Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-hb754 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-01T15:02:00.765Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part II - Urban Ecosystems and Human Services

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 April 2018

Cynthia Rosenzweig
Affiliation:
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
William D. Solecki
Affiliation:
Hunter College, City University of New York
Patricia Romero-Lankao
Affiliation:
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
Shagun Mehrotra
Affiliation:
New School University, New York
Shobhakar Dhakal
Affiliation:
Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand
Somayya Ali Ibrahim
Affiliation:
Earth Institute at Columbia University/NASA GISS, New York
Get access
Type
Chapter
Information
Climate Change and Cities
Second Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network
, pp. 255 - 440
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Primary Sources

Ahern, J. (2007). Green infrastructure for cities: The spatial dimension. In Novotny, W, and Brown, P. (eds.), Cities of the Future: Towards integrated landscape and water management (267283). IWA Publishing.Google Scholar
Ahern, J. (2013). Urban landscape sustainability and resilience: the promise and challenges of integrating ecology with urban planning and design. Landscape Ecology 28(6): 12031212. Accessed April 25, 2015: https://scholar-google-com.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu/scholar?oi=bibs&clus ter=2360019842460228842&btnI=1&hl=enCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akbari, H., Pomerantz, M., and Taha, H. (2001). Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Solar Energy 70(3), 295310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alberti, M. (2008). Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alberti, M. (2015). Eco-evolutionary dynamics in an urbanizing planet. TREE, in press. Accessed January 8, 2016: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.(2014).11.007Google Scholar
Alberti, M., and Marzluff, J. M. (2004). Ecological resilience in urban ecosystems: Linking urban patterns to human and ecological functions. Urban Ecosystems 7, 241265.Google Scholar
Alexandri, E., and Jones, P. (2008). Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates. Building and Environment, 43, 480493. Accessed March 2, 2014: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132306003957Google Scholar
Amin, A. (2007). Re-thinking the urban social. City 11(1), 100114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andersson, E., Barthel, S., Borgström, S., Colding, J., Elmqvist, T., Folke, C., and Gren, Å. (2014). Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: Stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services. Ambio 43, 445453. Accessed February 27, 2015: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/ s13280-014-0506-y.Google Scholar
Andersson, E., McPhearson, T., Kremer, P., Gomez-Baggethun, E., Haase, D., Tuvendal, M., and Wurster, D. (2015a). Scale and Context Dependence of Ecosystem Service Providing Units. Ecosystem Services (Special Issue). Accessed March 25, 2016: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.08.001Google Scholar
Andersson, E., Tengö, M., McPhearson, T., and Kremer, P. (2015b). Cultural ecosystem services as a platform for working towards urban sustainability. Ecosystem Services (Special Issue). Accessed February 6, 2016: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.08.002Google Scholar
Aronson, M. F. J., La Sort, F. A., Nilon, C. H., Katti, M., Goddard, M. A., Lepczyk, C. A. et al. (2014). A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281(2013), 3330.Google Scholar
Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network. (2015). Urban Climate Change Resilience in Action: Lessons from Projects in 10 ACCCRN Cities. ACCCRN & The Rockefeller Foundation. Accessed March 30, 2016: http://acccrn.net/sites/default/files/publication/attach/ACCCRN_ProjectsInsightsPaper.pdfGoogle Scholar
Asikainen, E., and Jokinen, A. (2009). Future natures in the making: Implementing biodiversity in sub-urban land use planning. Planning Theory and Practice 10(3), 351368.Google Scholar
Bardsley, D. K., and Hugo, G. J. (2010). Migration and climate change: Examining thresholds of change to guide effective adaptation decision-making. Population and Environment 32, 238262. doi:10.1007/s11111-010-0126-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barthel, S., and Isendahl, C. (2013). Urban gardens, agriculture, and water management: Sources of resilience for long-term food security in cities. Ecological Economics 86(2), 224234.Google Scholar
Barthel, S., Parker, J., and Ernstson, H. (2015). Food and green space in cities: A resilience lens on gardens and urban environmental movements. Urban Studies 52(7), 13211338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batty, M. (2008). The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science 319, 769771. doi:10.1126/science.1151419Google Scholar
Beatley, T. (2000). Green Urbanism. Island Press.Google Scholar
Beatley, T. (2009). Biophilic Cities. Island Press.Google Scholar
Berkes, F., and Folke, C. (1998). Linking Social and Ecological Systems: ManagementGoogle Scholar
Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bettencourt, L., and West, G. (2010). A unified theory of urban living. Nature, 467, 912913. doi:10.1038/467912a.Google Scholar
Bianchini, F., and Hewage, K. (2012). Probabilistic social cost-benefit analysis for green roofs: A lifecycle approach. Building and Environment 58, 152162. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.(2012).07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolund, P., and Hunhammar, S. (1999). Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecological Economics 29, 293301. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00013-0Google Scholar
Boone, C. G., Buckley, G. L., Grove, J. M., and Sister, C. (2009). Parks and people: An environmental justice inquiry in Baltimore, Maryland. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99(July 2008), 767787.Google Scholar
Booth, D.B., Haugerud, R.A., and Troost, K.G. 2003. Geology, watershed, and Puget lowland rivers. In Montgomery, D.R., Bolton, S., Booth, D.B. and Wall, L. (Eds.) Restoration of Puget Sound Rivers. The University of Washington Press. Seattle, WA. pp. 1445.Google Scholar
Boossabong, P. (2014). Coping with flooding in Bangkok. Urban Agriculture Magazine 27.Google Scholar
Borgström, S. T., Elmqvist, T., Angelstam, P., and Alfsen-Norodom, C. (2006). Scale mismatches in management of urban landscapes. Ecology And Society 11(2), 16. doi:10.1097/MCC.0b013e32807f2aa5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braaker, S., Moretti, M., Boesch, R., Ghazoul, J., Obrist, M. K., and Bontadina, F. (2014). Assessing habitat connectivity for ground-dwelling animals in an urban environment. Ecological Applications 24, 15831595.Google Scholar
Breuste, J., Niemelä, J., and Snep, R. P. H. (2008). Applying landscape ecological principles in urban environments. Landscape Ecology 23(10), 11391142. doi:10.1007/s10980-008-9273-0Google Scholar
Cardinale, B. J., Duffy, J. E., Gonzalez, A., Hooper, D. U., Perrings, C., Venail, P., and Naeem, S. (2012). Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486(7401), 5967. doi:10.1038/nature11148Google Scholar
Carson, T. B., Marasco, D. E., Culligan, P. J., and McGillis, W. R. (2013). Hydrological performance of extensive green roofs in New York City: Observations and multi-year modelling of three full-scale systems. Environmental Research Letters 8(02), 4036. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024036Google Scholar
CDKN. (2014). Inside stories on climate compatible development. Climate Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) Accessed December 21, 2015: http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/SriLanka_Inside_Story_final_web-res.pdfGoogle Scholar
Cerveny, R. S., and Balling, R. C. Jr. (1998). Weekly cycles of air pollutants, precipitation and tropical cyclones in the coastal NW Atlantic region. Nature 394, 561563. doi:10.1038/29043Google Scholar
Chan, K. M., Satterfield, T., and Goldstein, J. (2011). Rethinking ecosystem services to better address and navigate cultural values. Ecological Economics 74, 818. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.11.011Google Scholar
Childers, D.L., Cadenasso, M.L., Grove, J.M., Marshall, V., MacGrath, B., and Pickett, S. 2015. An ecology for cities: A transformational nexus of design and ecology to advance climate change resilience and urban sustainability. Sustainability 7:37743791.Google Scholar
Childers, D. L., Pickett, S. T. A., Grove, J. M., Ogden, L., and Whitmer, A. (2014). Advancing urban sustainability theory and action: Challenges and opportunities. Landscape & Urban Planning 125, 320328.Google Scholar
Cohen, N., and Wijsman, K. (2014). Urban agriculture as green infrastructure: The case of New York City. Urban Agriculture Magazine 27.Google Scholar
Colding, J. (2011). The role of ecosystem services in contemporary urban planning. In Niemela, J. (ed.), Urban Ecology. Oxford University Press, 228–237.Google Scholar
Colding, J. (2013). Local assessment of Stockholm: Revisiting the Stockholm Urban Assessment. In Elmqvist, T., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Güneralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., McDonald, R. I., Parnell, S., Schewenius, M., et al. (eds.), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services – Challenges and Opportunities (313335). Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, L. W., and Foster, S. R. (2001). From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement (244). NYU Press.Google Scholar
