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Varieties of Democracy
Measuring Two Centuries of Political Change


Michael Coppedge, Staffan I. Lindberg, Carl Henrik Knutsen, John Gerring, Svend-Erik Skaaning, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Kelly McMann, Jan Teorell, Valeriya Mechkova, Natalia Stepanova, Daniel Pemstein, Kyle Marquardt, Brigitte Seim, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Farhad Miri, Fernando Bizzarro Neto, Matthew Maguire, Adam Glynn
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  • Date Published: January 2020
  • availability: Available
  • format: Hardback
  • isbn: 9781108424837

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About the Authors
  • Varieties of Democracy is the essential user's guide to The Varieties of Democracy project (V-Dem), one of the most ambitious data collection efforts in comparative politics. This global research collaboration sparked a dramatic change in how we study the nature, causes, and consequences of democracy. This book is ambitious in scope: more than a reference guide, it raises standards for causal inferences in democratization research and introduces new, measurable, concepts of democracy and many political institutions. Varieties of Democracy enables anyone interested in democracy - teachers, students, journalists, activists, researchers and others - to analyze V-Dem data in new and exciting ways. This book creates opportunities for V-Dem data to be used in education, research, news analysis, advocacy, policy work, and elsewhere. V-Dem is rapidly becoming the preferred source for democracy data.

    • Offers increased accessibility via guidance to users: what pitfalls to avoid and best practices for getting the most from these distinctive data
    • Will help interested scholars understand how specific variables are developed and validated, and how to incorporate them into empirical research, to help scholars across fields incorporate them into their own work
    • Can be used across fields by scholars specializing in political science, economics, sociology, law, and history
    • Provides insight into the key decisions that went into the creation of the V-Dem dataset: regarding concepts, data collection, measurement methods, index construction, and validation
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    Reviews & endorsements

    'V-Dem data, the fruit of a large international collaborative effort, is a big advance in the measurement of democracy, and has set a new baseline for discussions in this field. This book offers a careful, detailed, explanation about how this data was produced and validated. It is an indispensable source for users of V-Dem data. It also offers lessons for a broader discussion about measurement in the social sciences.' Gerardo Munck, University of Southern California

    'To understand the causes and consequences of democracy, we must be able to measure it. Scholars have long struggled to develop measures of democracy that both capture its complexity and are sufficiently standardized to use for comparative analysis. Coppedge et al. have taken a major step in this direction. Not only does Varieties of Democracy provide the best available index of 'really existing' democracy, but it allows scholars to explore other dimensions – such as participation, deliberation, and equality – that have long been associated with the broader concept of democracy. Research on democracies and democratization remains central to comparative politics. Varieties of Democracy makes an immense contribution to this research.' Steven Levitsky, Harvard University, Massachusetts

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    Product details

    • Date Published: January 2020
    • format: Hardback
    • isbn: 9781108424837
    • dimensions: 240 x 160 x 23 mm
    • weight: 0.56kg
    • contains: 44 b/w illus. 36 tables
    • availability: Available
  • Table of Contents

    1. Introduction: the story of Varieties of Democracy Michael Coppedge, Staffan I. Lindberg and Carl Henrik Knutsen
    2. Conceptual scheme John Gerring, Svend-Erik Skaaning, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Michael Coppedge, Carl-Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Kelly McMann and Jan Teorell
    3. Data collection Staffan I. Lindberg, Valeriya Mechkova, Natalia Stepanova, Jan Teorell, Michael Coppedge and Carl Henrik Knutsen
    4. The measurement model and reliability Daniel Pemstein, Kyle Marquardt, Brigitte Seim, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang and Farhad Miri
    5. Dimensions and components of democracy Jan Teorell
    6. Data validation Brigitte Seim, Michael Bernhard, Fernando Bizzarro Neto, Michael Coppedge, John Gerring, Staffan I. Lindberg, Matthew Maguire, Daniel Pemstein, Jan Teorell and Eitan Tzelgov
    7. Explanatory analysis with Varieties of Democracy data Michael Coppedge, Adam Glynn, Carl Henrik Knutsen and Daniel Pemstein.

  • Authors

    Michael Coppedge, University of Notre Dame, Indiana

    John Gerring, University of Texas, Austin

    Adam Glynn, Emory University, Atlanta

    Carl Henrik Knutsen, Universitetet i Oslo

    Staffan I. Lindberg, Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden

    Daniel Pemstein, North Dakota State University

    Brigitte Seim, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    Svend-Erik Skaaning, Aarhus Universitet, Denmark

    Jan Teorell, Lunds Universitet, Sweden


    David Altman

    Michael Bernhard

    Fernando Bizzarro

    Joshua Krusell

    Matthew Maguire

    Kyle Marquardt

    Kelly McCann

    Valeriya Mechkova

    Farhad Miri

    Josefine Pernes

    Jeffrey Staton

    Natalia Stepanova

    Eitan Tzelgov

    Yi-ting Wang


    Michael Coppedge, Staffan I. Lindberg, Carl Henrik Knutsen, John Gerring, Svend-Erik Skaaning, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Kelly McMann, Jan Teorell, Valeriya Mechkova, Natalia Stepanova, Daniel Pemstein, Kyle Marquardt, Brigitte Seim, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Farhad Miri, Fernando Bizzarro Neto, Matthew Maguire, Adam Glynn

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