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Chapter 02

Accompanying audio files for Chapter 02: Phonetics

These files correspond directly to the following sections within the book, click on each link to download and listen to the audio excerpt.

Textbox 2.2:

Textbox 2.3, Ejective stops in Navajo:

Sidebar 2.9, Tone in Dida:

  • 1.  sū                    ‘tree’

  • 2.  sù                    ‘hot’

Sidebar 2.10:

Textbox 2.6, Intonation in Chickasaw:

Exercise 2, Transcription:

Exercise 3, Primary Stress:

Exercise 4, Transcription and Primary Stress:

Study guide for Chapter 02: Phonetics

Be sure you can accurately label the following on a diagram of the vocal tract:

lips uvula back vocal cords
teeth tongue root glottis
alveolar ridge apex oral cavity trachea
hard palate blade nasal cavity pharynx
soft palate/velum front larynx  

Places of Articulation
Be sure you know the two articulators involved in the production of consonants at each of the following places of articulation:

bilabial labiodental palatal interdental
velar alveolar glottal  

Manners of Articulation
Be sure you can describe how the following manners of articulation are produced:

stop fricative nasal
affricate approximant sonorant (liquids, glides, nasals)
central ~ lateral glide obstruent (stops, fricatives, affricates)

Be sure you can say what is meant by the following terms:

high front tense rounded
nasalized mid central lax
unrounded diphthong low back

Other important and useful terminology
You should understand the following terms:

  • voicing: voiced/voiceless

  • sonorant

  • obstruent

  • liquid

  • monophthong, diphthong

  • syllable, syllabic

  • stress

  • tone

  • intonation

  • transcription (including broad and narrow)

Other key concepts

  • positioning of vocal cords to produce voiced and voiceless sounds

  • positioning of velum to produce nasal and oral sounds

  • positioning of tongue for lateral sounds


  • You should be able to match articulatory descriptions and IPA symbols for each consonant and vowel in English (e.g. [ð]: voiced interdental fricative)

  • You should be able to provide IPA transcriptions for English words, including the marking of primary and secondary stress< 

  • You should begin to develop your “ear” for phonetics, e.g. to hear fine-level phonetic differences in the pronunciation of words. For example, the length in the vowel of mat is a bit shorter than that of mad.

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