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Hydrocarbon production, gas recovery from shale, CO2 storage and water management have a common scientific underpinning: multiphase flow in porous media. This book provides a fundamental description of multiphase flow through porous rock, with emphasis on the understanding of displacement processes at the pore, or micron, scale. Fundamental equations and principal concepts using energy, momentum, and mass balance are developed, and the latest developments in high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and associated modelling are explored. The treatment is pedagogical, developing sound physical principles to predict flow and recovery through complex rock structures, while providing a review of the recent literature. This systematic approach makes it an excellent reference for those who are new to the field. Inspired by recent research, and based on courses taught to thousands of students and professionals from around the world, it provides the scientific background necessary for a quantitative assessment of multiphase subsurface flow processes, and is ideal for hydrology and environmental engineering students, as well as professionals in the hydrocarbon, water and carbon storage industries.
Salt tectonics is the study of how and why salt structures evolve and the three-dimensional forms that result. A fascinating branch of geology in itself, salt tectonics is also vitally important to the petroleum industry. Covering the entire scale from the microscopic to the continental, this textbook is an unrivalled consolidation of all topics related to salt tectonics: evaporite deposition and flow, salt structures, salt systems, and practical applications. Coverage of the principles of salt tectonics is supported by more than 600 color illustrations, including 200 seismic images captured by state-of-the-art geophysical techniques and tectonic models from the Applied Geodynamics Laboratory at the University of Texas, Austin. These combine to provide a cohesive and wide-ranging insight into this extremely visual subject. This is the definitive practical handbook for professional geologists and geophysicists in the petroleum industry, an invaluable textbook for graduate students, and a reference textbook for researchers in various geoscience fields.
Investigations of multi-physical processes in geomaterials have gained increasing attention due to the ongoing interest in solving complex geoenvironmental problems. This book provides a comprehensive exposition of the classical theory of thermo-poroelasticity, complemented by complete examples to problems in thermo-poromechanics that are used to validate computational results from multi-physics codes used in practice. The methodologies offer an insight into real-life problems related to modern environmental geosciences, including nuclear waste management, geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases to mitigate climate change, and the impact of energy resources recovery on groundwater resources. A strong focus is placed on analytical approaches to benchmark the accuracy of the computational approaches that are ultimately used in real-life problems. The extensive coverage of both theory and applications in thermo-poroelasticity and geomechanics provides a unified presentation of the topics, making this an accessible and invaluable resource for researchers, students or practitioners in the field.
Civil Liability and Financial Security for Offshore Oil and Gas Activities provides insights into the liability and compensation regime for offshore-related damage. The book analyses the legal regime in a variety of states (including the US and the UK) as well as the EU regime. In addition, the various compensation mechanisms and amounts available today to compensate offshore-related damage are described and critically analysed. Moreover, the book is based on in-depth interviews with a wide variety of relevant stakeholders including insurers, representatives from supervisory authorities, and oil and gas producers. This volume also provides a variety of policy recommendations, formulated to provide an optimal compensation regime for offshore-related damage.
This book introduces methodologies for subsurface imaging based upon asymptotic and trajectory-based methods for modeling fluid flow, transport and deformation. It describes trajectory-based imaging from its mathematical formulation, through the construction and solution of the imaging equations, to the assessment of the accuracy and resolution associated with the image. Unique in its approach, it provides a unified framework for the complete spectrum of physical phenomena from wave-like hyperbolic problems to diffusive parabolic problems and non-linear problems of mixed character. The practical aspects of imaging, particularly efficient and robust methods for updating high resolution geologic models using fluid flow, transport and geophysical data, are emphasized throughout the book. Complete with online software applications and examples that enable readers to gain hands-on experience, this volume is an invaluable resource for graduate-level courses, as well as for academic researchers and industry practitioners in the fields of geoscience, hydrology, and petroleum and environmental engineering.
For over eighty years the Arab region has derived massive wealth from its natural resources, yet the region's economies remain little diversified, while the oil market is experiencing major structural shifts with the advent of shale gas. Moreover, the resource itself is eventually exhaustible. Under these conditions economic prosperity cannot be sustainable. The critical question is how can the countries of this region escape the 'oil curse'? In this volume, leading economists argue that the curse is not a predestined outcome but a result of weak institutions and bad governance. A variety of analytical perspectives and examination of various international case studies leads to the conclusion that natural resources can only spur economic development when combined with sound political institutions and effective economic governance. This volume, with its unique focus on the Arab region, will be an important reference for researchers and policymakers alike.
