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Learning resources: chapter 2


Section 2.1 - Language and Micro-Worlds

1. Early chatterbots and the Turing test
Eliza test (applet allowing you to talk with ELIZA)
ELIZA—A computer program for the study of natual language communication between man and machine (paper by Joseph Weizenbaum, 1966)
Kenneth Colby (entry from Wikipedia on the creator of PARRY, first chatterbot to pass the Turing test)
The Turing test (entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Graham Oppy and David Dowe)
For information on Turing, see the online resources for section 1.2.

SHRDLU resurrection (website with downloadable versions of SHRDLU for Windows)
SHRDLU (website by creator Terry Winograd; includes link to his dissertation)
SHRDLU video demonstration

Section 2.2 - How do Mental Images Represent?

1. General resources on mental imagery
Mental imagery (entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Nigel Thomas)
An introduction to the science and philosophy of mental imagery (article by Nigel Thomas, but shorter than above)
Imagery and imagination (entry from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Amy Kind)
Lecture on mental imagery by Stephen Kosslyn (video)
Lecture on mental rotation by Roger Shepard (video)

2. Experiments on mental imagery and mental rotation
Mental rotation (entry from the NSF-funded Online Psychology Laboratory)
Mental rotation (experiment from Cognition Laboratory Experiments, John Krantz)
What shape are a German Shepherd’s ears? (interview with Stephen Kosslyn, from Edge)
Motor processes in mental rotation (article by Mark Wexler, Stephen Kosslyn, and Alain Berthoz, 1998; from Cogprints; originally from Cognition, 68)

3. Objections to geometrical interpretations of imagery experiments
Dr. Zenon Pylyshyn (personal website, with links to short biography and articles)

Section 2.3 - An Interdisciplinary Model of Vision

1. David Marr
David Marr (short biography by Shimon Edelman; from the International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences)
David Marr: A pioneer in computational neuroscience (link to paper by Terrence Sejnowski, 1991)

2. Marr on vision and levels of explanation
Marr’s approach to vision (paper by T. Poggio)
Marr’s vision: 25 years on (paper by Andrew Glennester)
Marr’s three levels: A re-evaluation (paper by Ron McClamrock, 1991; from Minds and Machines, 1)
Levels of description and explanation in cognitive science Levels of description and explanation in cognitive science (paper by Bill Bechtel, 1994; from Minds and Machines, 4)


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