Collins, J. P., Kinzig, A., Grimm, N. B., Fagan, W. F., Hope, D., Wu, J., and Borer, E. T. (2000). A new urban ecology. American Scientist 88, 416425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Condon, P. M., Cavens, D., and Miller, N. (2009). Urban planning tools for climate change mitigation. Policy focus report/Code PF021. Accessed May 28, 2015: www.lincolninst.eduGoogle Scholar
Consolo, T., Faux, M., Becker, M., Hamstead, Z., Kremer, P., Malone, E., and Segal, P. (2013). Equitable re-development of land acquired by New York City and New York State in Sandy-affected areas. Planner Network. Accessed March 13, 2014: http://596acres.org/en/news/2013/12/19/what-our-new-mayor-should-do-redevelopment-in-sandy-affected-communities/Google Scholar
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). (2009). Connecting biodiversity and climate change mitigation and adaptation: Report of the second ad hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change. Technical series No. 41. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal.Google Scholar
Corburn, J. (2005). Street Science. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Cumming, G. S., Cumming, D. H. M., and Redman, C. L. (2006). Scale mismatches in social-ecological systems: Causes, consequences, and solutions. Ecology and Society 11(1), 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Czemiel Berndtsson, J. (2010). Green roof performance towards management of runoff water quantity and quality: A review. Ecological Engineering 36, 351360. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.(2009).12.014Google Scholar
Dale, A. G., and Frank, S. D. (2014). Urban warming trumps natural enemy regulation of herbivorous pests. Ecological Applications 24, 15961607.Google Scholar
De la Salle, J., and Holland, M. (2010). Agricultural Urbanism: Handbook for Building Sustainable Food Systems in 21st Century Cities. Green Frigate Books.Google Scholar
Demuzere, M., Orru, K., Heidrich, O., Olazabal, E., Geneletti, D., Orru, H., Bhave, A. G., and Faehnle, M. (2014). Mitigating and adapting to climate change: Multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure. Journal of Environmental Management 146, 107115.Google Scholar
Depietri, Y., Renaud, F. G., and Kallis, G. (2012). Heat waves and floods in urban areas: A policy-oriented review of ecosystem services. Sustainability Science 7, 95107. doi:10.1007/s11625-011-0142-4Google Scholar
De Zeeuw, H., van Veenhuizen, R., and Dubbeling, M. (2011). The role of urban agriculture in building resilient cities in developing countries. Journal of Agricultural Science 149(S1), 153163.Google Scholar
Di Leo, N., Escobedo, F. J., and Dubbeling, M. (2015). The role of urban green infrastructure in mitigating land surface temperature in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Environment Development and Sustainability. doi:10.1007/s10668-015-9653-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dubbeling, M. (2014). Integrating urban agriculture and forestry into climate change action plans: Lessons from Sri Lanka. Accessed November 26, 2015: http://www.ruaf.org/publications/integrating-urban-agriculture-and-forestry-climate-change-action-plans-lessons-sri-0Google Scholar
Dubbeling, M. (2015). Integrating urban agriculture and forestry into climate change action plans: Lessons from Western Province, Sri Lanka and Rosario, Argentina. RUAF Foundation.Google Scholar
Dunnett, N., and Kingsbury, N. (2008). Planting Green Roofs and Living Walls. Timber Press.Google Scholar
Ebre Observatory. (2014). Accessed March 11, 2015: http://www.obsebre.es/en/Google Scholar
Ecologic Institute. (2011). Analysis of socio-economic driving forces in built-up area expansion in Xiamen, China. In Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition. Scholarly Editions.Google Scholar
Eisen, L., Monaghan, A. J., Lozano-Fuentes, S., Steinhoff, D. F., Hayden, M. H., and Bieringer, P. E. (2014). The impact of temperature on the bionomics of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with special reference to the cool geographic range margins. Journal of Medical Entomology 51(3), 496516. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME13214Google Scholar
Elmqvist, T., Redman, C. E., Barthel, S., and Costanza, R. (2013). History of urbanization and the missing ecology. In Elmqvist, T., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Güneralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., McDonald, R. I., and Wilkinson, C. (eds.), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (1330). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1_2Google Scholar
Ernstson, H. (2013). The social production of ecosystem services: A framework for studying environmental justice and ecological complexity in urbanized landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 109(1), 717. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.(2012).10.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ernstson, H., Barthel, S., Andersson, E., and Borgström, S. T. (2010). Scale-crossing brokers and network governance of urban ecosystem services: The case of Stockholm. Ecology and Society 15(4), 28. Accessed October 24, 2015: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art28/main.htmlGoogle Scholar
Escobedo, F. J., Clerici, N., Staudhammer, C. L., and Corzo, G. T. (2015). Socio-ecological dynamics and inequality in Bogotá, Colombia’s public urban forests and their ecosystem services. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 14(4), 10401053.Google Scholar
European Environmental Agency. (2015). Exploring nature-based solutions – The role of green infrastructure in mitigating the impacts of weather- and climate change-related natural hazards. EEA Technical Report No. 12.Google Scholar
FAO. (2014). Growing greener cities in Latin America and the Caribbean. A FAO report on urban and peri-urban agriculture in the region. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
Farr, D. (2008). Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design With Nature. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Farrell, C., Szota, C., and Arndt, S. K. (2015). Urban plantings: “Living laboratories” for climate change response. Trends in Plant Science 20(10), 597599.Google Scholar
Fitzpatrick, M. C., Gove, A. D., Sanders, N. J., and Dunn, R. R. (2008). Climate change, plant migration, and range collapse in a global biodiversity hotspot: The Banksia (Proteaceae) of Western Australia. Global Change Biology 14, 13371352.Google Scholar
Florgård, C. (2007). Treatment measures for original natural vegetation preserved in the urban green infrastructure at Jarvafaltet, Stockholm. In Stewart, M., Ignatieva, M., Bowring, J., Egoz, S., and Melnichuk, I. (eds.), Globalisation of Landscape Architecture: Issues for Education and Practice (100102). St. Petersburg’s State Polytechnic University Publishing House.Google Scholar
Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., and Holling, C. S. (2004). Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35, 557581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folke, C. (2010). How resilient are ecosystems to global environmental change? Sustainability Science 5, 151154. doi:10.1007/s11625-010-0109-xGoogle Scholar
Fook, L. L., and Gang, C. (eds.). (2010). Towards a Liveable and Sustainable Urban Environment: Eco-Cities in East Asia. World Scientific Publishing.Google Scholar
Foster, J., Lowe, A., and Winkelman, S.. (2011). The Value of Green Infrastructure for Urban Climate Adaptation. Washington, D.C.: Center for Clean Air Policy. Accessed May 5, 2015: http://mi.mi.gov/documents/dnr/TheValue_347538_7.pdf.Google Scholar
Fowler, D. (2002). Pollutants deposition and uptake by vegetation. In Bell, J. N. B., and Treshow, M. (eds.), Air Pollution and Plant Life., second edition(43). Wiley.Google Scholar
Frantzeskaki, N., and Tilie, N. (2014). The dynamics of urban ecosystem governance in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Ambio 43(4), 542555. Accessed August 12, 2015: http://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-014-0512-0Google Scholar
Frantzeskaki, N., Kabisch, N., and McPhearson, T. (2016). Advancing urban environmental governance: Understanding theories, practices and processes shaping urban sustainability and resilience. Environmental Science and Policy (Special Issue) 62, 16. Accessed May 18, 2017: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.05.008Google Scholar
Frischenbruder, M., and Pellegrino, P. (2006). Using greenways to reclaim nature in Brazilian cities. Landscape and Urban Planning 76, 6778.Google Scholar
Frumkin, H., Hess, J., Luber, G., Malilay, J., and McGeehin, M. (2008). Climate change: The public health response. American Journal of Public Health 98(3), 435445. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.119362Google Scholar
Georgescu, M., Morefield, P. E., Bierwagen, B. G., and Weaver, C. P. (2014). Urban adaptation can roll back warming of emerging megapolitan regions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U.S.A. 111, 29092914. doi:10.1073/pnas.1322280111.Google Scholar
Gill, S. E., Handley, J. F., Ennos, A. R., and Pauleit, S. (2007). Adapting cities for climate change: The role of the green infrastructure. Built Environment 33(1), 115133.Google Scholar
Gill, S. E., Rahman, M. A., Handley, J. F., and Ennos, A. R. (2013). Modelling water stress to urban amenity grass in Manchester UK under climate change and its potential impacts in reducing urban cooling. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 12, 350358. Accessed June 4, 2014: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2013.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilman, Sarah E., Urban, M. C., Tewksbury, J., Gilchrist, G. W., and Holt, R. D. (2010). A framework for community interactions under climate change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25, 325331. Accessed April 25, 2014: doi:10.1016/j.tree.2010.03.002Google Scholar
