The aim of the study was to replicate the activities necessary to verify the libertial-‑value-grounded theory of the meaning of life and to examine the question of the existential determinants of resiliency. The libertial-value-grounded theory propounds that the meaning of life is conditioned by the sense of personal freedom and individual sensitivity to values. The above three categories, namely the meaning of life, subjective freedom and axiological sensitivity, are treated as the hypothetical existential determinants of resiliency. The study was carried out on 42 women and 51 men, aged 22 to 79 years, by means of the following methods: the Ostrowski Attitude to Life Questionnaire, Ostrowski Personal Freedom Questionnaire, Ostrowski Sensitivity to Values Questionnaire and Ogińska-Bulik and Juczyński SPP-25 Resiliency Measurement Scale, the authors of which adhere to the understanding of resiliency as a disposition. The libertial-value-grounded theory of the meaning of life was positively verified, which demonstrated that the meaning of life is conditioned by subjective freedom and axiological sensitivity, in the path model which satisfactorily fits the empirical data (chi-squared (18) = 13.90; p = 0.74; RMR = 1.456; GFI = 0.93; AGFI = 0.86; RMSEA < 0.01). 46% of the meaning of life variance was explained. The hypothesis which claimed that resiliency is conditioned by the existential predictors examined in the study, the meaning of life and subjective freedom in particular, was verified, and relevant correlations were presented in the path model which satisfactorily fits the data (chi-squared (54) = 48.62; p = 0.71; RMR = 1.63; GFI = 0.86; AGFI = 0.76; RMSEA < 0.01). The resiliency component variance was explained by Persistence (18%), Coping Skills (60%), Openness (67%), Focus in Difficult Situations (67%) and Tolerance of Failure (81%). Further research is required to explore the sequentiality of the meaning-of-life predictors, the correlation between resiliency and sensitivity to values and the resiliency component variation according to gender.
Key words: resiliency, meaning of life, subjective freedom, sensitivity to values, motivation Theory
The question of the meaning of life is an inherent part of the studies on resiliency. Frankl (1984/1950) defined the meaning of life as a mechanism which protects the individual against mental disorders, noogenic neurosis and depression in particular.
This article presents a curious outlook on the phenomenon of identity crisis among young people from the perspective of positive psychology and pedagogy. The subject is significant for the reason that it illustrates the methods of coping with identity crisis which untreated may lead to serious consequences for the individual and their environment. The positive psychology approach can bring a new point of view for social rehabilitation and the preventive measures.
The previous preventative and rehabilitative solutions did not produce any expected results; consequently, rehabilitation remains a utopia. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate new, accurate approaches and forms of interaction. It is hoped that positive psychology which within the last three decades has provided an alternative for the traditional approach focusing on human defects is the answer.
The current achievements of positive psychology appear promising for better diagnosis, understanding and developing the theory of personality disorders, substance abuse, and conflicts. Knowing and focusing on the positive resources of an individual allows to create a theoretical basis enabling a positive prevention.
The state of the art of positive psychology may contribute to the initiation and possibly a shift in perceiving rehabilitation of youth and its outcome, and strengthening faith in people. What is essential is the idea of the transformation of thinking, which can be instilled in a new generation of socially maladjusted youth mentors for it is impossible to rehabilitate effectively without a conviction that actions bring meaning.
Key word: a critical transition, adolescence, young people maladjusted, positive prevention
Adolescence is a specific stage in life of every human being when young people commence to look for their own identity and try to answer the question: “who am I?,” and a time of intense biological, psychological and sociological changes. The way of dealing with identity crisis depends on many factors, including the resources of resistant youth. The inability to cope with the crisis may result in dangerous activities (e.g. self-destructive behavior), or socially maladjusted behavior.
Socially maladjusted young people and volunteers represent different ways of coping with the crisis of adolescence. The first category manifests rebellion against the recognized principles, and tries to find its own identity in the group, which confirms their antisocial beliefs. The second one, by engaging in pro-social activities and helping others, realizes themselves and meets the need to feel wanted.