Isotopes provide important information on many geological processes, with key relevance to the mining and petroleum industries, yet the techniques to obtain, process and interpret the data can be complex to master. This accessible book provides broad coverage of radiogenic isotopes in geochronology and geochemistry, explaining the basic principles and state-of-the-art techniques used to study them, with an emphasis on industry applications. The major isotopic systems are fully summarised with relation to real-world applications, enabling readers to decide which technique is most relevant for the problem they want to solve, and then to rigorously evaluate existing data, or recalculate and reassess datasets to avoid duplication of effort. A comprehensive glossary clarifies the numerous acronyms used in the field. Written at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, the book also includes detail which allows more experienced practitioners to maximise the potential value of isotopic datasets.
Waves generated by opportunistic or ambient noise sources and recorded by passive sensor arrays can be used to image the medium through which they travel. Spectacular results have been obtained in seismic interferometry, which open up new perspectives in acoustics, electromagnetics, and optics. The authors present, for the first time in book form, a self-contained and unified account of correlation-based and ambient noise imaging. In order to facilitate understanding of the core material, they also address a number of related topics in conventional sensor array imaging, wave propagation in random media, and high-frequency asymptotics for wave propagation. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, the book uses mathematical tools from probability, partial differential equations and asymptotic analysis, combined with the physics of wave propagation and modelling of imaging modalities. Suitable for applied mathematicians and geophysicists, it is also accessible to graduate students in applied mathematics, physics, and engineering.
Fatigue Design of Marine Structures provides students and professionals with a theoretical and practical background for fatigue design of marine structures including sailing ships, offshore structures for oil and gas production, and other welded structures subject to dynamic loading such as wind turbine structures. Industry expert Inge Lotsberg brings more than forty years of experience in design and standards-setting to this comprehensive guide to the basics of fatigue design of welded structures. Topics covered include laboratory testing, S-N data, different materials, different environments, stress concentrations, residual stresses, acceptance criteria, non-destructive testing, improvement methods, probability of failure, bolted connections, grouted connections, and fracture mechanics. Featuring twenty chapters, three hundred diagrams, forty-seven example calculations, and resources for further study, Fatigue Design of Marine Structures is intended as the complete reference work for study and practice.
Rifts and passive margins are extremely important for the petroleum industry, as they are areas of high sedimentation and can contain significant oil and gas resources. This book provides a comprehensive understanding of rifts and passive margins as a whole. It synthesises in one volume the existing information devoted to specific aspects of these vitally important hydrocarbon habitats. This collection of state-of-the-art information on the topic facilitates the better use of this knowledge to assess the risks of exploring and operating in these settings and the development of systematic and predictive hydrocarbon screening tools. The book will be invaluable for a broad range of readers, from advanced geology students and researchers to exploration geoscientists to exploration managers exploring for and developing hydrocarbon resources in analogous settings.
Gathering the right kind and the right amount of information is crucial for any decision-making process. This book presents a unified framework for assessing the value of potential data gathering schemes by integrating spatial modelling and decision analysis, with a focus on the Earth sciences. The authors discuss the value of imperfect versus perfect information, and the value of total versus partial information, where only subsets of the data are acquired. Concepts are illustrated using a suite of quantitative tools from decision analysis, such as decision trees and influence diagrams, as well as models for continuous and discrete dependent spatial variables, including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, Gaussian processes, and multiple-point geostatistics. Unique in scope, this book is of interest to students, researchers and industry professionals in the Earth and environmental sciences, who use applied statistics and decision analysis techniques, and particularly to those working in petroleum, mining, and environmental geoscience.
Drawing on their extensive knowledge of the oil industry, Roberto F. Aguilera and Marian Radetzki provide an in-depth examination of the price of the world's most important commodity. They argue that although oil has experienced an extraordinary price increase over the past few decades, we have now reached a turning point where scarcity, uncertain supply and high prices will be replaced by abundance, undisturbed availability and suppressed price levels. They look at the potential of new global oil revolutions to bring the upward price push to an end and examine the implications of this turnaround for the world economy, as well as for politics, diplomacy, military interventions and the efforts to stabilize climate. This book will appeal to a wide readership of both academics and professionals working in the energy industry, as well as to general readers interested in the ongoing debate about oil prices.
This textbook integrates classic principles of flow through porous media with recently developed stochastic analyses to provide new insight on subsurface hydrology. Importantly, each of the authors has extensive experience in both academia and the world of applied groundwater hydrology. The book not only presents theories but also emphasizes their underlying assumptions, limitations, and the potential pitfalls that may occur as a result of blind application of the theories as 'cookie-cutter' solutions. The book has been developed for advanced-level courses on groundwater fluid flow, hydraulics, and hydrogeology, in either civil and environmental engineering or geoscience departments. It is also a valuable reference text for researchers and professionals in civil and environmental engineering, geology, soil science, environmental science, and petroleum and mining engineering.