Gillner, S., Bräuning, A., and Roloff, A. (2014). Dendrochronological analysis of urban trees: climatic response and impact of drought on frequently used tree species. Trees 28, 1079. doi:10.1007/s00468-014-1019-9Google Scholar
Girot, P., Ehrhart, C., and Oglethorpe, J. (2009). Integrating Community and Ecosystem-Based Approaches in Climate Change Adaptation Responses. Ecosystem and Livelihoods Adaptation Network (ELAN).Google Scholar
Glick, P., Stein, B. A., and Edelson, N. A. (eds.). (2011). Scanning the Conservation Horizon: A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment. National Wildlife Federation.Google Scholar
Gómez-Baggethun, E., Gren, Å., Barton, N. D., Langemeyer, J., McPhearson, T., O’Farrell., P., and Kremer, P. (2013). Urban ecosystem services. In Elmqvist, T., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Güneralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., McDonald, R. I., and Wilkinson, C. (eds.), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (175251). Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonzalez, P., R.P. Nielson, R.P., Lenihan, J.M., and Drapek, R.J. 2010. Global patterns in the vulnerability of the ecosystems to vegetation shifts due to climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19:755768.Google Scholar
Gotelli, N. J., and Chao, A. (2013). Measuring and estimating species richness, species diversity, and biotic similarity from sampling data. In Levin, S. A. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, second edition, volume 5(195211). Academic Press. Accessed November 27, 2015: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissionusematerialCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimm, N. B., Chapin, F. S., Bierwagen, B., Gonzalez, P. Groffman, P. M., Luo, Y., Melton, F., Nadelhoffer, K., Pairis, A., Raymond, P. A., Schimel, J., and Williamson, C. E. (2013). The impacts of climate change on ecosystem structure and function. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11, 474482.Google Scholar
Grimm, N. B., Foster, D., Groffman, P., Grove, J. M., Hopkinson, C. S., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Peters, D. P. (2008). The changing landscape: Ecosystem responses to urbanization and pollution across climatic and societal gradients. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(5), 264272. doi:10.1890/070147Google Scholar
Grimm, N. B., Grove, J. M., Pickett, S. T. A., and Redman, C. A. (2000). Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 50(7), 571. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0571:IATLTO]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
Güneralp, B., Mcdonald, R. I., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Marcotullio, P. J., and Seto, K. C. (2013). Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: Challenges and opportunities. In Elmqvist, Fragkias, M. Goodness, J., Güneralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., McDonald, R. I., and Wilkinson, C. (eds.), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (437452). Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1Google Scholar
Güneralp, B., and Seto, K. C. (2013). Futures of global urban expansion: Uncertainties and implications for biodiversity conservation. Environmental Research Letters 8(1), 014025. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014025Google Scholar
Haase, D., Haase, A., Kabisch, N., Kabisch, S., and Rink, D. (2012). Actors and factors in land-use simulation: The challenge of urban shrinkage. Environmental Modelling and Software 35, 92103. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.02.012Google Scholar
Haase, D., Larondelle, N., Andersson, E., Artmann, M., Borgström, S., Breuste, J., Gomez-Baggethun, E., Gren, Ǻ., Hamstead, Z., Hansen, R., Kabisch, N., Kremer, P., Langemeyer, J., Rall, E. L., McPhearson, T., Pauleit, S., Qureshi, S., Schwarz, N., Voigt, A., Wurster, D., and Elmqvist, T. (2014). A quantitative review of urban ecosystem services assessments: Concepts, models, and implementation. AMBIO (Special Issue) 43, 413433.doi:10.1007/s13280-014-0504-0Google Scholar
Hallegatte, S., Ranger, N., Mestre, O., Dumas, P., Corfee-Morlot, J., Herweijer, C., and Wood, R. M. (2010). Assessing climate change impacts, sea level rise and storm surge risk in port cities: A case study on Copenhagen. Climatic Change 104(1), 113137. doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9978-3Google Scholar
Hatfield, J. L., Boote, K. J., Kimball, B. A., Ziska, L. H., Izaurralde, R. C., Ort, D., Thomson, A. M., and Wolfe, D. W. (2011). Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for crop production. Agronomy Journal 103(2011), 351370.Google Scholar
Hamstead, Z. A., Larondelle, N., Kremer, P., McPhearson, T., and Haase, D. (2015). Classification of the heterogeneous structure of urban landscapes (STURLA) as an indicator of landscape function applied to surface temperature in New York City. Ecological Indicators (Special Issue). Accessed April 12, 2016: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.10.014Google Scholar
Hansen, R., Frantzeskaki, N., McPhearson, T., Rall, E., Kabisch, N., Kaczorowska, A.,Kain, J. -H., Artmann, M., and Pauleit, S. (2015). The uptake of the ecosystem services concept in planning discourses of European and American cities. Ecosystem Services (Special Issue). doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.11.013Google Scholar
Heller, N. E., and Zavaleta, E. S. (2009). Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation 142, 1432.Google Scholar
Heutte, R., Bella, E., Snyder, J., and Shephard, M. 2003. Invasive plants and exotic weeds of Southeast Alaska. USDA Forest Service. Anchorage.Google Scholar
Hunt, A., and Watkiss, P. (2011). Climate change impacts and adaptation in cities: A review of the literature. Climatic Change 104, 1349.Google Scholar
Huq, N., Renaud, F., and Sebesvari, Z. (2013). Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EBA) to Climate Change – Integrating Actions to Sustainable Adaptation. United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), UN Campus, Bonn, Germany.Google Scholar
ICLEI Africa Secretariat 2013 Annual Report. (2013). ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability.Google Scholar
ICIMOD. (2009). Local Responses to Too Much and Too Little Water in the Greater Himalayan Region. ICIMOD. Accessed September 15, 2014: http://lib.icimod.org/record/8021Google Scholar
Ignatieva, M., Stewart, G.H., and Meurk, C. (2011). Planning and design of ecological networks in urban areas. Landscape Ecol Eng. 7:1725.Google Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2001). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. A Report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007a). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2013). Summary for policymakers. In Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G._K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., and Midgley, P. M. (eds.), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. IPCC Working Group II Contribution to AR5. Accessed August 13, 2015: http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/Google Scholar
Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET). (2010). The Shared Learning Dialogue: Building Stakeholder Capacity and Engagement for Resilience Action. Resilience in Concept and Practice Series Working Paper No. 1. ISET.Google Scholar
IUCN. (2009). Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EBA): Policy Briefing. Fifth session of the UNFCCC Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA), March 29–April 8, 2009, Bonn.Google Scholar
Jansma, J. E., Sukkel, W., Stilma, E. S. C., vanOost, A. C. J., and Visser, A. J. (2012).The impact of local food production on food miles, fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission: The case of the Dutch city of Almere. In Viljoen, A., and Wiskerke, J. S. C. (eds.), Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice (307321). Wageningen Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
Karki, M.B., Shrestha, A.B., and Winiger, M. (2011). Enhancing Knowledge Management and Adaptation Capacity for Integrated Management of Water Resources in the Indus River Basin. Mountain Research and Development. 31(3):242251.Google Scholar
Kaushal, S. S., Groffman, P. M., Band, L. E., Shields, C. A., Morgan, R. P., Palmer, M. A., Belt, K. T., Swan, C. M., Findlay, S. E. G., and Fisher, G. T. (2008). Interaction between urbanization and climate variability amplifies watershed nitrate export in Maryland. Environmental Science and Technology 42, 58725878.Google Scholar
Kaye, J. P., Burke, I. C., Mosier, A. R., and Guerschman, J. P. (2004). Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from urban soils to the atmosphere. Ecological Applications 14, 975981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keim, M. E. (2008). Building human resilience: The role of public health preparedness and response as an adaptation to climate change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(5), 508–16. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.022Google Scholar
Kendal, D., Williams, N. S. G., and Williams, K J. H. (2012). A cultivated environment: Exploring the global distribution of plants in gardens, parks and streetscapes. Urban Ecosystems 15, 637652. doi:10.1007/s11252-011-0215-2Google Scholar
Kendle, T. and Forbes, S. 1997. Urban nature conservation. E. & F.N. Spon. London.Google Scholar
Kenward, A., et al. (2014). Summer in the City: Hot and Getting Hotter. Climate Central. Accessed November 27, 2015: http://www.climatecentral.org/Google Scholar
Kingsolver, J. G., Diamond, S. E., and Buckley, L. B. (2013). Heat stress and the fitness consequences of climate change for terrestrial ectotherms. Functional Ecology. 27(6): 14151423. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?oi=bibs&cluster=10819040795748572617&btnI=1&hl=enGoogle Scholar