Penitentiary isolation is associated with deprivation of prisoners needs as well as threat and conflict situations. Significantly reduced relationships with the social environment is accompanied by the inevitability to adapt to the realities of a total institution. Prisoners are also influenced by stigmatization, standardization, depersonalization and degradation. Significant components of their psychological situation is violence, boredom and loneliness. The aim of the presentation is to characterize the main determinants of somatic and mental health of prisoners and describe selected prevention programs, which can raise their level of psychological resistance. Selected results of the author's research on using art in the process of penitentiary correction will also be presented. The research was carried out within the project “Labyrinth of Freedom” (in the Nowy Wisnicz prison) and the “Horizon of Freedom” (in the Detention Center in Radom).
Key words: prison, art, correction, science
Introduction. Prison as a Life Environment
A prisoner serves his sentence in a monotone, routinized environment. Prisons around the world share a similar architecture (Christianson, 2004). The priorities are, obviously, isolating prisoners from the rest of society and ensuring security within the facility. Permanent fixtures found in the architecture of penitentiary facilities are high walls, barred windows and barbed wire.
The essence of a custodial sentence is the subjection of a criminal to enforced isolation. The psychological aspects of prison isolation are the most detrimental to inmates. The circumstances surrounding penitentiary isolation can be described in terms of the stress and challenging situations with which the prisoner is confronted. Situations involving the deprivation of needs, threats and various types of conflicts take on unique dimensions within prison walls. The requirement to adapt to the realities of a total institution is accompanied by extensive restrictions in relations with the social environment. Inmates are subjected to the workings of the phenomenon of prizonization. This term is used to characterize the process and the effects of prisoners adapting to the conditions of a penal facility. According to Haney (2002, pp. 79–84), prizonization includes the following symptoms: dependence on institutional structure and contingencies, hypervigilance, interpersonal distrust and suspicion, emotional over-control, alienation and psychological distancing, social withdrawal and isolation, incorporation of exploitative norms of prison culture, diminished sense of self-worth and personal value. It may also cause post-traumatic stress reactions.
The issue of physical and mental health is an important aim of research around, especially in the time of huge demands and challenges in the workplace. One of the ideas focusing on the good functioning of the unit, despite stressful conditions or demands is resilience conception (Garmezy, 2006; Rutter, 1987; Werner, 1994, 2000). This contributes to the search for individual characteristics that increase probability to overcome stress and coping with.
The research problem concerns personal determinants of professional burnout among social workers.
The aim was to establish: do the special types of personality exist among social workers, which of them impersonate the highest level of burnout and which styles of coping with stress are used by samples with high and low level of professional burnout? The study involved 296 polish social workers employed in municipal centers of social assistance. The methods were: Cattell's 16 Personality Questionnaire (16 PF-5), Questionnaire of Coping with Stressful Situations (CISS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).
The results indicate, there are four types of personality among social workers, with different levels of burnout, including the highest: type – logical but very unstable emotionally tense, vigilant and fearful, inflexible, conservative, and type of the lowest level of burnout: logical, serious, calm, careful and conventional. Type of the highest level of burnout prefers style of coping with stress concentrated on emotions and avoiding but type of the lowest burnout – style concentrated on the task.
Key words: professional burnout, types of personality, coping with stress, social worker
The issue of physical and mental health is an important aim of research around the world, especially in the time of huge demands and challenges in the workplace. Health research concern both attempts to understand and reduce the risk factors and strengthening personal resources to cope with stress. One of the ideas focusing on the good functioning of the person, despite difficult and stressful living conditions or demands is resilience conception (Garmezy, 2006; Rutter, 1987; Werner, 1994, 2000). Literally resilience means: flexibility, elasticity, resistance or regeneration. It can be understood as a positive or protective process, which reduces the inappropriateness of the person exposed to stressors, so that the retains a relatively good mental health. It considers the interactions and protection factors.
