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Chapter 07

Student resources for Chapter 07: Semantics

Study guide for Chapter 07: Semantics

You should be able to simply define or explain the following terms and concepts.

Sense Reference Lexeme
Sign Signifier Signified
Icon Index (noun) Symbol
Connotation Denotation Exonym
Proposition Propositional content Entailment
Presupposition Prototype Antonymy
Contrary Synonymy Hyponymy
Polysemy Profile Frame
Script Metaphor Metonymy
Conceptual Metaphor    

On completion of this chapter, you should be able to perform the following tasks:

  • Distinguish semantic from pragmatic meanings of expressions

  • Distinguish between sense and reference

  • Distinguish between icons, indexes, and signs

  • Identify inferences, entailments, and presuppositions associated with lexemes and propositions, and provide arguments for your analysis using the “contradiction test”

  • Identify semantic relations of synonymy, hyponymy, and antonymy that hold between lexemes

  • Define the term ‘prototype’ as it relates to semantics and discuss its role in contributing to meanings of particular lexemes

  • Identify semantic frames associated with a group of lexemes and distinguish between frames and profiles

  • Give examples of how particular semantic components of a word are activated in particular contexts

  • Distinguish between vagueness and polysemy, and for polysemous lexemes, state whether the polysemy is based on metonymy or metaphor

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