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Duplicity Theory of Vision
From Newton to the Present


  • Date Published: January 2013
  • availability: Available
  • format: Paperback
  • isbn: 9781107412842

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About the Authors
  • The duplicity theory of vision concerns the comparisons (both differences and similarities) and interaction between the cone and rod systems in the visual pathways, with the assumption that the cone system is active during daylight vision and the rod system functions in low light (night time). Research on this aspect of vision dates back to the 17th century and the work of Newton, and is still ongoing today. This book describes the origin and development of this fundamental theory within vision research - whilst also examining the Young–Helmholtz trichromatic colour theory, and the opponent colour theory of Hering - and presents evidence and ideas in light of modern conceptions of the theory. Written for academic researchers and graduate students, the book brings back knowledge of the tradition of duplicity theory, inspiring questions related to anatomy, comparative biology, molecular biology, photochemistry, physiology, genetics, phylogenetics and psychophysics.

    • Chronicles the research and discoveries in historical sequence, discussing the significance and implications of these findings at length
    • Analysis of what mistakes were made with research, why mistaken theories were held, and what has subsequently been learned
    • Contains illustrative examples from both old and more recent developments in history
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    Product details

    • Date Published: January 2013
    • format: Paperback
    • isbn: 9781107412842
    • length: 238 pages
    • dimensions: 229 x 152 x 13 mm
    • weight: 0.33kg
    • availability: Available
  • Table of Contents

    1. Introduction
    Part I. The Development of the Basic Ideas of the Duplicity Theory from Newton to G. E. Müller:
    2. The Newton tradition
    3. The Schultze tradition
    4. The Goethe tradition. The phenomenological approach
    5. The colour theories of Armin Tschermak and George Elias Müller
    Part II. The Development of the Duplicity Theory from 1930–66:
    6. The duplicity theory of Polyak
    7. Investigations of H. K. Hartline and S. W. Kuffler
    8. The duplicity theory of R. Granit
    9. Contributions of E. N. Willmer, P. Saugstad & A. Saugstad, and I. Lie
    10. Status of the duplicity theory in the mid 1960s and its further development
    Part III. Chromatic Rod Vision: An Historical Account:
    11. Night vision may appear bluish
    12. Mechanisms of chromatic rod vision in scotopic illumination
    13. Rod-cone interactions in mesopic vision
    14. Contribution of J. J. McCann and J. L. Benton
    15. Contribution of P. W. Trezona
    16. Contribution of C. F. Stromeyer III
    17. Contribution of Steven Buck and co-workers
    18. Contribution of J. L. Nerger and co-workers
    Part IV. Theories of Sensitivity Regulation of the Rod and Cone Systems: A Historical Account:
    19. Introduction
    20. Early photochemical explanations
    21. Contribution of S. Hecht
    22. Contribution of G. Wald. Photochemical sensitivity regulation of rods and cones
    23. Relationship between amount of rhodopsin and sensitivity during dark adaptation
    24. Post-receptor sensitivity regulation mechanisms
    25. Rushton's A.G.C. model. Each receptor type has a separate and independent adaptation pool
    26. Are light and dark adaptation really equivalent?
    27. A decisive experiment
    28. The adaptation mechanisms explored by the after-flash technique
    29. Limitations of Rushton's photochemical theory
    30. Contribution of H. B. Barlow
    31. Rushton and Barlow compared
    32. Contribution of T. D. Lamb
    33. The Dowling-Rushton equation refuted
    34. Difference between rod and cone dark adaptation
    35. Light and dark adaptation are not equivalent
    36. Allosteric regulation of dark adaptation
    37. A search for the allosteric adaptation mechanisms
    38. Several mechanisms involved in sensitivity regulation
    39. Sensitivity regulation due to rod-cone interaction
    40. Modern conceptions of sensitivity regulation
    Part V. Factors that Triggered the Paradigm Shifts in the Development of the Duplicity Theory:
    41. Summary of K. R. Popper's and T. S. Kuhn's models of scientific development
    42. The development of the duplicity theory as a test of Popper's and Kuhn's models
    43. References.

  • Authors

    Bjørn Stabell, Universitetet i Oslo

    Ulf Stabell, Universitetet i Oslo

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