The incidence of emotional disorders in children and young people is an escalating concern. Research suggests poor emotional health in adolescence is related to many negative outcomes including lack of school adjustment, poor academic performance and reduced life chances. The Pyramid project (a school-based intervention programme currently implemented in England, Wales and Northern Ireland) aims to improve the socio-emotional well-being (SEWB) of vulnerable young people. Previous studies with primary school children (aged 7–8 years) have demonstrated the positive impact of Pyramid programmes on vulnerable children's socio-emotional health (Ohl et al., 2008, 2012, 2013). This study aims to examine the impact of the Pyramid intervention on the socioemotional well-being of pupils in early secondary education (aged 11–13 years) and to explore how programmes bring about change. The impact of the Pyramid project on 28 early-adolescent students was examined through a mixed methods design including the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman, 1997, 1998) and focus groups with Pyramid group participants and Club leaders. Results from the teacher-rated SDQ demonstrated improvements in the Pyramid intervention group's socio-emotional competencies compared to a comparison group. A thematic analysis of the qualitative data collected from focus groups supported the quantitative findings and identified potential causal mechanisms facilitating change. Further research is required to replicate these preliminary findings with a larger cohort and to provide evidence-based practices for enhancing young people's socio-emotional well-being. Moreover, these findings support extending the research to examine the impact of Pyramid on young people's school performance. Findings have the potential to underpin evidence-based policy and practice in the early adolescent population.
Key words: adolescents, Pyramid project, school-based intervention, socio-emotional health
Child and adolescent mental well-being is a major public health concern recognised by the United Kingdom (UK) government and attention needs to focus on early intervention to prevent the entrenchment and increasing severity of problems (House of Commons Health Committee (HCHC), 2014): “To build resilience, promote mental health and well-being… we need to prevent mental ill health, intervene early when it occurs” (Department of Health, (DH), 2012, pp. 6–7).
The fast-changing world creates a challenging environment because each change calls for an effort to adjust. The world has been changing since time immemorial. Our times, namely the 21st century, is unique in that it bears witness to change which both accelerates and expands to a variety of areas. Change has turned into a cultural norm. Social approval to change is on the rise, and we are now also more inclined to ignore change or respond to it with surprise. We live in a period of rapid change affecting civilisation, culture, science, technology and customs or traditions. Change progresses so fast in certain areas that it is difficult to keep up with its pace. Thus, each personal resource which allows individuals to experience change in a positive or constructive way proves to be both inspiring for scientists and important pragmatically. One of these resources is also resilience, a particular disposition which marks the ability to bounce back after a crisis or when faced with difficulty or a protracted and stressful situation. The ability to bounce back from the depths of depression, helplessness or loneliness and return to normal life is one of the descriptive definitions of resiliency understood as a personal disposition. In this sense, resiliency is one of the conceptual categories which belong in the realm of “psychology in spite of all,” which identifies processes and mechanisms that protect individuals against the negative effect of risk factors and help them live healthy and normal lives despite justified fears of impending destruction. This pertains to situations which involve strong pathogenic factors that are likely to cause a crisis, illness and developmental disorders; and which, as expected, usually cause widely related health problems in a large proportion of the subjects involved in psychological studies. That being said, researchers working with people with mental health problems come across individuals who are able to withstand destruction, e.g. Werner (1996), who, in her longitudinal study carried out in the Hawaii on infants exposed to reproductive and environmental risk factors, demonstrated that, after 40 years, the same infants developed into resilient, caring, competent and confident adults; or Antonovsky (1987, 1991), who identified resilient individuals in a group of the then elderly Nazi concentration camp survivors.
