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This volume draws together Keynes's published and unpublished writings on non-economic subjects. Included in full are both sides of his correspondence as chairman of The New Statesman with Kingsley Martin, the paper's editor, covering politics and foreign affairs during the years 1931 to 1946. The reader will also find manuscripts on ancient currencies, a subject that occupied much of his time during the 1920s, his articles and reviews on the arts and literature, and the preface written jointly with Piero Sraffia to the 1938 facsimile edition of the Abstract of Hume's Treatise on Human Nature.
Between the outbreak of war in 1939 and his death in April 1946, Keynes was closely involved in the management of Britain's war economy and the planning of the post-war world. This volume, the sixth dealing with this period, focuses on several aspects of post-war planning: the discussions surrounding relief and reconstruction, the attempts to produce a post-war scheme to stabilise the prices of primary products, and the discussions surrounding Britain's programme of reconstruction, most notably the Beveridge programme for social insurance and the policy of full employment. It contains Keynes's contributions to the discussion of these issues, most notably his primary product scheme and his longer papers on the tactics and problems of a full employment policy.
This volume brings together Keynes's attempts to influence public opinion and policy concerning primarily British affairs between 1922 and 1929. During this period, his major concerns were Britain's attempt to return to the gold standard and its consequences, industrial policy (especially in the cotton textile industry) and unemployment policy, although he became briefly involved in many other subjects. Most of the volume consists of Keynes's journalism for the period, but it also contains his previously unpublished evidence to official committees, anonymous contributions to The Nation and Athenaeum and related correspondence.
From 1915, when Keynes joined the Treasury, until he resigned in 1919 during the Versailles Conference, he carried a rapidly increasing load of responsibility. This volume prints all the principal papers and memoranda he wrote during those years and throws new light on the crises of inter-allied financial relations and the near exhaustion of British financial resources. It contains also his contributions to the early thinking in the Treasury about post-war reparations and inter-allied debts. It ends with his correspondence, official and private, from Paris, as he saw his hopes of a wise settlement vanishing. This is a necessary companion to The Economic Consequences of the Peace (Volume 2 in this series).
Originally written as a Fellowship Dissertation for King's College, Cambridge, between 1906 and 1909, Keynes's Treatise represents his earliest large-scale writing. Rewritten for publication during 1909–12 and 1920–1, it was the first systematic work in English on the logical foundations of probability for 55 years. As it filled an obvious gap in the existing theory of knowledge, it received an enthusiastic reception from contemporaries on publication. Even today amongst philosophers, the essence of Keynes's approach to probability is established. This edition reprints, with Keynes's own corrections, the first edition of the Treatise. An introduction by Professor Richard Braithwaite, formerly Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy in Cambridge and a close friend of Keynes from the time he was finishing this book, sets Keynes's ideas in perspective.
This volume brings together Keynes's attempts to influence the development of public opinion and public policy between September 1931 and the outbreak of World War II. It contains his journalism, his memoranda and letters to ministers and committees of the Economic Advisory Council and related correspondence. The issues covered include the management of sterling, Britain's recovery policies, the New Deal, the World Economic Conference of 1933, Britain's rearmament and preparations for war, and the recession of 1937–8 and policies to combat it. As such, it is a companion to the volumes dealing with the development of his more formal economic theories during these years, most notably in The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money.
This volume, the fourth of six dealing with the Second World War, is concerned with the origins of what became the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. It traces the origins of the ideas involved, the process of argument and redrafting that occurred in Whitehall and the subsequent, primarily Anglo-American, negotiations themselves. It takes the story up to the Joint Bretton Woods Conference. As it contains copies of all drafts of Keynes's Clearing Union proposals, together with extensive sampling of discussions with economists such as Dennis Robertson, James Meade, Roy Harrod and Harry White, it combines the presentation of a set of ideas of continuing relevance with essential background material on the origins of an important post-war international institution.
Most of the essays in this book were first collected and published in 1933, when Keynes had reached a turning point in a highly successful career as an academic economist, as an official economic advisor, opponent of the reparation imposed on Germany and critic of the orthodox economic policies of British governments. Before devoting himself fully to the final stages of his journey towards The General Theory, Keynes put together these examples of one of his favourite literary genres, the psychological portrait and biographical sketch. With the additions made in 1951 and 1972, the book contains almost all of Keynes's biographical writings: his savage portraits of the architects of the Treaty of Versailles and sketches of other politicians, including Asquith and Churchill; some classic accounts of the lives of economists; a pair of autobiographical memoirs; a short study of Newton; and many acute and affectionate character sketches of friends.
This volume brings together Keynes's writings in a number of fields. It includes a full account of his experience as an investor, both for himself and for others, combined with a selection from his correspondence and memoranda on investment in which he tried to expound his beliefs to others. Also included are his writings on commodities, his early lecture notes on money and a selection of his correspondence as editor of the Economic Journal and a referee for the Macmillan Company.
This volume, with its companion, Volume 14, provides all the surviving letters, drafts and articles arising from Keynes's work as a monetary economist between 1924 and 1939. It contains wherever possible both sides of all correspondence concerning his Treatise on Money and General Theory, both before and after publication, as well as complete texts of all surviving drafts of both works. In addition it contains important correspondence concerning D. H. Robertson's Banking Policy and the Price Level and such post-General Theory contributions as R. F. Harrod's first work on the theory of economic growth. As such, it provides a remarkable chronicle of one man's intellectual development over the quarter of a century that saw a revolution in economics.
