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Behind-the-Border Policies
Assessing and Addressing Non-Tariff Measures


Joseph Francois, Bernard Hoekman, Marie Luise Rau, Achim Vogt, Peter Egger, Miriam Manchin, Mahdi Ghodsi, Robert Stehrer, Eddy Bekkers, Hugo Rojas-Romagosa, Simon J. Evenett, Anirudh Shingal, Igor Bagayev, Ronald B. Davies, Fabio Artuso, Robert Basedow, Stefano Inama, Manfred Elsig, Sebastian Klotz, Chad Bown, Thomas J. Bollyky, Petros C. Mavroidis
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  • Date Published: November 2019
  • availability: In stock
  • format: Hardback
  • isbn: 9781108485531

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About the Authors
  • One feature of globalization is that barriers to international competition have come to be associated with differences in regulatory policies that increase the costs of engaging in cross-border sales. Such non-tariff measures (NTMs) have attracted growing attention from policy makers and raise important questions for policy research. This book provides a valuable overview of key issues related to NTMs and domestic regulation. It covers the classification and definition of NTMs, new sources of data on NTMs, the impacts of (different types of) NTMs, the challenges that confront efforts to reduce the negative trade effects of NTMs and what can and should be done through international cooperation to promote good practices in the design and implementation of NTMs. The contributors comprise a mix of leading trade policy experts - both academics and practitioners - and younger researchers who have specialized in the analysis of NTMs.

    • Brings together leading trade policy experts - both academics and practitioners - and younger researchers who have specialized in the analysis of non-tariff measures (NTMs)
    • Offers an empirical understanding of what NTMs are, what they do and what can be done about them, and how they have been and can be addressed through domestic reform and international cooperation
    • Offers readers an understanding of why NTMs matter, including the real-world importance of NTMs based on current data and state of the art methods
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    Reviews & endorsements

    'Ever since the Kennedy Round in the 1960s, trade regulation, with the decline of tariffs in industrial goods, moved towards non-tariff measures and regulatory affairs. Today, most of such measures pertain to the realm of what traditionally was domestic law, now addressed in international agreements. They fully operate within national jurisdictions and go way beyond border measures. This volume offers an insightful analysis, mainly from economics and international relations theory, of such behind-the-border issues and the challenges they pose for regulatory cooperation, the future of the WTO and multilateralism. It rightly stresses the limits of bilateral and preferential trade agreements in addressing such barriers. It argues for regulatory cooperation in harnessing global value chains. The book is of interest to negotiators and also offers new perspective to the legal community.' Thomas Cottier, Emeritus Professor of International Economic Law, World Trade Institute, Universität Bern

    'Non-tariff measures dominate discussions about international trade policy, and yet they almost defy measurement and effective analysis. This book presents a state-of-the-art account of how to tackle these problems both conceptually and practically. It is a tour de force and belongs not only on all trade analysts' bookshelves but also on their desks.' L. Alan Winters, Director of the UK Trade Policy Observatory, University of Sussex

    'This volume brings together cutting-edge research on the interface between domestic regulations and trade. With a particular focus on the European Union, its insights are relevant more widely. It brings together recent empirical research on non-tariff measures affecting trade in goods and services and advances innovative ideas to reduce unnecessary trade impacts - both by national and international actions. The volume is a rich source of inspiration for researchers and policy makers: it provides insights from applying advanced new methods to assess the trade and economic impacts of non-tariff measures, documents the increasingly rich data sources and discusses the international regulatory and legal architecture.' Frank von Tongeren Frank von Tongeren, Head of the Policies in Trade and Agriculture Division Trade and Agriculture Directorate, OECD