The concept of resilience explains human ability to the good adaptation and functioning in situations abounding into considerable psychological loads. However resilience is identical nor with the psychical good health, nor with the social competence. The adaptation in specific conditions do not mean a compatible with social standards. Developing the high-level resilience joins with communities in the family and the local community, with the support and the cohesion of the peer group. In the depraved environment it is possible to develop the high level of self-efficacy, competence and self-esteem, and a positive bond with meaning persons (or with the meaning person) can be associated with the transmission of anti-values. The question appears therefore, how resilience is shaped in the case of criminal offenders? Authoresses of the elaboration show the configuration of psychosocial factors, related to resilience and responsible for resistant behaviours – in the form which is socially accepted or not accepted. They also present some possible directions of the work with prisoners, for the purpose of an increase of the resilience level or prevention to its reduction under the stressful conditions. The elaboration is theoretical; it is a form of literature review.
Key words: resilience, offenders, crime
Criminal psychology recognizes many determinants of criminal behaviours (Hołyst, 2004). Only a portion of them are associated with the perpetrator's traumatic past (Courtney, Maschi, 2012; Lis-Turlejska, 2002) and emotional burdens that provoke aggressive reactions. In addition, only a very small group individuals among criminals could be diagnosed as psychopaths. A significant number of culprits engage in criminal activity in order to reap the potential benefits: satisfaction of psychological needs, material gain, and also social benefits like identification of a reference group. Many of them function for years as criminals, and their illicit career leads to a range of diverse experiences – successes, but also failures, conflicts, humiliations, physical injury, fraud, the collapse of family bonds, social alienation. Some are unsuccessful in plying their criminal trade, while others rise up their felonious career ladder and excel in their field. A great deal of attention is paid in penitentiary psychology to the trauma which may visited on inmates as a result of serving a custodial sentence and its psychosomatic consequences (Ciosek, 2003).
The article sets out to describe the pilot programme BRAVE CHILDREN concerning ways to develop resilience in middle childhood. The project has adopted an understanding of resilience according to the following model: high protective factors levels in children, including such factors as initiative, self-control and attachment; low risk factors levels (behavioural concerns) and high social maturity levels in children and their internal locus of control.
The programme included 13 meetings conducted over the course of 6 months, each meeting taking approx. 60 minutes. The classes were designed for preschool children aged 5 years to 5 years and 11 months. Their focus was to develop such competencies as self-awareness and the awareness of others, self-agency, self-control, social skills, problem-solving skills, coping with stress and negative emotions. The programme was evaluated by measuring an increase in children's resilience reflected in their individual resources (evaluated before and after the programme).
The project involved an educational intervention group composed of 62 children (from three different preschools) and a control group composed of 59 children (from three other preschools). Observational data were obtained from both parents of all children and six teachers of preschool groups.
The results obtained as part of the programme's evaluation indicate a significant change and improvement in resilience indicators in the educational intervention group. The increase in competencies was observed with regard to initiative, self-control and total protective factors. A decrease in behavioural concerns was also observed in the intervention group. Neither the intervention group nor the control group demonstrated any significant change with regard to social development.
Key words: resilience, childhood, life skills, health promotion
The article adheres to the third line of research on resilience which focuses on promoting resilience and assisted resilience by fostering individual, family and environmental resources (two other lines of research identify individual resilience resources and study resilience as a process respectively). The concepts of promoting resilience and assisted resilience have become part and parcel of the health psychology lexicon. Researchers have also created separate categories to define the concept of resilience and apply it in further research. The Second World Congress on Resilience held in May 2014 in Timișoara, Romania, devoted three sessions and a total of thirty papers to the concepts of promoting resilience and assisted resilience (Sikorska, 2014).
The chapter is devoted to the analysis of ancient Stoic philosophy as a source of resilience for soldiers. Firstly, some historical cases are investigated, from a Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius to more recent instances from Vietnam and Iraq. Secondly, in turn, the Epictetus’ distinction between the controllable and the uncontrollable is introduced with the focus on the prescription to assign value only to the former as the Stoic source of resilience. Finally, some further questions are briefly addressed including the ones concerning the sources of the Stoicism's appeal to the soldiers, its more particular applications as well as the potential drawbacks of the Stoic resilience.
Key words: resilience, stoicism, soldiers, Marcus Aurelius, James Stockdale
“If your philosophy doesn't work in the most dire circumstances, then abandon it now, because itʼs a Starbucks philosophy.”
