ integrates both the energy content of food ingested during a meal and the associated change in appetite sensations. This systematic review examines the available evidence regarding its methodological use and clinical utility. A literature search was conducted in 6 databases considering studies from 1900 to April 2020 that used SQ in adults, adolescents and children. All study designs were included. From the initial 495 references found, 52 were included. Of the studies included, 33 were acute studies (29 in adults and 4 in adolescents) and 19 were longitudinal studies in adults. A high methodological heterogeneity in the application of the SQ was observed between studies. Five main utilizations of the SQ were identified: its association with i) energy intake; ii) anthropometric variables; iii) energy expenditure/physical activity; iv) sleep quality and quantity; as well as v) to classify individuals by their satiety responsiveness (i.e. low and high satiety phenotypes). Altogether, the studies suggest the SQ as an interesting clinical tool regarding the satiety responsiveness to a meal and its changes in responses to weight loss in adults. The SQ might be a reliable clinical indicator in adults when it comes to both obesity prevention and treatment. There is a need for more standardized use of the SQ in addition to further studies to investigate its validity in different contexts and populations, especially among children and adolescents.
Hyperlipidemia and cognitive dysfunction (CD) are the two public health concerns. Though hyperlipidemia has been comprehensively studied in respect of cardiovascular diseases, its role on CD needs to be explored. Hence, we evaluated hyperlipidemia as a risk factor for CD, and the efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and zerumbone (Z) in modulating CD under hyperlipidemic conditions. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed control, high-fat (HF), high-fat + fish oil (HF+F), high-fat + zerumbone (HF+Z), and high-fat + fish oil + zerumbone (HF+F+Z) containing diet. After 30 days feeding trial, memory parameters [(Morris water maze, elevated plus maze (transfer latency), and T-maze (spontaneous alteration)], and locomotor skills (open field test and rotarod test) were assessed. Hyperlipidemia significantly (p<0.05) reduced memory and motor coordination skills compared to control. However, the administration of EPA+DHA and zerumbone significantly (p<0.05) restored the hyperlipidemia-induced loss of memory and motor coordination skills. Collectively, our data imply that hyperlipidemia causes CD by decreasing the memory and motor coordination skills, and administration of EPA+DHA and zerumbone prevent hyperlipidemia induced CD. The augmented effect of EPA+DHA, together with zerumbone, discloses a promising strategy for lowering the severity of CD in hyperlipidemic conditions.
To assess public health nutrition practice within the public health system in Ontario, Canada to identify provincial-wide needs for scientific and technical support.
A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to identify activities, strengths, challenges and opportunities in public health nutrition practice using semi-structured key informant interviews (n 21) and focus groups (n 10). Recorded notes were analysed concurrently with data generation using content analysis. System needs were prioritised through a survey.
Public health units.
Eighty-nine practitioners, managers, directors, medical officers of health, researchers and other stakeholders were purposively recruited through snowball and extreme case sampling.
Five themes were generated: (i) current public health nutrition practice was broad, complex, in transition and collaborative; (ii) data/evidence/research relevant to public health needs were insufficiently available and accessible; (iii) the amount and specificity of guidance/leadership was perceived to be mismatched with strong evidence that diet is a risk factor for poor health; (iv) resources/capacity were varied but insufficient and (v) understanding of nutrition expertise in public health among colleagues, leadership and other organisations can be improved. Top ranked needs were increased understanding, visibility and prioritisation of healthy eating and food environments; improved access to data and evidence; improved collaboration and coordination; and increased alignment of activities and goals.
Collective capacity in the public health nutrition can be improved through strategic system-wide capacity-building interventions. Research is needed to explore how improvements in data, evidence and local contexts can bridge research and practice to effectively and efficiently improve population diets and health.
Feeding mice in early-life a diet containing an experimental infant milk formula (Nuturis®; eIMF), with a lipid structure similar to human milk, transiently lowered body weight and fat mass gain upon Western-style diet later in life, when compared to mice fed diets based on control IMF (cIMF). We tested the hypothesis that early-life eIMF feeding alters the absorption or the postabsorptive trafficking of dietary lipids in later-life. Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed eIMF/cIMF from postnatal day 16-42, followed by low- (LFD, AIN-93G, 7wt% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD, D12451, 24wt% fat) until day 63-70. Lipid absorption rate and tissue concentrations were determined after intragastric administration of stable isotope (deuterium or 13C) labelled lipids in separate groups. Lipid enrichments in plasma and tissues were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The rate of triolein absorption was similar between eIMF and cIMF fed LFD: 3.2 SD 1.8 and 3.9 SD 2.1 and HFD: 2.6 SD 1.7 and 3.8 SD 3.0 %dose.ml-1.h-1. Postabsorptive lipid trafficking, i.e., concentrations of absorbed lipids in tissues, was similar in the eIMF and cIMF groups after LFD. Tissue levels of absorbed triglycerides after HFD-feeding were lower in heart (-42%) and liver (-46%), and higher in muscle (+81%, all p<0.05) in eIMF-fed mice. In conclusion, early-life IMF diet affected postabsorptive trafficking of absorbed lipids after HFD, but not LFD. Changes in postabsorptive lipid trafficking could underlie the observed lower body weight and body fat accumulation in later life upon a persistent long-term obesogenic challenge.
