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Chapter 07 - answers

Further questions for chapter 07 - suggested answers

Q. Fill in the illustration below (Figure 7.6) by identifying the two main models of information processing.

Q. In the illustration above, explain where WHISPER would fit in.

A.  WHISPER can be classified as a physical symbol system. However, as depicted in Figure 7.6 in the book, WHISPER utilizes a diagrammatic symbol structure, not the language of thought architecture normally associated with the physical symbol system hypothesis.

Q. Explain why the micro world navigated by SHAKEY helps SHAKEY to avoid the frame problem. Also explain why this is important for cognitive science.

A.  There are basically two elements. One is the delete function, which removes alternative commands once any one command is chosen. The other is that each instruction can only have a limited effect on the micro world, because of the micro world's simplicity. This is important because these features do not map onto the world of real cognitive agents. Cognitive scientists must thus be cautious in drawing conclusions from SHAKEY’s accomplishments.

Q. Compare and contrast how ID3 and WHISPER solve their respective problems.

A.  Both ID3 and WHISPER solve problems by generating and modifying physical symbol structures to reach their solutions. Thus, they both appear to be physical symbol systems with similar information processing structures. They differ in their specifics: ID3 uses a decision tree while WHISPER uses a diagrammatic symbol structure.

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