‟Each person's master is the one who has power over what that person wants or does not want, so as to secure it or take it away. Whoever, then, wants to be free, let him neither want anything, nor avoid anything, that depends on others; otherwise, he must necessarily be a slave.ˮ
‟Hippocrates, after healing many a sick man, fell sick himself and died… Alexander, Pompeius and Gaius Caesar times without number utterly destroyed whole cities, and cut to pieces many myriads of horse and foot on the field of the battle, yet the day came when they too departed this life… And lice caused the death of Democritus, and other vermin of Socrates.”
The aim of this chapter is to investigate resilience in two quite particular contexts. Firstly, more specifically, it is the Stoic philosophy that will be scrutinised as a resource that enables the individual to cope resiliently with an adversity. Secondly, in turn, individuals one will be dealing with here are a special professional group of soldiers, soldiers met within a vast historical and cultural spectrum.
The choice of soldiers as a focus of attention can be justified by referring to very special environmental pressures in which the members of this profession often find, or at least always may find, themselves.
The ancient Greek and Roman philosophy of Stoicism (influential from the third century BC to the second century AD), was famous in the ancient world for promoting resilience in the face of setbacks and disasters. The conceptual basis for this support rests on an interlocking series of distinctive ideas in Stoic ethics. These ideas are: (1) that happiness (‘flourishing’ or eudaimonia) depends on virtue of character and not on external goods; (2) that all human beings are constitutively capable of developing towards virtue; (3) that this development brings with a fundamental change in emotional register, from negative and irrational emotions towards positive and rational ones; (4) that the capacity of humans to develop and react in this way is in-built in nature. Taken together, these ideas form a strong basis for the claim that resilience is a fundamental capacity of human beings. Though conceptually challenging, this complex of ideas fits well with some important strands in modern moral and psychological thinking and, arguably, remains credible today. Its credibility is strengthened by some notable examples of individuals in antiquity and the modern world for whom Stoicism provided support for an exceptional degree of resilience. A recent, UK-based, public engagement project, ‘Stoicism Today,’ has proved successful in presenting Stoic ideas for a broad public audience, through a variety of means including on-line courses, one centred on the development of resilience. Questionnaire responses to these courses, especially the one focused on resilience, strongly suggest that the formation of Stoic attitudes and behaviours has a highly positive effect in promoting well-being. Although there is scope for much more work in this area, the combination of these factors indicates that Stoic ideas can still make a powerful contribution to supporting resilience in the modern world.
Key words: resilience, stoicism, virtue, character, emotions, well-being, nature
Preliminaries: is Stoicism Relevant for Modern Concern with Resilience?
Why should we turn to the ancient Greek and Roman philosophy of Stoicism to find support for modern attempts to promote resilience? In the ancient world, Stoicism was famous for promoting attitudes we associate with resilience, such as courage in the face of adversity.
In this article the circumstances of people with communicational disorders in the context of risk factors and resilience are analyzed. Those people form today around 15% of the world population, 2.2–3.8% of this population suffers from a severe type of such a disability, which makes this group an interesting subject to conduct research on. The situation will continue to deteriorate because of the process of ageing ongoing in European societies.
Communication disabilities are the main theme of this article. They cause severe stress psychological consequences by hindering or preventing the creation of mutual interpersonal bonds. Problems resulting from them burden not only the patient, but also their closest relatives: family members, relatives, friends.
Many of these conditions result from different neurological diseases – a few principal are described in this article. Communication disabilities caused by neurological diseases are analyzed as a risk factor for the psychological health of a patient and their family as well. It has also been proven that good family relationships and a positive attitude are main protective factors for both those groups of individuals.
Three case studies are presented. They concern patients with neurological illnesses causing communicational disabilities and patient's care as well. Their situation is analyzed according to the ICF classification in the context of risk factors, possibility of positive adaptation and psychological resilience.