BPIFA2 (PSP, SPLUNC2, C20orf70) is a major salivary protein of uncertain physiological function. BPIFA2 is downregulated in salivary glands of spontaneously hypertensive rats, pointing to a role in blood pressure regulation. This study used a novel Bpifa2 knockout mouse model to test the role of BPIFA2 in sodium preference and blood pressure. Blood pressure did not differ between wild-type male and female mice but was significantly lower in male knockout mice compared to male wild-type mice. In contrast, blood pressure was increased in female knockout mice compared to female wild-type mice. Female wild-type mice showed a significant preference for 0.9% saline compared to male mice. This difference was reduced in the knockout mice. BPIFA2 is an LPS-binding protein but it remains to be determined if the reported effects are mediated by the LPS-binding activity of BPIFA2.
Diet has a major influence on the composition and metabolic output of the gut microbiome. Higher-protein diets are often recommended for older consumers; however, the effect of high-protein diets on the gut microbiota and faecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) of elderly participants is unknown. The purpose of the study was to establish if the faecal microbiota composition and VOC in older men are different after a diet containing the recommended dietary intake (RDA) of protein compared with a diet containing twice the RDA (2RDA). Healthy males (74⋅2 (sd 3⋅6) years; n 28) were randomised to consume the RDA of protein (0⋅8 g protein/kg body weight per d) or 2RDA, for 10 weeks. Dietary protein was provided via whole foods rather than supplementation or fortification. The diets were matched for dietary fibre from fruit and vegetables. Faecal samples were collected pre- and post-intervention for microbiota profiling by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing and VOC analysis by head space/solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant differences in the abundance of faecal microbiota or VOC associated with protein fermentation were evident between the RDA and 2RDA diets. Therefore, in the present study, a twofold difference in dietary protein intake did not alter gut microbiota or VOC indicative of altered protein fermentation.
To describe the pattern of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during 2 nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 with regard to the possibility of airborne transmission.
Contact investigations with active case finding were used to assess the pattern of spread from 2 COVID-19 index patients.
A community hospital and university medical center in the United States, in February and March, 2020, early in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Two index patients and 421 exposed health care workers.
Exposed staff were identified by analyzing the EMR and conducting active case finding in combination with structured interviews. Staff were tested for COVID-19 by obtaining oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens, with RT-PCR testing to detect SARS-CoV-2.
Two separate index patients were admitted in February and March 2020, without initial suspicion for COVID-19 and without contact or droplet precautions in place; both patients underwent several aerosol generating procedures in this context. A total of 421 health care workers were exposed in total, and the results of the case contact investigations identified 8 secondary infections in health care workers. In all 8 cases, the staff had close contact with the index patients without sufficient personal protective equipment. Importantly, despite multiple aerosol generating procedures, there was no evidence of airborne transmission.
These observations suggest that, at least in a healthcare setting, a majority of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to take place during close contact with infected patients through respiratory droplets, rather than by long-distance airborne transmission.
The Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Hospital for Diseases of the Throat, Ear and Nose existed in Nottingham for over 60 years, but there is little knowledge or documentation regarding its existence.
The following resources were searched to find out more about the hospital: the Nottinghamshire Archives; Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham Libraries; and Nottingham Central Library. Information was also obtained from the founders’ relatives.
The hospital was founded in 1886, by Dr Donald Stewart, supported by political and clerical leaders. Initially, it treated out-patients only; in-patients were admitted for surgical treatment from 1905. Suitable accommodation was purchased in 1925, on Goldsmith Street, but required much building extension and alteration. Building restrictions during and following World War II prevented expansion. The National Hospital Survey conducted in 1945 considered the clinical work undertaken to be of a minor character, and recommended closure and amalgamation with the services provided by the Nottingham General Hospital. The hospital closed in 1947.
The specialist hospital was deemed unfit and unsuitable to compete with the comprehensive service provided by the Nottingham General Hospital.