Between the outbreak of war in 1939 and his death in April 1946, Keynes was closely involved in the management of Britain's war economy and the planning of the post-war world. This volume, the fifth of six dealing with this period, focuses on three aspects of his activities in planning the post-war world: the final stages of the discussions and negotiations that brought the International Monetary Fund and World Bank to birth at Bretton Woods and Savannah, the negotiations over commercial policy, and the discussions on reparations and the post-war treatment of Germany. On all of these subjects it contains Keynes's attempts to influence, often with success, the course of events in both Britain and America.
Keynes published The Economic Consequences of the Peace in December 1919. Over the next two years events moved rapidly and by the late autumn of 1921 a sequel was needed. While Keynes's views had not changed, any critical observer required a review of the new facts and materials. That is what A Revision of the Treaty provided. By May 1921 a long series of meetings between the Allied Premiers had led, through an even longer series of proposals, counterproposals, attempted settlements and sanctions imposed on Germany, to the London Settlement of Reparations of May 1921. This, as Keynes rightly foresaw, was to be no more permanent that its predecessors. This book shows Keynes at his best in the economic analysis and interpretation of detail as well as main trends, and reveals the validity of much of his earlier criticism of the peacemakers at Versailles.
This volume, with its companion, Volume 13, provides all the surviving letters, drafts and articles arising from Keynes's work as a monetary economist between 1924 and 1939. It contains wherever possible both sides of all correspondence concerning his Treatise on Money and General Theory, both before and after publication, as well as complete texts of all surviving drafts of both works. In addition it contains important correspondence concerning D. H. Robertson's Banking Policy and the Price Level and such post-General Theory contributors as R. F. Harrod's first work on the theory of economic growth. As such, it provides a remarkable chronicle of one man's intellectual development over the quarter of a century that saw a revolution in economics.
Once the urgent problems of reparations, which had deeply troubled Keynes at the Peace Conference at Versailles, were on their way towards solution, Keynes turned to the equally grave problems of the currencies of Europe and their adjustment to the post-war world. These issues had been discussed in the series of Reconstruction Supplements of the Manchester Guardian Commercial that he had edited during 1922. In the Tract Keynes drew heavily on his own contributions to that series. This edition makes available the variations between the texts. The Tract remains of interest in three respects. First, it shows the state of Keynes's thinking about monetary problems and the causes of inflation in the early 1920s. Second, it provides one of the clearest expositions ever written of the determination of forward exchange rates. Third, it shows Keynes already favouring flexible exchange rates as a means of allowing independence in national economic policy.
This volume brings together Keynes's attempts to influence the course of public opinion and public policy in Britain and elsewhere between the autumn of 1929 and Britain's departure from the gold standard on 21 September 1931. At its centre are Keynes's activities as a member of the Macmillan Committee on Finance and Industry (including the eight days of ‘private evidence' he gave, setting out the theory of his then unpublished Treatise on Money and applying it to Britain's contemporary problems) and the Economic Advisory Council and its committees. It also includes all his related journalism and his correspondence both with senior politicians and with other men of affairs. As such, it is a companion to the volumes dealing with the development of his more formal economic theory during these years, most notably A Treatise on Money.
During the winter of 1975–6, the Keynes family unexpectedly discovered another collection of Keynes's papers at Tilton, his Sussex house. In this was a substantial amount of material relating to the composition and defence of the General Theory, including many more early drafts. This volume brings together these papers, along with a few others that have come to light since the publication of Volumes 13 and 14 of this series in 1973. It is a necessary companion to these volumes and their chronicle of intellectual development and achievement.
In 1936 Keynes published the most provocative book written by any economist of his generation. The General Theory, as it is known to all economists, cut through all the Gordian Knots of pre-Keynesian discussion of the trade cycle and propounded a new approach to the determination of the level of economic activity, the problems of employment and unemployment and the causes of inflation. Arguments about the book continued until his death in 1946 and still continue today. Despite all that has been written in the subsequent years, Keynes and his book still represent the turning point between the old economics and the new from which each generation of economists needs to take its inspiration.
Between 1921 and 1923 Keynes was involved, with varying degrees of success, in a variety of attempts at influencing British and overseas opinion. This volume prints all the principal articles, letters and memoranda surrounding the publication of The Economic Consequences of the Peace, A Revision of the Treaty and the series ‘Reconstruction in Europe', which he edited for the Manchester Guardian Commercial. It also includes important memoranda, articles and correspondence on Britain's post-war monetary policy and international financial policy. As such, it is an important companion to his published work of the period and an important source for material on his development as a monetary economist.
This volume, a companion to Volume 17 and to many of the Essays in Persuasion (Volume 9), carries Keynes's involvement in the post-1919 reparations tangle down to the Lausanne Conference and Britain's subsequent effective default on her own war debts in June 1933 – almost fourteen years to the day after Keynes's own resignation from the Treasury over the original Peace Settlement effectively removed the issue from practical politics. The events it covers were dramatic – the German hyperinflation, the occupation of the Ruhr, the Dawes and Young Plans and the Hoover Moratorium. Throughout, Keynes attempted to shape opinion and the course of events through published articles, unsigned letters, contributions to The Nation and Athenaeum, speeches, letters, official committees and memoranda. These add an important dimension to our understanding of the history of the period.
This volume marks the completion of the Collected Writings. The general index to the edition is designed to allow those interested in the development of Keynes's thought, and those interested in the history of economic thought more generally, to trace the development of his ideas throughout his career. The bibliography to the edition records all the writings of Keynes published not only in English but also in translation. It provides an indication of the process by which Keynes's writings were disseminated throughout the world. In addition, this volume includes an editorial introduction describing the principles of selection used by the editors, as well as a few items that escaped them in the preparation of earlier volumes. This volume is an essential tool for the effective use of the material in the twenty-nine other volumes of this edition.