Key words: aphasia, third party disability, patient, career, communication disorders, chronic illness, risk factors, resilience
In 2011, the WHO and the World Bank published the World Report on Disability which also refers to the problem of communication disorders. It is estimated that people with communication disorders form about 15 percent of the worldʼs population (approx. 1 billion) among whom between 22 and 38 million (approx. 2.2–3.8 percent of population) suffer from a severe form of this disability.
A chronic neurological illness will be analyzed in the article as a potential mental health threat in the context of psychological resilience. It is defined as one's ability to cope with life difficulties, daily stressors, also with extreme or long-term burden. A person demonstrates their resilience especially when they go through some hard life experiences without significant psychological damages or when they successfully recover from crises caused by them (Borucka, Ostaszewski, 2008).
The article presents characteristics and measurement of a resilience construct and psychometric properties of Polish questionnaire to measure resilience in adults – KOP-26 (RMQ-26). The KOP-26 consists of 26 items, rating of the 5-point scale. In a sample comprised of 502 students (66.5% women and 33.5% men; mean age 25.2) 3-factor structure of the questionnaire was revealed, which explained 47.8% of total variance. The internal consistency of the questionnaire is satisfying, with Cronbach's alpha for the KOP-26 = 0.90, for particular factors (from 0.78 to 0.90). Results of KOP-26 correlate positively with resiliency (SPP-25, r = 0.62; ER/SSP, r = 0.60), coherence (SOC-29, r = 0.56) and social support (F-SozU, r = 0.57). The questionnaire is defining the resilience through personal competence, family competence and social competence.
Key words: resilience, questionnaire
Each adult human being experiences some traumatic incidents at least once during his life. Quite often such kind of experiences appears in childhood or in adolescence so in a moment of time in which the personality altogether with all its components has just been shaped. In regard to it children cope with it more difficult, furthermore, additional problem concerns the fact that they cannot count on social support which evokes big sense of loneliness (Pospiszyl, 1994). Despite of the variety of adversities they encounter, part of them are able to enjoy both mental and physical health and leads peaceful and satisfactory lives.
Crucial observations at this scope stemmed from longitudinal research of families coming from Kauai, Hawaii (Werner, 1982). The researchers accompanied 698 children from the prenatal period to early adolescence. At the beginning a measure referred to a physical and an emotional condition of mothers in each of the pregnancy trimester, next, on the assessment of social support, psychical support and emotional support for children in various periods of their lives. The results showed that almost one third of all the children (204 people) proved the serious difficulties with the behaviour and the learning, most of them lived in poverty in pathological environments. However, there was also a numerous group which in spite of those difficult conditions of life have grown to the responsible and mature adults who coped well with everyday problems. Based on these conclusions Werner (1982) points out on the significant meaning of protecting factors either family, social and individual ones.
The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative approach to the psychopathology by presenting a model of mental health from the perspective of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) – a unified model of human functioning and adaptability called psychological flexibility, based on processes of acceptance, mindfulness, commitment and behavioral change (Hayes, Strosahl, Wilson, 2012). The article introduces philosophical (Functional Contextualism) and theoretical (Relational Frame Theory) basis of ACT and its implications to the model of psychological flexibility. Subsequently, the unified model of mental health is presented. The core psychological constructs – psychological flexibility and its six key processes: defusion, acceptance, flexible contact with present moment, self as context, values and committed action are defined and discussed. It is hoped that this paper will inform researchers, practitioners and patients about alternative approach to mental health and will encourage further studies on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.