Klausmeyer, K. R., Shaw, R., MacKenzie, J. B., and Cameron, D. R. (2011). Landscape-scale indicators of biodiversity’s vulnerability to climate change. Ecosphere 2(8), art88. Accessed May 5, 2014: http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES11-0(0044).1Google Scholar
Kopperoinen, L., Itkonen, P., and Niemelä, J. (2014). Using expert knowledge in combining green infrastructure and ecosystem services in land use planning: An insight into a new place-based methodology. Landscape Ecology 29, 13611375. doi:10.1007/s10980-014-0014-2Google Scholar
Kousky, C., Olmstead, S., Walls, M., and Macauley, M. (2013). Strategically placing green infrastructure: Cost-effective land conservation in the floodplain. Environmental Science & Technology 47(8), 35633570.Google Scholar
Kowarik, I. (2005) Wild Urban Woodlands: Towards a Conceptual Framework. Wild Urban Woodlands. 132.Google Scholar
Kremer, P., Hamstead, Z., Haase, D., McPhearson, T., Frantzeskaki, N., Andersson, E., Kabisch, N., Larondelle, N., Lorance Rall, E., Avlonitis, G., Bertram, C., Baró, F., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Gren, A., Hansen, R., Kaczorowska, A., Kain, J. -H., Kronenberg, J., Langemeyer, J., Muehlmann, P., Pauleit, S., Rehdanz, K., Schewenius, M., van Ham, C., Voigt, A., Wurster, D., and Elmqvist, T. (2016a). Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research. Ecology and Society 21(2), 29. Accessed January 12, 2017: http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-08445-210229Google Scholar
Kremer, P., Hamstead, Z. A., and McPhearson, T. (2016b). The value of urban ecosystem services: A spatially explicit multicriteria analysis of landscape scale valuation scenarios in NYC. Environmental Science and Policy (Special Issue). Accessed February 15, 2017: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.04.012Google Scholar
Kronenberg, J. (2015). Why not to green a city? Institutional barriers to preserving urban ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services. 12:218227. https://scholar-google-com.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu/scholar?oi=bibs&cluster=3678534514957264970&btnI=1&hl=enGoogle Scholar
Larondelle, N, Hamstead, Z. A., Kremer, P., Haase, D., and McPhearson, T. (2014). Applying a novel urban structure classification to compare the relationships of urban structure and surface temperature in Berlin and New York City. Applied Geography 53, 427–437. Accessed February 7, 2015: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.07.004Google Scholar
Laros, M., Birch, S., and Clover, J. (2013). Ecosystem-Based Approaches to Building Resilience in Urban Areas: Towards a Framework for Decision-Making Criteria. Background paper. ICLEI-Africa.Google Scholar
La Rosa, D., and Privitera, R. (2013). Characterization of non-urbanized areas for land-use planning of agricultural and green infrastructure in urban contexts. Landscape and Urban Planning 109(1), 94106. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.(2012).05.012Google Scholar
Leichenko, R. M., and O’Brien, K. L. (2008). Environmental Change and Globalization: Double Exposures. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Leipprand, A., and Gerten, D. (2006). Global effects of doubled atmospheric CO2 content on evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff under potential natural vegetation. Hydrological Sciences Journal 51, 171185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loarie, S. R., Carter, B. E., Hayhoe, K., McMahon, S., Moe, R., Knight, C. A., and Ackerly, D. D. (2008). Climate change and the future of California’s endemic flora. PLoS ONE 3, e2502.Google Scholar
Locatelli, B., Brockhaus, M., Buck, A., and Thompson, I. (2010). Forests and adaptation to climate change: Challenges and opportunities. In Mery, G., et al. (eds.), Forest and Society: Responding to Global Drivers of Change. IUFRO World Series.Google Scholar
Loukaitou-sideris, A., and Stieglitz, O. (2002). Children in Los Angeles parks. Town Planning Review 73, 4(April), 467488.Google Scholar
Lye, L.H. (2010) The Judiciary and Environmental Governance in Singapore. Journal of Court Innovation. 3:133.Google Scholar
Lwasa, S., and Dubbeling, M. (2015). Urban agriculture and climate change. In de Zeeuw, H., and Dreschel, P. (eds.), Cities and Agriculture: Developing Resilient Urban Food Systems. Earthscan-Routledge.Google Scholar
Lwasa, S., Mugagga, F., Wahab, B., Simon, D., Connors, J., and Griffith, C. (2013). Urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry: Transcending poverty alleviation to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Urban Climate. doi:10.1016/j.uclim.(2013).10.007Google Scholar
Maimaitiyiming, M., et al. (2014). Effects of green space spatial pattern on land surface temperature: Implications for sustainable urban planning and climate change adaptation. Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 89, 5966. Accessed December 27, 2015: http://dx.doi.org/Google Scholar
Marcotullio, P. J., and Solecki, W. D. (2013). Sustainability and cities – Meeting the grand challenge for the twenty-first century. In Sygna, L., O’Brien, K., and Wolf, J. (eds.), A Changing Environment for Human Security: Transformative Approaches to Research, Policy and Action (496). Routledge.Google Scholar
Marzluff, J. M. (2001). Worldwide urbanization and its affects on birds. In Marzluff, J. M., Bowman, R., and Donnelly, R. (eds.), Avian Conservation and Ecology in an Urbanizing World (1947). Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
McDonald, R., and Marcotullio, P. (2011). Global effects of urbanization on ecosystem services. In Niemelä, J. (ed.), Urban Ecology (193205). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
McDonald, R. I., Marcotullio, P. J., and Güneralp, B. (2013). Urbanization and global trends in biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Elmqvist, T., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Güneralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., McDonald, R. I., and Wilkinson, C. (eds.), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (3152). Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1_3Google Scholar
McDonnell, M. J. (2011). The history of urban ecology. In Niemelä, J., Breuste, J. H., Guntenspergen, G., McIntyre, N. E., Elmqvist, T., and James, P. (eds.), Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
McDonnell, M. J., and Hahs, A. (2013). The future of urban biodiversity research: Moving beyond the “low-hanging fruit.” Urban Ecosystems 16, 397409. doi:10.1007/s11252-013-0315-2Google Scholar
McGranahan, G., Marcotullio, P. J., Bai, X., Balk, D., Braga, T., Douglas, I., and Zlotnik, H. (2005). Urban systems. In Hassan, R., Scholes, R., and Ash, N. (eds.), Current State and Trends: Findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group. Ecosystems and Human Well-being (795825). Island Press.Google Scholar
McKinney, M. L. (2002). Urbanization, Biodiversity and Conservation. BioScience 52(10), 883890.Google Scholar
McLennan, J. F. (2004). The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture. Ecotone Publishing. Accessed February 22, 2014: http://books.google.com/books?id=-Qjadh_0IeMC&pgis=1Google Scholar
McPhearson, T. (2011). Toward a sustainable New York City: Greening through urban forest restoration. In Slavin, M. (ed.), The Triple Bottom Line: Sustainability Principles, Practice, and Perspective in America’s Cities (181204). Island Press.Google Scholar
McPhearson, T., Auch, R., and Alberti, M. (2013c). Urbanization trends, biodiversity patterns, and ecosystem services in North America. In Elmqvist, T., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Güneralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., McDonald, R. I., Parnell, S., Schewenius, M., Sendstad, M., SEto, K. C., and Wilkinson, C. (eds.), Cities and Biodiversity Outlook: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (279286). Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1_14Google Scholar
McPhearson, T., Haase, D., Kabisch, N., Gren, Å. (2016). Advancing understanding of the complex nature of urban systems. Ecological Indicators 70, 566573. Accessed April 18, 2017: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.03.054Google Scholar
McPhearson, T., Hamstead, Z., and Kremer, P. (2014). Urban ecosystem services for resilience planning and management in New York City. AMBIO 43, 502515.doi:10.1007/s13280-014-0509-8Google Scholar
McPhearson, T., Kremer, P., and Hamstead, Z. (2013). Mapping ecosystem services in New York City: Applying a social-ecological approach in urban vacant land. Ecosystem Services (2013), 1126. Accessed October 29, 2015: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.06.005Google Scholar
McPhearson, T., Andersson, E., Elmqvist, T., and Frantzeskaki, N. (2015). Resilience of and through urban ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services. 12:152156. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041614000837Google Scholar
McPhearson, T., Pickett, S. T. A., Grimm, N., Alberti, M., Elmqvist, T., Niemelä, J., Weber, C., Haase, D., Breuste, J., and Qureshi, S. (2016). Advancing urban ecology toward a science of cities. BioScience 66(3), 198212. doi:10.1093/biosci/biw002Google Scholar
McPherson, E. G., Nowak, D., Heisler, G., Grimmond, S., Souch, C., Grant, R., and Rowntree, R. (1997). Quantifying urban forest structure, function, and value: The Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. Urban Ecosystems 1(1), 4961. doi:10.1023/A:1014350822458Google Scholar
Meyer, H., Nillesen, A. L., and Zonneveld, W. (2012). Rotterdam: A city and a mainport on the edge of a delta. European Planning Studies 20, 7194. doi:10.1080/09654313.2011.638498.Google Scholar
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenarios for the Future of Ecosystem Services. Island Press.Google Scholar
Mincy, S. K., Hutten, M., Fischer, B. C., Evans, T. P., Stewart, S. I., and Vogt, J. M. (2013). Structuring institutional analysis for urban ecosystems: A key to sustainable urban forest management. Urban Ecosystems 16(3), 553571. doi:10.1007/s11252-013-0286-3Google Scholar
