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Learning resources: chapter 12


Section 12.1 - Pretend Play And Metarepresentation

1. Pretend play
The nature of children’s play (article by David Fernie)
The organization of pretend play (paper by Catherine Garvey and Rita Berndt, 1975)
The role of pretend play in children’s cognitive development (paper by Doris Bergen, 2002; from Early Childhood Research & Practice, 4)
Pretend play: Is it metarepresentational? (paper by Chris Jarrold, Peter Carruthers, Peter K. Smith, and Jill Boucher)
Pretend play glossary (by Jennie Ito)
Pretend play as Twin Earth: A social-cognitive analysis (paper by Angeline Lillard, 2001; from Developmental Review, 21)
Pretend play and cognitive development (chapter from the Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development, by Angeline Lillard)
Pretend play and young children’s development (article by Doris Bergen, 2001)
Play science: The patterns of play (website from the National Institute for Play)

2. Alan Leslie
Cognitive Development Laboratory Rutgers University (website from Alan Leslie’s lab, including links to publications)
Pretense and representation: The origins of "theory of mind" (paper by Alan Leslie, 1987; from Psychological Review, 94)
How to acquire a ‘representational theory of mind’ (paper by Alan Leslie)

3. Primary representation, metarepresentation
Metarepresentation in philosophy and psychology (paper by Sam Scott)
Making Tools for Thinking (chapter in Metarepresentations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, by Daniel Dennett)
Precis of Oratio Obliqua, Oration Recta: An Essay on Metarepresentation (paper by Francois Recanati)
Consider the source: The evolution of adaptations for decoupling and metarepresentation (paper by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, 2000)
Introduction: Representation and metarepresentation (paper by Maria Frapolli and Robyn Carston)
Metarepresentations in an evolutionary perspective (paper by Dan Sperber)

4. Mindreading
Theory of mind (entry from Wikipedia)
Theory of mind: A model of mental-state attribution (entry from CogWeb at UCLA)
Theories of theory of mind (entry by Gloria Origgi; from the online A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind)
Theory of mind (video featuring Robert Seyfarth)

Section 12.2 - Metarepresentation, Autism, and Theory of Mind

1. Autism
Autism Research Centre (website from Simon Baron-Cohen’s research group)

2. False belief task
Sally-Anne test (entry from Wikipedia)
Theory of mind (entry from Wikipedia; see especially section 4)

3. Autism, mindreading, metarepresentation
Does the autistic child have a "theory of mind"? (paper by Simon Baron-Cohen, Alan Leslie, and Uta Frith, 1985)
Think Different? (interview by Oliver Morton with Simon Baron-Cohen, from Wired)
Theory of mind in normal development and autism (paper by Simon Baron-Cohen, 2001; from Prisme, 34)
Infants with autism: An investigation of empathy, pretend play, joint attention, and imitation (paper by Tony Charman et al., 1997; from Developmental Psychology, 33)
Autism and the brain’s theory of mind (video from YouTube featuring Uta Frith)
Neuroimaging signatures of autism, by Mirella Dapretto (video from UCLA Center for Autism Research & Treatment)
How cognitive theories can help us explain autism (video from YouTube featuring Uta Frith)
Professor Uta Frith (video from YouTube)
Empathy, mindblindness, and theory of mind: Do people with autism truly lack empathy? (article from Psychology Today, 2008)
The erosion of empathy (TEDtalk by Simon Baron-Cohen)
Language and understanding minds: Connections in autism (paper by Helen Tager-Flusberg)
Exploration of the autistic child’s theory of mind: Knowledge, belief, and communication (paper by Josef Perner, Uta Frith, Alan Leslie, and Susan Leekam, 1989; from Child Development, 60)
Pretense, autism, and the theory-of-mind module (paper by Alan Leslie)
Uta Frith: Autism (personal website with links to papers)
Is 'theory of mind' impaired in autism? (article and links from Mind Hacks)
The cognitive basis of a biological disorder (paper by Uta Frith, John Morton, and Alan Leslie, 1991; from Trends in Neurosciences, 14)
Theories of the autistic mind (paper by Simon Baron-Cohen, 2008; from The Psychologist, 21)
Metacognition and the social mind (video lecture by Chris Frith)