Key words: mental health, ACT, psychological flexibility, human suffering
The problem of mental health is an important and continuously analyzed issue due to the alarming statistics on the spread of disorders and psychological problems in modern society (cf. Cheng, Li, Silenzio, Caine, 2014). Effective prevention and treatment in this field requires not only effective techniques but above all, an integrated model of human functioning. However, despite the fact that according to the Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) health is a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” traditional approaches to psychopathology treats mental health as a state of absence of symptoms (syndromal approach) or focuses on selected core processes disorder (biological approach) (Wilson, Hayes, Gregg, Zettle, 2001). Therefore, the aim of this article is to present an alternative, functional approach to psychopathology by presenting a model of mental health from the perspective of acceptance and commitment therapy.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)1 is a behavioural psychotherapy developed in the early 1980s by American psychologists Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl and Kelly G. Wilson, classified as a part of the “third wave” (Hayes, 2004) of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and a part of the Contextual Behavioural Science (CBS) approach (cf. Hayes, Levin, Plumb-Vilardaga, Villatte, Pistorello, 2013).
Strong, long-lasting stress understood as the bodyʼs psychosomatic response to stimuli interpreted as stressors is one of the main pathogens. Reception of music with appropriate structural features is one of the non-pharmacological methods of reducing the level of stress. A lot of research studies confirm the influence of music on regulation of the human psychosomatic condition. Reception of calming music may reduce muscle and emotional tension, minimize the level of anxiety, lower the blood cortisol level, slow breathing and heart rate, lower blood pressure and give a sense of relaxation. Properly chosen music positively affects the physical and emotional state of a recipient, stimulating the secretion of endogenous opioids and others chemicals by the organism, which improve well-being and reduction of pain. Music is a universal means of health-promoting, successfully used in people of all ages. Music therapy techniques based on physical activity to music, relaxation supported by music, musical improvisation, performance, composing or artistic creativity inspired by music and others are useful in reducing stress.
Key words: music, stress reduction, music therapy
This article will discuss the phenomenon of using music in order to reduce the level of stress. We understand the concept of stress as a state of body's psychophysiological mobilization in response to stimuli interpreted as stressors (Tylka, 2000). It should be added that regular contact with music can be beneficial to the process of resilience. Reception or playing music can support the regulation of psychosomatic state of the organism, which is advantageous for the process of positive adaptation to difficult life events. We will review the research on the effects of music on the regulation of stress in the first part of the publication. Then we will consider mechanisms of music influence on psychosomatic state of the human organism. We will also focus on the mechanism of reducing psychosomatic tensions by music. Then features of relaxing music will be discussed. In the final part of this article we will discuss techniques of music therapy, which are useful in reducing psychosomatic tension associated with stress.
In this paper, we would like to discuss the phenomenon of parentification as a specific form of relation inside a family, a dysfunctional relation. The shortest definition of parentification states that it takes place when a child enters the role of a parent and takes responsibility for the living situation and emotional state of the rest of the family (Hooper, 2007). We think that burdening children with the overwhelming responsibility of taking care of their parents or siblings has negative consequences in their adult lives. One of such consequences is the influence on psychological resilience through creating a certain defense structure. Defense mechanisms have an important role in coping with stress or overcoming life crises. Thanks to mature defense mechanisms, it is possible to successfully fulfill the tasks ascribed to particular development stages, achieving high levels of self-actualization at every stage. After analyzing the phenomenon of parentification, we have observed that people who experienced parentification in their childhood are characterized by immature defense mechanisms in their adult lives, which makes them less resistant to stress and causes them not to cope with difficult situations very well. In this article, we would like to share our reflections on the defense systems of people experiencing parentification to various extents and scopes.
Key words: parentification, familly system, resilience, defense mechanisms
Definition of Parentification
In the subject literature, there are several definitions of parentification, or the so called “role inversion” in the family. Mahler and Rabinovich (1956), researchers on the subject, noticed that there appears an inversion of roles between children and parents; the child becomes the confidant or a mediator in parents’ conflicts. A great contribution to the understanding of family and processes occurring within it was brought by the systems theory, which also enabled to understand parentification better. From the system perspective, it can be said that parentification helps to maintain the balance within a family distorted by conflicts between spouses or by developmental deficits and emotional problems of one of them. Support given to one or both parents by the child can be perceived as a kind of triangulation. The tension between spouses creates a necessity to form an alliance between one of them and the child, the result of which is reducing the tension created in the family system.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.