Published online by Cambridge University Press: 01 December 2022
This chapter provides an overview of parents’ discipline and punishment in relation to child development. Main types of discipline (e.g., inductive reasoning, love withdrawal, power assertion) are described, and child- (e.g., behavior problems), parent- (e.g., stress), and community- (e.g., norms) level predictors of discipline are considered. The chapter then describes moderators (child gender, child age, temperament, overall climate of the parent-child relationship, and culture) and mediators (children’s perceptions of parental love and affection, social information processing, development of empathy and conscience, neurocognition) of associations between discipline and child outcomes. Next, implications of research on discipline for practice and policy are discussed in terms of the international agenda set by the Sustainable Development Goals, national bans on corporal punishment, and parenting interventions focused on discipline. The chapter concludes by examining limitations of the current research and suggesting directions for future research.