Ministry of Agriculture, Agrarian Development, Minor Irrigation, Industries. Environment, Arts and Cultural Affairs, Western Province. (2014). Climate change adaptation action plan (2015–2018). Western Province of Sri Lanka. Accessed September 18, 2015: http://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Western%20Province%20Climate%20Change%20Action%20Plan_2015-2018.pdfGoogle Scholar
Miyake, K. K., Maroko, A. R., Grady, K. L., Maantay, J. A., and Arno, P. S. (2010). Not just a walk in the park: Methodological improvements for determining environmental justice implications of park access in New York City for the promotion of physical activity. Cities and the Environment 3(1), 117. Accessed August 14, 2014: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3160641&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstractGoogle Scholar
Mosely, S. (2014). Coastal cities and environmental change. Environment and History 20, 517533. doi:10.3197/096734014X14091313617280Google Scholar
Mostafavi, M., and Doherty, G. (2010). Ecological Urbanism. Lars Muller Publishers.Google Scholar
Müller, N. (2010). Most frequently occurring vascular plants and the role of non-native species in urban areas – A comparison of selected cities of the old and new worlds. In Müller, N., Werner, P., and Kelcey, J. G. (Eds.), Urban biodiversity and design (pp. 227242). Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Munang, R., Thiaw, I., Alverson, K., Mumba, M., Liu, J. and Rivington, M. (2013). Climate change and Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a new pragmatic approach to buffering climate change impacts. Current Opinion Environmental Sustainability. 5:15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Munroe, R., Roe, D., Doswald, N.,Spencer, T., Möller, I., Vira, B., Reid, H., Kontoleon, A., Giuliani, A., Castelli, I., and Stephens, J. (2010). Review of the Evidence Base for Ecosystem-based Approaches for Adaptation to Climate Change. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).Google Scholar
National Environmental Justice Advisory Council. (2002). Fish consumption and environmental justice. Accessed January 4, 2015: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/publications/nejac/fish-consump-report_1102.pdfGoogle Scholar
New York State (NYS). (2013). New York State Community Development Block Grant Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR) Program. Accessed April 12, 2016: https://stormrecovery.ny.gov/housing/buyout-acquisition-programsGoogle Scholar
Niemelä, J., Breuste, J. H., Guntenspergen, G., McIntyre, N. E., Elmqvist, T., and James, P. (2011). Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nobis, M. P., Jaeger, J. A. G., and Zimmerman, N. E. (2009). Neophyte species richness at the landscape scale under urban sprawl and climate warming. Diversity and Distributions 15, 928939. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00610.xGoogle Scholar
Nowak, D. J., Hirabayashi, S., Bodine, A., and Hoehn, R. (2013). Modeled PM2.5 removal by trees in ten U.S. cities and associated health effects. Environmental Pollution 178, 395402. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.03.050Google Scholar
Novotny, V., Ahern, J., and Brown, P. (2010). Water Centric Sustainable Communities: Planning, Retrofitting, and Building the Next Urban Environment. Wiley.Google Scholar
Observatora de l’Ebre. (2014). Accessed December 7, 2015: http://www.obsebre.es/en/Google Scholar
OECD/CDRF. (2009). Trends in Urbanisation and Urban Policies in OECD Countries: What Lessons for China? OECD/CDRF.Google Scholar
Onishi, A., Cao, X., Ito, T., Shi, F., and Imura, H. (2010). Evaluating the potential for urban heat-island mitigation by greening parking lots. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 9(4), 323332. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.(2010).06.002Google Scholar
Ottelé, M., Van Bohemen, H., Fraaij, A. L. A. (2010). Quantifying the deposition of particulate matter on climber vegetation on living walls. Ecological Engineering 36, 154162.Google Scholar
Pandey, R., and Bardsley, D. K. (2013). Human ecological implications of climate change in the Himalaya: Pilot studies of adaptation in agro-ecosystems within two villages from Middle Hills and Tarai, Nepal. In Impacts World 2013, International Conference on Climate Change Effects, Potsdam, May 27–30.Google Scholar
Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37, 637669.Google Scholar
Parmesan, C., and Yohe, G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421(6918), 3742.Google Scholar
Pascual, U., Muradian, R., Rodríguez, L. C., and Duraiappah, A. (2010). Exploring the links between equity and efficiency in payments for environmental services: A conceptual approach. Ecological Economics 69(6), 12371244. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.004Google Scholar
Pataki, D. E., Boone, C. G., Hogue, T. S., Jenerette, G. D., McFadden, J. P., and Pincetl, S. (2011). Ecohydrology bearings—invited commentary: Socio-ecohydrology and the urban water challenge. Ecohydrology 4, 341347. doi: 10.1002/eco.209Google Scholar
Paul, M. J., and Meyer, J. L. (2001). Streams in the urban landscape. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 32, 333.Google Scholar
Pauleit, S., Liu, L., Ahern, J., and Kazmierczak, A. (2011). Multifunctional green infrastructure planning to promote ecological services in the city. In Niemelä, J. (ed.), Urban Ecology (272286). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Pearson, R. G., and Dawson, T. P. (2003). Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: Are bioclimate envelope models useful ? Global Ecology & Biogeography 12, 361371.Google Scholar
Petkova, E. P., Bader, D. A., Anderson, G. B., Horton, R. M., Knowlton, K., and Kinney, P. L. (2014). Heat-related mortality in a warming climate: Projections for 12 U.S. cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11(11), 1137111383.Google Scholar
Petralli, M., Prokopp, A., Morabito, M., Bartolini, G., Torrigiani, T., and Orlandini, S. (2006). Ruolo delle aree verdi nella mitigazione dell’isola di calore urbana: Uno studio nella città di Firenze. Rivista Italiana Agrometeorologia 1, 5158.Google Scholar
Pham, T. T. H., Apparicio, P., Séguin, A. M., Landry, S., and Gagnon, M. (2012). Spatial distribution of vegetation in Montreal: An uneven distribution or environmental inequity? Landscape and Urban Planning 107(3), 214224. Accessed October 15, 2014: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.(2012).06.002Google Scholar
Pickett, S., Burch, W.  R. Jr., Dalton, S.  D. and Foresman, R. W. 1997. Integrated urban ecosystem research. Urban Ecosyst. 1:183–84.Google Scholar
Pickett, S., Cadenasso, M., Grove, J., Groffman, P., Band, L., Boone, C., Burch, W., Grimmond, S., Hom, J., Jenkins, J., Law, N., Nilon, C., Pouyat, R., Szlavecz, K., Warren, P., and Wilson, M. (2008). Beyond urban legends: An emerging framework of urban ecology, as illustrated by the Baltimore ecosystem study. BioScience 58(2), 139150.Google Scholar
Pickett, S. T. A., Cadenasso, M. L., Grove, J. M., Nilon, C. H., Pouyat, R. V, Zipperer, W. C., and Costanza, R. (2001). Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, 127–57.Google Scholar
Pielke, R. A., Marland, G., Betts, R. A., Chase, T. N., Eastman, J. L., Niles, J. O., and Running, S. W. (2002). The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system: Relevance to climate-change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences 360(1797), 17051719. doi:10.1098/rsta.2002.1027Google Scholar
Porter, E. M., et al. (2013). Interactive effects of anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Biogeochemistry 114(1–3), 93120.Google Scholar
Porter, J. R., Dyball, R., Dumaresq, D., Deutsch, L., and Matsuda, H. (2014). Feeding capitals: Urban food security and self-provisioning in Canberra, Copenhagen and Tokyo. Global Food Security 3(1), 17.Google Scholar
Pötz, H., and Bleuze, P. (2012). Urban Green-Blue Grids for Sustainable and Dynamic Cities. Coop for Life.Google Scholar
Ranger, N., Hallegatte, S., Bhattacharya, S., Bachu, M., Priya, S., Dhore, K., and Corfee-Morlot, J. (2010). An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on flood risk in Mumbai. Climatic Change 104(1), 139167. doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9979-2Google Scholar
Rasul, G. (2012). Contribution of Himalayan ecosystems to water, energy and food security in South Asia: A nexus approach. ICIMOD. Accessed August 1, 2014: http://lib.icimod.org/record/1898Google Scholar
Raudsepp-Hearne, C., Peterson, G. D., and Bennett, E. M. (2010). Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes. PNAS 107, 52425247. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907284107.Google Scholar
Register, R. (2006). Ecocities: Rebuilding Cities in Balance with Nature. New Society Press.Google Scholar
Revi, A., Satterthwaite, D. E., Aragón-Durand, F., Corfee-Morlot, J., Kiunsi, B. R., Pelling Roberts, D. C., and Solecki, W. (2014). Urban areas. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC Working Group II Contribution to AR5 (535612). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Rogner, H. -H., Zhou, D., Bradley., R., Crabbé, P., Edenhofer, O. (Australia), B. H., and Yamaguchi, M. (2007). Introduction. In Metz, B., Davidson, O. R., Bosch, P. R., Dave, R., and Meyer, L. A. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W. D., Cox, J., Hodges, S., Parshall, L., Lynn, B., and Dunstan, F. (2009). Mitigating New York City’s heat island: Integrating stakeholder perspectives and scientific evaluation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(9), 12971312. doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2308.1Google Scholar
Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W., DeGaetano, A., O’Grady, M., Hassol, S., and Grabhorn, P. (2011). Responding to Climate Change in New York State: The ClimAID Integrated Assessment for Effective Climate Change Adaptation: Synthesis Report. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.Google Scholar
Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W. D., and Slosberg, R. B. (2006). Mitigating New York City’s Heat Island with Urban Forestry, Living Roofs, and Light Surfaces. New York City Regional Heat Island Initiative.Google Scholar
Rottle, N., and Yocom, K. (2011). Basics Landscape Architecture 02: Ecological Design. AVA Publishing.Google Scholar
RUAF Foundation. (2014 March). Promoting urban agriculture as a climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategy. Urban Agriculture 27.Google Scholar
Salzman, J., Arnold, C. A., Garcia, R., Hirokawa, K. H., Jowers, K., LeJava, J., and Olander, L. P. (2014). The most important current research questions in urban ecosystem services. Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum (147). Accessed June 20, 2015: http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/faculty_scholarship/3350Google Scholar
Sandy Redevelopment Oversight Group. (2014). Equitable re-development of land acquired by New York City and New York State in Sandy-affected areas. Accessed May 27, 2015: http://596acres.org/en/news/2013/12/19/what-our-new-mayor-should-do-redevelopment-in-sandy-affected-communities/Google Scholar
Santiago Fink, H. (2016). Human-nature for climate action: Nature-based solutions for urban sustainability, Sustainability 8(3), 254. doi:10.3390/su8030254Google Scholar
Satterthwaite, D., Huq, S., Pelling, M., and Reid, H. (2008). Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-Income Nations. Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series; Theme: Climate Change and Cities. IIED.Google Scholar
Satterthwaite, D., Huq, S., Pelling, M., Reid, H., and Romero, P. L. (2007 and 2008). Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-Income Nations. IIED working paper. IIED.Google Scholar
Schewenius, M., McPhearson, T., and Elmqvist, T. (2014). Opportunities for increasing resilience and sustainability of urban social–ecological systems: Insights from the URBES and the Cities Biodiversity Outlook Projects. AMBIO(Special Issue) 43, 434444.doi:10.1007/s13280-014-0505-zGoogle Scholar
Scholz-Barth, K. (2001). Green roofs: Stormwater management from the top down. Environmental Design and Construction. January/February 2001, Posted on edcmag.com on 1/15/2001. Accessed December 17, 2014: http://www.greenroofs.com/pdfs/archives-katrin.pdfGoogle Scholar
Searle, S. Y., Turnbull, M. H., Boelman, N. T., Schuster, W. S. R., Yakir, D., and Griffin, K. L. (2012). Urban environment of New York City promotes growth in northern red oak seedlings. Tree Physiology 32, 389400. doi:10.1093/treephys/tps027Google Scholar
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. (2012). Cities and Biodiversity Outlook (64 pages). Montreal.Google Scholar
Seto, K. C., Parnell, S., and Elmqvist, T. (2013). A global outlook on urbanization. In Elmqvist, T., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Gu ̈neralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., Mcdonald, R. I., Parnell, S., Schewenius, M., Sendstad, M., Seto, K. C., and Wilkinson, C. (eds.), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (112). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1.Google Scholar
Seto, K. C., Reenberg, A., Boone, C. G., Fragkias, M., Haase, D., Langanke, T., Marcotullio, P., Munroe, D. K., Olah, B., Simon, D. (2012). Urban land teleconnections and sustainability. PNAS 109, 76877692. doi:10.1073/pnas.1117622109.Google Scholar
SMC Coastal Modeling System. (2015). Accessed February 9, 2016: http://smc.ihcantabria.es/SMC25/en/Google Scholar
Solecki, W., and Marcotullio, P. J. (2013). Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: Challenges and opportunities. In Elmqvist, T., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Güneralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., McDonald, R. I., and Wilkinson, C. (eds.), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (485504). Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1Google Scholar
Steele, W., Mata, L., and Fünfgeld, H. (2015). Urban climate justice: Creating sustainable pathways for humans and other species. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 14, 121126.Google Scholar
Susca, T., Gaffin, S. R., and Dell’Osso, G. R. (2011). Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs. Environmental Pollution 159, 21192126. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.03.007Google Scholar
Suddick, E. C., and Davidson, E. A. (eds.) (2012). The role of nitrogen in climate change and the impacts of nitrogen-climate interactions on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, agriculture, and human health in the United States: A technical report submitted to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. Falmouth, MA: North American Nitrogen Center of the International Nitrogen Initiative (NANC-INI), Woods Hole Research Center.Google Scholar
Sukhdev, P., Wittmer, H., Schröter-Schlaack, C., Nesshöver, C., Bishop, J., Ten, P., and Simmons, B. (2010). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the economics of nature. A Synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. Accessed April 12, 2016: http://www.urbanhabitats.org/v01n01/climatechange_full.htmlGoogle Scholar
Sukopp, H., and Wurzel, A. (2003). The effects of climate change on the vegetation of Central European cities. Urban Habitats 1(1), 6686.Google Scholar
Sutcliffe, S., and Court, J. (2005). Evidence-Based Policymaking: What Is It? How Does It Work? What Relevance for Developing Countries? Overseas Development Institute (ODI).Google Scholar
Taha, H. (1997). Urban climates and heat islands: Albedo, evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat. Energy and Buildings 25(2), 99103. Accessed September 30, 2015: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378778896009991Google Scholar
Taylor, D. E. (2011). The evolution of environmental justice activism, research, and scholarship. Environmental Practice 13(December), 280301.Google Scholar
The Economics of Environmentalism and Biodiversity (TEEB). (2010). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity – Ecological and Economic Foundations, ed. Kumar, P.. Earthscan.Google Scholar
The Economics of Environmentalism and Biodiversity (TEEB). (2011). TEEB Manual for cities: Ecosystem services in urban management. In UNEP and the European Union (ed.), Ecosystem Services in Urban Management. Accessed October 23, 2014: http://www.teebweb.org/Portals/25/Documents/TEEB_Manual_for_Cities_Ecosystem_Services_for_Urban_managment___FINAL_(2011).pdfGoogle Scholar
Theurillat, J. -P., and Guisan, A. (2001). Potential impact of climate change on vegetation in the European Alps: A review. Climatic Change 50(1–2), 77109.Google Scholar
Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L. J., Collingham, Y. C., and Williams, S. E. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427(6970), 145148. doi:10.1038/nature02121Google Scholar
Troy, A. J., Grove, M., and O’Neil-Dunne, J. (2012). The relationship between tree canopy and crime rates across an urban–rural gradient in the great Baltimore region. Landscaping and Urban Planning 106, 62270.Google Scholar
Tyler, S., and Moench, M. (2012). A framework for urban climate resilience. Climate and Development 4(4), 311326. Accessed April 10, 2016: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2012.745389Google Scholar
Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kaźmierczak, A., Niemela, J., and James, P. (2007). Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning 81(3), 167178. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.001Google Scholar
UNEP. (2009). The Role of Ecosystem in Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction; Copenhagen Discussion Series. UNEP.Google Scholar
UNEP. (2011a). Supporting countries in meeting the climate challenge: UNEP’s priorities for catalysing a green economy. Accessed May 27, 2014: www.unep.org/pdf/flagship_unep.pdfGoogle Scholar
UNEP. (2011b). Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication – A synthesis for policy makers. Accessed October 13, 2015: www.unep.org/greeneconomyGoogle Scholar
UNEP. (2012). UNEP Regional Seas Releases Report on Ecosystem Based Adaptation. Accessed August 28, 2014: http://sdg.iisd.org/news/unep-regional-seas-releases-report-on-ecosystem-based-adaptation/?rdr=climate-l.iisd.orgGoogle Scholar
UNFCCC Secretariat. (2011). Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation: Compilation of information. Thirty-fifth session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice. Accessed August 13, 2015: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2011/sbsta/eng/inf08.pdfGoogle Scholar
UN-Habitat. (2009). Annual Report.Google Scholar
UN-Habitat. (2011). Cities and Climate Change: Global Report on Human Settlements (2011). Earthscan.Google Scholar
University of Cambridge and ICLEI. (2014). Climate change: Implications for cities. Key findings from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Accessed December 16, 2015: http://www.cisl.cam.ac.uk/Resources/Climate-and-Energy/Climate-Change-Implications-for-CitiesGoogle Scholar
Urban, M. C., De Meester, L., Vellend, M., Stoks, R., and Vanoverbeke, J. (2012). A crucial step toward realism: responses to climate change from an evolving metacommunity perspective. Evolutionary Applications 5:154167.Google Scholar
Van Kerkhoff, L., and Lebel, L. (2006). Linking knowledge and action for sustainable development. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31(1),445477.Google Scholar
Vignola, R., Locatelli, B., Martinez, C., and Imbach, P. (2009). Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: What role for policy-makers, society and scientists? Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 14, 691696.Google Scholar
