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The Making of the Chemist
The Social History of Chemistry in Europe, 1789–1914


David Knight, Maurice Crosland, Ulrike Fell, Ernst Homburg, Walter Wetzel, Gerrylynn K. Roberts, William H. Brock, Luigi Cerruti, Eugenio Torracca, Nathan M. Brooks, Agusti Nieto-Galan, Geert Vanpaemel, Brigitte Van Tiggelen, Colin A. Russell, Helge Kragh, António M. Armorim da Costa, Kostas Gavroglu, Mudis Salkauskas, Stefan Zamecki
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  • Date Published: November 2008
  • availability: Available
  • format: Paperback
  • isbn: 9780521090797

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About the Authors
  • Modern chemistry, so alarming, so necessary, so ubiquitous, became a mature science in nineteenth-century Europe. As it developed, often from a lowly position in medicine or in industry, so chemists established themselves as professional men; but differently in different countries. In 1820 chemistry was an autonomous science of great prestige but chemists had no corporate identity. It was 1840 before national chemical societies were first formed; and many countries lagged fifty years behind. Chemists are the largest of scientific groups; and in this 1998 book we observe the social history of chemistry in fifteen countries, ranging from the British Isles to Lithuania and Greece. There are regularities and similarities; and by describing how national chemical professions emerged under particular economic and social circumstances, the book contributes significantly to European history of science.

    • International linkages and comparisons
    • New information on smaller countries
    • Accessible reviews of development in the bigger countries
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    Reviews & endorsements

    Review of the hardback: '… this is much more than just a collection of national case-studies. It outlines the general trends, the main developments and the key actors in the process leading to the professional chemist, while providing a wealth of information that qualifies and diversifies the general scheme. In this respect, it is a model of collaborative publication, with genuine exchanges between the contributors and a thorough job of co-ordination by the two editors.' Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Nature

    Review of the hardback: 'The stories in this book will be read with enjoyment both by scientists and by those interested in the history of European culture and society.' The Chemical Intelligencer

    Review of the hardback: ' … this is a book for everyone interested in the history of our subject, and highly recommended reading.' Angewandte Chemie

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    Product details

    • Date Published: November 2008
    • format: Paperback
    • isbn: 9780521090797
    • length: 376 pages
    • dimensions: 244 x 170 x 20 mm
    • weight: 0.6kg
    • contains: 1 b/w illus. 17 tables
    • availability: Available
  • Table of Contents

    Foreword David Knight
    Part I. The Big Three:
    1. The Organisation of Chemistry in Nineteenth-century France Maurice Crosland
    2. The Profession of Chemistry in France: the Société Chimique de Paris/de France 1770–1914 Ulrike Fell
    3. Two Segments, One Profession: the Chemical Profession in German society 1780–1870 Ernst Homburg
    4. Origins, Education and Career Opportunities of the Profession 'Chemist' in the second half of the nineteenth century in Germany Walter Wetzel
    5. Chemistry in an Offshore Island: Britain, 1789–1840 David Knight
    6. 'A plea for Pure Science': the Role of Academia in the Making of the English Chemist, 1841–1914 Gerrylynn K. Roberts
    7. A British Career in Chemistry: Sir William Crookes (1832–1919) William H. Brock
    Part II. Medium Developed Countries:
    8. Developments of Chemistry in Italy, 1840–1910 Luigi Cerruti, and Eugenio Torracca
    9. The Evolution of Chemistry in Russia during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries Nathan M. Brooks
    10. Seeking an Identity for Chemistry in Spain: Medicine, Industry, University, the Liberal State and the new 'Professionals' in the Nineteenth Century Agusti Nieto-Galan
    11. The Profession of Chemistry in Nineteenth-century Belgium Geert Vanpaemel, and Brigitte van Tiggelen
    12. Chemistry in Ireland David Knight, and Gerrylynn K. Roberts
    13. Chemistry on the edge of Europe: Growth and Decline in Sweden Colin A. Russell
    Part III. On the Periphery:
    14. Out of the Shadow of Medicine: Themes in the Development of Chemistry in Denmark and Norway Helge Kragh
    15. Chemistry and the Scientific Development of the Country: the Nineteenth Century in Portugal António M. Armorim da Costa
    16. The Transmission and Assimilation of Scientific Ideas to the Greek-speaking world c. 1700–1900: the Case of Chemistry Kostas Gavroglu
    17. The First Chemists in Lithuania Mudis Salkauskas
    18. Individuals, Institutions and Problems: a Review of Polish chemistry between 1863 and 1918 Stefan Zamecki
    Afterword: the European Commonwealth of Chemistry Helge Kragh
    Notes on contributors
    Maps of Europe in 1815 and 1914.

  • Editors

    David Knight, University of Durham

    Helge Kragh, Universitetet i Oslo


    David Knight, Maurice Crosland, Ulrike Fell, Ernst Homburg, Walter Wetzel, Gerrylynn K. Roberts, William H. Brock, Luigi Cerruti, Eugenio Torracca, Nathan M. Brooks, Agusti Nieto-Galan, Geert Vanpaemel, Brigitte Van Tiggelen, Colin A. Russell, Helge Kragh, António M. Armorim da Costa, Kostas Gavroglu, Mudis Salkauskas, Stefan Zamecki

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