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Foreign Policy as Nation Making
Turkey and Egypt in the Cold War


Part of The Global Middle East

  • Author: Reem Abou-El-Fadl, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
  • Date Published: December 2018
  • availability: In stock
  • format: Hardback
  • isbn: 9781108475044

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About the Authors
  • After the Second World War, Turkey and Egypt were among the most dynamic actors in the Middle East. Their 1950s foreign policies presented a puzzle, however: Turkey's Democrat Party pursued NATO membership and sponsored the pro-Western Baghdad Pact regionally, while Egypt's Free Officers promoted neutralism and pan-Arab alliances. This book asks why: what explains this divergence in a shared historical space? Rethinking foreign policy as an important site for the realisation of nationalist commitments, Abou-El-Fadl finds the answer in the contrasting nation making projects pursued by the two leaderships, each politicised differently through experiences of war, imperialism and underdevelopment. Drawing on untapped Turkish and Arabic sources, and critically engaging with theories of postcolonial nationalism, she emphasises local actors' agency in striving to secure national belonging, sovereignty and progress in the international field. Her analysis sheds light on the contemporary legacies of the decade which cemented Turkey's position in the Western Bloc and Egypt's reputation as Arab leader.

    • Tackles the conventional wisdom on Turkey's and Egypt's alliances during the Cold War, while rethinking foreign policy as a site for nation making
    • Draws on previously unused Turkish and Arabic primary sources from state, media, and personal archives
    • Compares different nationalist responses to the legacies of European empire in the Middle East
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    Reviews & endorsements

    'Reem Abou-El-Fadl's fine comparative study of Egyptian and Turkish foreign policy in the early Cold War throws penetrating new light on how foreign policy can serve national development strategies in LDCs [Least Developed Countries]. Using an innovative theoretical framework that links theories of IR [International Relations] and nationalism, it also breaks new theoretical ground that can be usefully applied to other cases.' Raymond Hinnebusch, University of St. Andrews

    'This historically grounded, empirically rich and thoroughly comparative analysis of the interplay between foreign policy-making and national self-fashioning in Egypt and Turkey during the 1950s offers a challenging new perspective that scholars of international relations and comparative politics would do well to engage with.' Zachary Lockman, New York University

    'In this empirically rich and theoretically sophisticated study, Reem Abou-El-Fadl shows that the diametrically opposed positions Egypt and Turkey assumed vis-à-vis the west in the 1950s derived directly from their respective projects of nation making. El-Fadl's book is an essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the link between domestic and international politics in Global South, both in the twentieth and in the twenty-first century.' Resat Kasaba, University of Washington

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    Product details

    • Date Published: December 2018
    • format: Hardback
    • isbn: 9781108475044
    • length: 384 pages
    • dimensions: 235 x 157 x 21 mm
    • weight: 0.73kg
    • availability: In stock
  • Table of Contents

    List of figures
    1. Empire and nationalism in Turkey and Egypt:
    2. The Democrats in opposition: imagining a 'Little America'
    3. The Free Officers in opposition: imagining revolution
    4. Turkey's accession to NATO, 1950–52: members of the 'free world'
    5. Neutralism and pan-Arabism in Egypt, 1952–54: securing sovereignty
    6. Turkey and the Baghdad Pact, 1955: 'freeing' the Middle East
    7. Egypt from the Baghdad Pact to Czech Arms, 1955: shielding sovereignty
    8. Turkey and the Syrian crisis, 1957: linking spheres
    9. Egypt from Suez to Syrian Union, 1956–58: sovereign action
    Comparative conclusions

  • Author

    Reem Abou-El-Fadl, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Reem Abou-El-Fadl is Lecturer in the Department of Politics and International Studies at School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Before moving to School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, she was Lecturer at Durham University and Jarvis Doctorow Junior Research Fellow in International Relations and the Middle East at the University of Oxford.

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