    'Joseph Francois and Bernard Hoekman are two of the world's foremost authorities on international trade policy. They have each spent decades analyzing the economic cost of trade barriers, both from within academia and as part of key global institutions including the World Bank and the WTO. In this book they bring together an outstanding team of authors to address the thorny issues pertaining to non-tariff measures and regulatory barriers to trade, including definition, measurement, quantification of impacts and potential for future reforms. This book will be essential reading for the next generation of students and policy makers seeking to achieve a more open world economy.' Thomas W. Hertel, Executive Director of the Center for Global Trade Analysis (GTAP), Purdue University, Indiana

    'This timely and comprehensive volume deals with a topic that is at the forefront of current trade policy discussions. Behind-the-border policies touch upon such sensitive areas as public health and environmental protection. They play a role in the pursuit of national policy objectives like innovation, provision of infrastructure or development. But many of them also affect trade flows. As such regulations, subsidies and other policies that appear to have a perfectly domestic character, suddenly become the subject of trade tensions. This volume examines behind-the-border policies from different angles and through different methodological lenses. As such it plays a welcome role in shedding light on a truly complex issue that is critical for the sustainability of the multilateral trading system.' Marion Jansen, Director, Division of Market Development, International Trade Centre

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    Product details

    • Date Published: November 2019
    • format: Hardback
    • isbn: 9781108485531
    • length: 382 pages
    • dimensions: 235 x 158 x 24 mm
    • weight: 0.65kg
    • contains: 32 b/w illus. 45 tables
    • availability: In stock
  • Table of Contents

    1. Moving beyond the border: introduction and overview Joseph Francois and Bernard Hoekman
    Part I. Concepts and Measurement:
    2. NTMs: data concepts and sources Marie Luise Rau and Achim Vogt
    3. Regulatory bindings, policy uncertainty, and market access in services Peter Egger, Joseph Francois, Bernard Hoekman and Miriam Manchin
    Part II. Assessing and Benchmarking Policy:
    4. NTMs in the presence of global value chains and their impact on productivity Mahdi Ghodsi and Robert Stehrer
    5. Non-tariff measure estimations in different impact assessments Eddy Bekkers and Hugo Rojas-Romagosa
    6. Gauging procurement policy change during the crisis-era: evidence from the global trade alert Simon J. Evenett and Anirudh Shingal
    7. Preferences, income distribution, and the burden of NTMs Igor Bagayev and Ronald B. Davies
    Part III. Dealing With NTMs: Legal and Institutional Contexts:
    8. NTM reforms: a practitioner's perspective Fabio Artuso
    9. Good regulatory practices and international trade Robert Basedow
    10. Rules of origin as non-tariff measures: towards greater regulatory convergence Bernard Hoekman and Stefano Inama
    11. Behind-the-border measures and the new generation of trade agreements: TBT and SPS compared Manfred Elsig and Sebastian Klotz
    12. Non-tariff responses to China's development strategy: the WTO's interface challenge Chad Bown
    13. A time for action: the WTO must change to promote regulatory cooperation Thomas J. Bollyky and Petros C. Mavroidis.

  • Editors

    Joseph Francois, Universität Bern, Switzerland
    Joseph Francois is Professor of Economics and Managing Director of the World Trade Institute, Universität Bern, Switzerland. He is a Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) research fellow, and co-founder of the European Trade Study Group (ETSG). He has published widely on trade, the role of services in growth and development, and sustainability aspects of globalization.

    Bernard Hoekman, European University Institute, Florence
    Bernard Hoekman is Professor at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies and Dean, External Relations, at the European University Institute, Florence. A Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) research fellow, he has published widely on trade and development, trade in services, and the multilateral trading system.


    Joseph Francois, Bernard Hoekman, Marie Luise Rau, Achim Vogt, Peter Egger, Miriam Manchin, Mahdi Ghodsi, Robert Stehrer, Eddy Bekkers, Hugo Rojas-Romagosa, Simon J. Evenett, Anirudh Shingal, Igor Bagayev, Ronald B. Davies, Fabio Artuso, Robert Basedow, Stefano Inama, Manfred Elsig, Sebastian Klotz, Chad Bown, Thomas J. Bollyky, Petros C. Mavroidis

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