Violin, C. R., Cada, P., Sudduth, E. B., Hassett, B. A., Penrose, D. L., and Bernhardt, E. S. (2011). Effects of urbanization and urban stream restoration on the physical and biological structure of stream ecosystems. Ecological Applications 21(6), 19321949. doi:10.1890/10-1551.1Google Scholar
Von Döhren, P., and Haase, D. (2015). Ecosystem disservices research: A review of the state of the art with a focus on cities. Ecological Indicators 52(2015),490497.Google Scholar
Waldheim, C. (2007). Precedents for a North American landscape urbanism. In Almy, D. and Benedikt, M. (eds.), Center 14 – On Landscape Urbanism (292303). Center for American Architecture and Design.Google Scholar
Walker, M., Wilcox, B., and Wong, M. (2008). Waterborne zoonoses and changes in hydrologic response due to watershed development. In Fares, A., and ElKadi, A. (eds.), Coastal Watershed Management (349367). WIT Press.Google Scholar
Ward, P. J., Pauw, W. P., van Buuren, M. W., and Marfai, M. A. (2013). Governance of flood risk management in a time of climate change: The cases of Jakarta and Rotterdam. Environmental Politics 22, 518536. doi:10.1080/09644016.2012.683155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wardekker, J. A., de Jong, A., Knoop, J. M., and van der Sluijs, J. P. (2010). Operationalising a resilience approach to adapting an urban delta to uncertain climate changes. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 77, 987998.Google Scholar
While, A., and Whitehead, M. (2013). Cities: Urbanisation and climate change. Urban Studies 50, 13251331. doi:10.1177/0042098013480963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilby, R. L., and Perry, G. L. W. (2006). Climate change, biodiversity and the urban environment: A critical review based on London, UK. Progress in Physical Geography 30(1), 7398. doi:10.1191/0309133306pp470raGoogle Scholar
Wilkinson, C., Porter, L., and Colding, J. (2010). Metropolitan Planning and Resilience Thinking: A Practitioner’s Perspective. Critical Planning. 17:220.Google Scholar
Wilkinson, C., Sendstad, M., Parnell, S., and Schewenius, M. (2013). Urban governance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Elmqvist, T., Fragkias, M., Goodness, J., Güneralp, B., Marcotullio, P. J., McDonald, R. I., Parnell, S., Schewenius, M., et al. (eds.), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services – Challenges and Opportunities (539587). Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1.Google Scholar
Williams, S. E., Shoo, L. P., Isaac, J. L., Hoffmann, A. A., and Langham, G. (2008). Towards an integrated framework for assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change. PLoS Biology 6, 26212626.Google Scholar
Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., and Davis, I. (2003). At Risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters, second edition. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
Wolch, J. R., Byrne, J., and Newell, J. P. (2014). Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: The challenge of making cities “just green enough.” Landscape and Urban Planning 125(1), 234244.Google Scholar
Woodall, C. W., Nowak, D. J., Likens, G. C., and Westfall, J. A. (2010). Assessing the potential for urban trees to facilitate forest tree migration in the eastern United States. USDA. Accessed November 8, 2015: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/2010/nrs_2010_woodall_004.pdfGoogle Scholar
Wortman, E., and Lovell, S. T. (2013). Environmental challenges threatening the growth of urban agriculture in the United States. Journal of Environmental Quality. doi:10.2134/jeq2013.01.0031Google Scholar
Yang, J. (2009). Assessing the impact of climate change on urban tree species selection: A case study in Philadelphia. Journal of Forestry 107(7), 364372.Google Scholar
Yang, Z. (2013). Eco-Cities: A Planning Guide. Taylor and Frances Group.Google Scholar
Yu, K., and Padua, M. (2005). The Art of Survival: Recovering Landscape Architecture. The Images Publishing Group Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
Yu, K., and Li, D. (2006). The growth pattern of Taizhou City based on ecological infrastructure. In Yu, K., and Padua, M., The Art of Survival (6480). The Images Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Zandersen, M., Jensen, A., Termansen, M., Buchholtz, G., Munter, B., Bruun, H. G., and Andersen, A. H. (2014). Ecosystem based approaches to Climate Adaptation – Urban Prospects and Barriers. Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 94 Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 83. Accessed December 7, 2015: http://dce2.au.dk/pub/SR83.pdfGoogle Scholar
Zavaleta, E. S., Shaw, M. R., Chiariello, N. R., Thomas, B. D., Cleland, E. E., Field, C. B., and Mooney, H. A. (2003) Grassland responses to three years of elevated temperature, CO2, precipitation, and N deposition. Ecological Monographs 73, 585604.Google Scholar
Zezza, A., and Tasciotti, L. (2010). Urban agriculture, poverty and food security: Empirical evidence from a sample of developing countries. Food Policy 35, 265273.Google Scholar
Ziervogel, G., New, M., van Garderen, E.A., Midgley, G., Taylor, A., Hamann, R., Stuart-Hill, S., Myer, J., and Warburton, M. 2014. Climate change impacts and adaptation in South Africa. WIREs Clim Change 5:605620.Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

Barnolas, M., and Llasat, M. C. (2007). A flood geodatabase and its climatological applications: The case of Catalonia for the last century. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 7, 271281.Google Scholar
BirdLife International. (2014a). Important bird areas factsheet: Ebro Delta. Accessed November 8, 2015: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sitefactsheet.php?id=1811Google Scholar
BirdLife International. (2014b). Important bird areas factsheet: Ampurdán marshes. Accessed December 7, 2015: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sitefactsheet.php?id=1808Google Scholar
Bormann, H., Ahlhorn, F., and Klenke, T. (2012). Adaptation of water management to regional climate change in a coastal region – Hydrological change vs. community perception and strategies. Journal of Hydrology 454–455, 6475.Google Scholar
Candela, L., Fabregat, S., Josa, A., Suriol, J., Vigués, N., and Mas, J. (2007). Assessment of soil and groundwater impacts by treated urban wastewater reuse. A case study: Application in a golf course (Girona, Spain). Science of the Total Environment 374, 2635.Google Scholar
CIIRC. (2010). Estat de la zona costanera a Catalunya. CIIRC.Google Scholar
Cote, M., Hurley, B., and Pratt, J. (2014). National Adaptation Planning: A Compendium of Stakeholder Workshops for USAID. Accessed June 26, 2015: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00K2TB.pdfGoogle Scholar
CREAF. (2013). Mapa de Coberturas del Suelo de Catalunya. Accessed September 30, 2014: http://www.creaf.uab.es/mcsc/esp/index.htmGoogle Scholar
Day, J. W., Maltby, E., and Ibañez, C. (2006). River basin management and delta sustainability: A commentary on the Ebro delta and the Spanish national hydrological plan. Ecological Engineering 26, 8599.Google Scholar
Eriksen, S., Aldunce, P., Bahinipati, C. S., D’Almeida Martins, R., Molefe, J. I., Nhemachena, C., O’Brien, K., Olorunfemi, F., Park, J., Sygna, L., and Ulsrud, K. (2011). When not every response to climate change is a good one: Identifying principles for sustainable adaptation. Climate and Development 3, 720.Google Scholar
Fatorić, S. (2010). Vulnerability to the Effects of Climate Change and Adaptation: The Case of Ebro Delta. Master’s thesis, Autonomous University of Barcelona.Google Scholar
Fatorić, S. (2014). Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Mediterranean region: Climate out of balance in Aiguamolls de l’Empordà? Doctoral thesis, Autonomous University of Barcelona.Google Scholar
Fatorić, S., and Chelleri, L. (2012). Vulnerability to the effects of climate change and adaptation: The case of Spanish Ebro Delta. Ocean and Coastal Management 60, 110.Google Scholar
Fatorić, S., and Morén-Alegret, R. (2013). Integrating local knowledge and perception for assessing vulnerability to climate change in economically dynamic coastal areas: The case of natural protected area Aiguamolls de l’Empordà, Spain. Ocean and Coastal Management 85(A), 90102.Google Scholar
Fatorić, S., Morén-Alegret, R., and Kasimis, C. (2014). Exploring climate change effects in Euro-Mediterranean protected coastal wetlands: The cases of Aiguamolls de l’Empordà, Spain and Kotychi-Strofylia, Greece. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 21(4), 346360.Google Scholar
Guillén, J., and Palanques, A. (1992). Sediment dynamics and hydrodynamics in the lower course of a river regulated by dams: The Ebro river. Sedimentology 39, 567579.Google Scholar
IDESCAT. (2015). The municipality in figures. Accessed February 23, 2016: http://www.idescat.cat/emex/?lang=enGoogle Scholar
Jiménez, J. A., Sánchez-Arcilla, A., Valdemoro, H. I., Gracia, V., and Nieto, F. (1997). Processes reshaping the Ebro delta. Marine Geology 144, 5979.Google Scholar
Martín-Vide, J. P., Rodríguez-Máñez, E., Ferrer-Boix, C., Núñez-González, F., and Maruny-Vilalta, D. (2012). Estudio de la dinámica morfológica del río Fluvià. Alcances y métodos frente a la escasez de datos. Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua III(3), 115133.Google Scholar
Mozumder, P., Flugman, E., and Randhir, T. (2011). Adaptation behaviour in the face of global climate change: Survey responses from experts and decision makers serving the Florida Keys. Ocean and Coastal Management 54(1), 3744.Google Scholar
Nelson, D. R., Adger, N., and Brown, K. (2007). Adaptation to environmental change: Contributions of a resilience framework. The Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32, 395419.Google Scholar
Ninyerola, M., Pons, X., and Roure, J. M. (2004). Digital climatic atlas of Catalonia. Accessed July 24, 2014: http://www.opengis.uab.cat/acdc/english/en_cartografia.htmGoogle Scholar