The characterisation of fluid transport properties of rocks is one of the most important, yet difficult, challenges of reservoir geophysics, but is essential for optimal development of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. This book provides a quantitative introduction to the underlying physics, application, interpretation, and hazard aspects of fluid-induced seismicity with a particular focus on its spatio-temporal dynamics. It presents many real data examples of microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing at hydrocarbon fields and of stimulations of enhanced geothermal systems. The author also covers introductory aspects of linear elasticity and poroelasticity theory, as well as elements of seismic rock physics and mechanics of earthquakes, enabling readers to develop a comprehensive understanding of the field. Fluid-Induced Seismicity is a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students working in the fields of geophysics, geology, geomechanics and petrophysics, and a practical guide for petroleum geoscientists and engineers working in the energy industry.
This key textbook considers the mechanics of geomaterials at a wide range of scales, both in time and space. It provides a detailed introduction to the study of crustal geomechanics, focussing specifically on the seismogenic crust. The author demonstrates how continuum mechanics principles can provide efficient solutions to geomechanics problems at various scales, taking into account the multiphase characteristics of the geomaterials as well as discontinuities such as fractures and faults. Field and laboratory observations are combined with basic mathematical theory to build solutions with known levels of uncertainty. Particular consideration is given to the use of microseismicity. Case studies are provided, and practical results from numerical modelling are used to illustrate the applicability and limitations of current theories. Accessible explanations of mathematical formulations, convenient summaries of the key equations, and exercises make this a valuable reference for students and researchers in geomechanics, geophysics, structural geology and engineering.
Our energy use and its consequences (including climate change) motivate some of the most contentious and complex public debates of our time. Although these issues are often cast in terms of renewable versus non-renewable energy, in reality both depend on finite Earth resources. The evolution of the Earth itself therefore offers a uniquely illuminating perspective from which to evaluate alternative pathways toward energy and environmental sustainability. Geofuels: Energy and the Earth systematically develops this perspective using informal, nontechnical language laced with humor. It is well suited to a broad readership, ranging from beginning university students to lifelong learners who are interested in how the Earth's past will influence their own future. It also provides simplified explanations of controversial topics, such as energy return on energy investment, peak oil, and fracking. The focus throughout is on building a sound physical understanding of how natural resources constrain our use of energy.
Focusing on simplified models of physical flow processes, this book develops a series of quantitative models to describe the recovery of oil and gas from hydrocarbon reservoirs (including fracking), the physics of geo-sequestration of CO2, geothermal power production, and the potential for underground contaminant dispersal in the long-term storage of nuclear waste. The author approaches these problems by developing simplified mathematical models and identifying the key dimensionless variables that control the processes. This analysis is then used to demonstrate the challenges and constraints of modelling flow in complex and heterogeneous rocks, which often have uncertain flow properties. Analytical solutions for flows are provided where possible, and analogue laboratory experiments are also presented to help illustrate and provide a different perspective on the flows. Incorporating end-of-chapter exercises, this is an important introduction to the different controls on flow in porous rocks for academic researchers, energy industry professionals and graduate students.
Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are intraplate magmatic events, involving volumes of mainly mafic magma upwards of 100,000 km3, and often above 1 million km3. They are linked to continental break-up, global environmental catastrophes, regional uplift and a variety of ore deposit types. In this up-to-date, fascinating book, leading expert Richard E. Ernst explores all aspects of LIPs, beginning by introducing their definition and essential characteristics. Topics covered include continental and oceanic LIPs; their origins, structures, and geochemistry; geological and environmental effects; association with silicic, carbonatite and kimberlite magmatism; and analogues of LIPs in the Archean, and on other planets. The book concludes with an assessment of LIPs' influence on natural resources such as mineral deposits, petroleum and aquifers. This is a one-stop resource for researchers and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines, including tectonics, igneous petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, Earth history, and planetary geology, and for mining industry professionals.
Over forty years of teaching experience are distilled into this text. The guiding principle is the wide use of the concept of intermediate asymptotics, which enables the natural introduction of the modeling of real bodies by continua. Beginning with a detailed explanation of the continuum approximation for the mathematical modeling of the motion and equilibrium of real bodies, the author continues with a general survey of the necessary methods and tools for analyzing models. Next, specific idealized approximations are presented, including ideal incompressible fluids, elastic bodies and Newtonian viscous fluids. The author not only presents general concepts but also devotes chapters to examining significant problems, including turbulence, wave-propagation, defects and cracks, fatigue and fracture. Each of these applications reveals essential information about the particular approximation. The author's tried and tested approach reveals insights that will be valued by every teacher and student of mechanics.
The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the world's largest carbon trading market. This book offers a new perspective on the EU ETS as a multi-level governance regime, in which the regulatory process is composed of three distinct 'competences' - norm setting, implementation, and enforcement. Are these competences best combined in a single regulator at one level of government or would they be better allocated among a variety of regulators at different levels of government? The combined legal, economic, and political analysis in this book reveals that the actual allocation of competences within the EU ETS diverges from a hypothetical ideal allocation in important ways, and provides a political economy explanation for the existing allocation of norm setting, implementation and enforcement competences among various levels of European government.