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The Measure of All Minds
Evaluating Natural and Artificial Intelligence


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  • Date Published: April 2017
  • availability: In stock
  • format: Hardback
  • isbn: 9781107153011
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About the Authors
  • Are psychometric tests valid for a new reality of artificial intelligence systems, technology-enhanced humans, and hybrids yet to come? Are the Turing Test, the ubiquitous CAPTCHAs, and the various animal cognition tests the best alternatives? In this fascinating and provocative book, José Hernández-Orallo formulates major scientific questions, integrates the most significant research developments, and offers a vision of the universal evaluation of cognition. By replacing the dominant anthropocentric stance with a universal perspective where living organisms are considered as a special case, long-standing questions in the evaluation of behavior can be addressed in a wider landscape. Can we derive task difficulty intrinsically? Is a universal g factor - a common general component for all abilities - theoretically possible? Using algorithmic information theory as a foundation, the book elaborates on the evaluation of perceptual, developmental, social, verbal and collective features and critically analyzes what the future of intelligence might look like.

    • Provides a universal framework integrating the evaluation of development, social and communication skills, and collective intelligence
    • Compares the behavior evaluation of humans, non-human animals, and computers
    • Blends cutting-edge theory and technology with historical context
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    • Winner, 2018 PROSE Award for Computing and Information Sciences

    Reviews & endorsements

    'This highly original, wide-ranging, and thought-provoking book must surely be essential reading for anyone working at the cutting edge of [artificial intelligence] research who has wondered about the implications of the entities they are creating and the future they will inhabit.' David Hand, Imperial College London

    'What is the most important topic in science? Intelligence. It is most important because intelligence is the essential ingredient in answering any other imaginable question. How are human intelligence and artificial intelligence related? No one knows because there is no current way to measure different intelligences on a common scale. If you believe this and also that artificial intelligence may someday be as or more powerful than human intelligence, then you should read The Measure of All Minds by José Hernández-Orallo. Based on what has been learned about the measurement of human intelligence, Hernández-Orallo develops both the theory and practical methods that could allow the measurement of intelligence wherever it is found. This book is a vital achievement and necessary first step in uniting research on human and artificial intelligence and should be in the library of anyone interested in either.' Douglas K. Detterman, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio

    'This book transcends a wide variety of disciplines in search for an all-encompassing measurement principle for intelligence: the intelligence of humans, animals, and machines, and at the same time for a unified notion of intelligence and what it means for problems to be difficult. It is a formidable and captivating intellectual endeavor based on a deep understanding and combination of different perspectives, realized with an enjoyable, rigorous and formalized way of thinking. It is a must-read volume for psychometricians and for scholars in the domain of intelligence and beyond.' Paul de Boeck, Ohio State University

    'To my knowledge, this is the first time that a joint perspective on intelligence has been taken, based on artificial intelligence, psychometrics and comparative psychology. The book is scholarly as well as highly spirited and should be of interest for a broad readership, including students and researchers from artificial intelligence as well as psychology.' Ute Schmid, University of Bamberg, Germany

    'José Hernández-Orallo creates a new foundation for understanding our own and other (artificial) intelligences. Fundamentally interdisciplinary, The Measure of All Minds integrates insights that span philosophy, psychology, mathematics, and computer science. The result is a treasure trove for the AI researcher, and anyone looking to unravel the secrets of intelligence.' Katja Hofmann, Microsoft Research

    'The Measure of All Minds draws together the diverse fields of psychometrics, comparative psychology, and artificial intelligence to lay out an agenda for the unified understanding of human, animal, and machine intelligence. A challenging and intriguing contribution to an increasingly important debate.' John Rust and Chris Gibbons, University of Cambridge

    'Some of the many concepts examined in this first-class book with Cambridge University Press include tests of machine, human and non-human animal intelligence, 'machine kingdom' (to generalise the notion of 'animal kingdom'), Hernández-Orallo's related notions of 'universal psychometrics' and 'Darwin–Wallace distribution' (the aptitude of things is probably best considered in an environment in which they have evolved to be able to survive) - and others perhaps more thought-provoking, if not at times controversial. This multi-disciplinary study's extensive reference list leaves few stones unturned. I predict this readable unifying book to be a much-cited and valued resource and reference for many years to come.' David L. Dowe, Monash University, Melbourne

    '… an impressive and important step towards a less human-centred understanding of intelligence.' Stephen Cave, Financial Times

    'The range of scholarship and expertise displayed in this book is extraordinary … The work presented in this book is an extremely important contribution to the analysis of behavior and cognition. Anyone interested in psychometrics, comparative psychology, and artificial intelligence will find this book valuable and thought-provoking. The level of familiarity with disparate fields is truly remarkable.' Robert L. Greene, PsycCRITIQUES

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    Customer reviews

    09th Sep 2017 by Iku3766

    7 Intelligence and algorithmic information theory 8 Cognitive tasks and difficulty 9 From tasks to tests 10 The arrangement of abilities 11 General intelligence I am interested in these.

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    Product details

    • Date Published: April 2017
    • format: Hardback
    • isbn: 9781107153011
    • length: 568 pages
    • dimensions: 235 x 157 x 28 mm
    • weight: 1.04kg
    • contains: 61 b/w illus. 7 colour illus.
    • availability: In stock
  • Table of Contents

    1. Extended nature
    2. Mind the step: scala universalis
    3. The evaluation of human behaviour
    4. The evaluation of non-human natural behaviour
    5. The evaluation of artificial intelligence
    6. The boundaries against a unified evaluation
    7. Intelligence and algorithmic information theory
    8. Cognitive tasks and difficulty
    9. From tasks to tests
    10. The arrangement of abilities
    11. General intelligence
    12. Cognitive development and potential
    13. Identifying social skills
    14. Communication abilities
    15. Evaluating collective and hybrid systems
    16. Universal tests
    17. Rooting for ratiocentrism
    18. Exploitation and exploration.

  • Author

    José Hernández-Orallo, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
    José Hernández-Orallo is Professor of Information Systems and Computation at the Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. He has published four books and more than a hundred articles and papers on artificial intelligence, machine learning, data mining, cognitive science, and information systems. His work in the area of machine intelligence evaluation has been covered by both scientific and popular outlets, including The Economist and New Scientist. He pioneered the application of algorithmic information theory to the development of artificial intelligence tests.


    • Winner, 2018 PROSE Award for Computing and Information Sciences

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