Section 12.3 - The Mindreading System
Section 12.4 - Understanding False Belief
Section 12.5 - Mindreading as Simulation

1. Mindreading system
Core mechanisms in ‘theory of mind’ (paper by Alan Leslie, Ori Friedman, and Tim German, 2004; from Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8
Pretending and believing: issues in the theory of ToMM (paper by Alan Leslie, 1994; from Cognition, 50)
Evolution of a theory of mind? (paper by Simon Baron-Cohen, 1999)

2. Selection processor hypothesis
Belief-desire reasoning as a process of selection (paper by Alan Leslie, Tim German, and Pamela Polizzi)
Processing demands in belief-desire reasoning: Inhibition or general difficulty? (paper by Ori Friedman and Alan Leslie, 2005; from Developmental Science, 8)
The role of control functions in mentalizing: Dual-task studies of theory of mind and executive function (paper by Rebecca Bull, Louise Phillips, and Claire Conway, 2007; from Cognition, 107)
"Theory of mind" as a mechanism of selective attention (paper by Alan Leslie, 2000; from The New Cognitive Neurosciences)
Cognitive Development Laboratory Rutgers University (website from Alan Leslie’s lab, including links to publications)

3. Perner on false belief
Josef Perner (personal website)
Does the autistic child have a metarepresentational deficit? (paper by Susan Leekam and Josef Perner, 1991; from Cognition, 40)
Do infants really understand false belief? (paper by Ted Ruffman and Josef Perner, 2005; from Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9)

4. Simulationism
Folk psychology as mental simulation (entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Robert Gordon)
Mindreading: Mental state ascription and cognitive architecture (paper by Joseph Hernandez Cruz, 1998; from Mind & Language, 13)

5. Other
Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: The truth about false belief (paper by Henry Wellman, David Cross, and Julanne Watson, 2001; from Child Development, 72)
A conceptual complexity account of theory of mind development (paper by Matthew Phillips)

Section 12.6 - The Cognitive Neuroscience of Mindreading

1. Neuroscientific work on mindreading
Understanding other minds: Linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging (paper by Rebecca Saxe, Susan Carey, and Nancy Kanwisher, 2004; from the Annual Review of Psychology, 55)
Functional imaging of ‘theory of mind’ (paper by Helen Gallagher and Christopher Frith, 2003; from Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7)
Mind reading: Neural mechanisms of theory of mind and self-perspective (paper by K. Vogeley et al., 2001; from NeuroImage, 14)
Neuronal correlates of theory of mind and empathy: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in a nonverbal task (paper by A Vollm et al., 2006; from NeuroImage, 29)
Before and below ‘theory of mind’: Embodied simulation and the neural correlates of social cognition (paper by Vittorio Gallese, 2007; from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 362)
People thinking about thinking people: The role of the temporo-parietal junction in “theory of mind” (paper by Rebecca Saxe and Nancy Kanwisher, 2003; from NeuroImage, 19)
Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: An fMRI study (paper by Simon Baron-Cohen et al., 1999; from the European Journal of Neuroscience, 11)
Mind blindness and the brain in autism (paper by Uta Frith, 2001; from Neuron, 32)
Theory of mind (neural basis) (paper by Rebecca Saxe)
How we read each other’s minds (video from TED featuring Rebecca Saxe)
Saxelab Social Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at MIT (website from Rebecca Saxe’s lab)
New development in theory of mind (video lecture by Chris Frith)
Video explanation of theory of mind and the false belief task, featuring Alison Gopnik

2. Mirror neurons
Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading (paper by Vittorio Gallese and Alvin Goldman, 1998; from Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2)
Mirror neuron and theory of mind mechanisms involved in fact-to-face interactions: A functional magnetic resonance imaging approach to empathy (paper by Martin Schulte-Ruther, Hans Markowitsch, Gereon Fink, and Martina Piefke, 2007; from the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19)
Mirror neurons (video from

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