Observatora de l’Ebre. (2014). Accessed December 7, 2015: http://www.obserbre.es/enGoogle Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
Sánchez-Arcilla, A., Jiménez, J. A., Valdemoro, H. I., and Gracia, V. (2008). Implications of climatic change on Spanish Mediterranean low-lying coasts: The Ebro delta case. Journal of Coastal Research 24(2), 306316.Google Scholar
SMC Coastal Modeling System. (2015). Accessed February 10, 2016: http://smc.ihcantabria.es/SMC25/enGoogle Scholar
Smit, B., and Wandel, J. (2006). Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16, 282292.Google Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
Wetlands International. (1992). Delta del Ebro. Accessed March 11, 2015: http://sites.wetlands.org/reports/ris/3ES019en_FORMER_Google Scholar
Wetlands International. (1995). Aiguamolls de l’Empordà. Accessed March 19, 2015: http://sites.wetlands.org/reports/ris/3ES018en_FORMER_(1995).pdfGoogle Scholar
Brauman, R. J., Gumb, D. F., and Duerkes, C. (2009). Designing for wildlife in the Blue Belt. Clearwaters Winter 2009, 4143.Google Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
Mayor’s Office, New York City. (2012). PlaNYC: A Stronger more resilient New York. Accessed August 16, 2015: http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/home/home.shtmlGoogle Scholar
New York City Department of Design and Construction, and the Design Trust for Public Space. (2005). High performance infrastructure guidelines. Accessed November 29, 2015: http://www.nyc.gov/html/ddc/downloads/pdf/hpig.pdfGoogle Scholar
New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC). (2013). New York City Panel on Climate Change Climate Risk Information 2013; Observations. Climate change projections, and maps. City of New York.Google Scholar
Ryan, G. C. (2006). The return of the natives. The Urban Audubon XXV11(4), 1, 4.Google Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Decennial census, summary file 1. Accessed November 17, 2014: http://www.census.gov/population/metro/files/CBSA%20Report%20Chapter%203%20Data.xlsGoogle Scholar
U.S Census Bureau. (2016). Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 – Metropolitan Statistical Area; – 2016 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2017. Accessed August 9, 2017: https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=PEP_2016_PEPANNRES&prodType=tableGoogle Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
IAD, São Paulo. (2009). Programa de Recuperação Socioambiental da Serra do Mar e do Sistema de Mosaicos da Mata Atlântica (Br-L1241). Estratégia Ambiental e Social do Programa. 05 de Outubro de (2009). Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, Governo do Estado de São Paulo Brasil. Accessed July 1, 2015: fflorestal.sp.gov.br/files/2012/02/easabidaserraadoamar.docGoogle Scholar
IBGE. (2015). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica. Accessed August 5, 2014: http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/sinopse/sinopse_tab_rm_zip.shtmGoogle Scholar
IDB and São Paulo State Government. (2013). Serra do Mar and the Atlantic Forest Mosaics System – A Social and Environmental Recovery Project. 1st Ed. Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), São Paulo State Government. São Paulo. Accessed May 8, 2014: http://www.ambiente.sp.gov.br/serradomar/files/2014/03/INGL%C3%8AS_CARTILHA_Serra-do-Mar_Internet.pdfGoogle Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
São Paulo. (2013). Programa Serra do Mar e Mosaicos da Mata Atlântica (in Portuguese). Accessed May 5, 2014: http://www.agem.sp.gov.br/pdf/projeto_serra_do_mar_apresentacao.pdfGoogle Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
Cilliers, S. S., and Siebert, S. J. (2012). Urban ecology in Cape Town: South African comparisons and reflections. Ecology and Society 17(3), 33. Accessed November 5, 2014: http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-05146–170333Google Scholar
City of Cape Town. (2015). City statistics. Accessed March 28, 2016: https://www.capetown.gov.za/en/stats/Pages/CityStatistic.aspxGoogle Scholar
Laros, M. (2012). Cape Town, South Africa: An urban biodiversity network. ICLEI Case Study Series (part of the Local Sustainability). Kelleher, S., and Simpson, R., eds., ICLEI World Secretariat. Accessed August 15,2014: http://www.iclei.org/fileadmin/PUBLICATIONS/Case_Studies/ICLEI_cs_138_Cape_Town.pdfGoogle Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
CIA World Factbook. (2015). Major Urban Areas – Population. Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed: August 4, 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2219.htmlGoogle Scholar
Krasny, M. E. (2015). Civic Ecology: Adaptation and Transformation from the Ground Up (Urban and Industrial Environments). MIT Press.Google Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
Eveland, Jennifer. (2012). Medellín Transformed: From Murder Capital to Model City. Urban Redevelopment Authority. Accesed September 23, 2015: http://www.Leekuanyewworldcityprize.com.sg/Features_Medellin_Transformed.htmGoogle Scholar
Green City Index (GCI). (2010). Latin American Green City Index (2010). Assessing the Environmental Performance of Latin America’s Major Cities. Siemens AG Corporate Communications and Government Affairs, Munich.Google Scholar
Moreno, E. L. et al. (2013). State of the World’s Cities 2012/2013: Prosperity of Cities. UN-Habitat, New York.Google Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
Department of Statistics Singapore. (2015). Singapore in Figures 2015. Accessed January 18, 2016: http://www.singstat.gov.sg/docs/default-source/default-document-library/publications/publications_and_papers/reference/sif(2015).pdfGoogle Scholar
Department of Statistics Singapore. (2016) Yearbook of Statistics Singapore 2016. Accessed February 19, 2017: http://www.singstat.gov.sg/docs/default-source/default-document-library/publications/publications_and_papers/reference/yearbook_2016/yos2016.pdfGoogle Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
MEWR. (2014). Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, The Singapore Green Plan 2012. Accessed July 9, 2015: http://www.uncsd(2012).org/content/documents/The%20Singapore%20Green%20Plan%20(2012).pdfGoogle Scholar
National Climate Change Secretariat Prime Minister’s Office Republic of Singapore (NCCS). (2012). Climate change & Singapore: Challenges, opportunities, partnerships. Accessed July 24, 2014: https://www.nccs.gov.sg/sites/nccs/files/NCCS-(2012).pdfGoogle Scholar
NEA. (2013). Climate Change, 2 September 2013. Accessed December 3, 2014: http://www.nea.gov.sg/energy-waste/climate-changeGoogle Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
Kaid Benfield’s Blog. (2011). Outstanding urbanism, transit, and state-of-the-art green infrastructure, beautifully mixed In: SWITCHBOARD, Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) staff blog. Accessed October 2, 2014: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/kbenfield/outstanding_urbanism_and_state.htmlGoogle Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
Seattle Public Utilities. (2015). Thornton Creek water quality channel. Accessed March 14, 2016: http://www.seattle.gov/util/MyServices/DrainageSewer/Projects/ThorntonCreekWaterQualityChannel/index.htmlGoogle Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Decennial census, summary file 1. Accessed September 23, 2014: http://www.census.gov/population/metro/files/CBSA%20Report%20Chapter%203%20Data.xlsGoogle Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
Aboutaleb, A. (2009). Rising water level approach offers opportunities. Change Magazine: Water and Climate 5 (1), 45.Google Scholar
ADB. (2011). Adapting to Climate Change: Strengthening the Climate Resilience of the Water Sector Infrastructure in Khulna, Bangladesh, Mandaluyong City. The Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
Adcock, T. A., Draper, S., Houlsby, G. T., Borthwick, A. G., and Serhadlıoğlu, S. (2013). The available power from tidal stream turbines in the Pentland Firth. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science 469(2157), 20130072.Google Scholar
Adger, N. (2003). Social aspects of adaptive capacity. In Smith, J., Klein, R., and Huq, S. (eds.), Climate Change: Adaptive Capacity and Development (2950). Imperial College Press.Google Scholar
Adger, N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16(3), 268281.Google Scholar
Adger, W. N., Hughes, T. P., Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., and Rockström, J. (2005). Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science 309(5737), 10361039.Google Scholar
Adger, W. N., Paavola, J., and Huq, S., eds. (2006). Toward justice in adaptation to climate change. In Adger, W. N., Paavola, J., and Huq, S. (eds.), Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change (119). MIT Press.Google Scholar
Aerts, J., Botzen, W., Bowman, M. J., Ward, P. J., and Dircke, P., eds. (2013). Climate Adaptation and Flood Risk in Coastal Cities. Earthscan, Taylor and FrancisGoogle Scholar
Aerts, J., Major, D. C., Bowman, M. J., Dircke, P., and Marfai, M. A. 2009. Connecting Delta Cities: Coastal Cities, Flood Risk Management and Adaptation to Climate Change. Vrije Universiteit Press.Google Scholar
Ahammad, R. (2011). Constraints of pro-poor climate change adaptation in Chittagong city. Environment and Urbanization 23(2), 503515.Google Scholar
Akinro, A. O., Opeyemi, D. A., and Ologunagba, I. B. (2008). Climate change and environmental degradation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: Its vulnerability, impacts and possible mitigations. Research Journal of Applied Sciences 3(3), 167173.Google Scholar
Allenby, B., and Fink, J. (2005). Toward inherently secure and resilient societies. Science, 309, 10341036.Google Scholar
Amelung, B., and Nicholls, S. (2014). Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia. Tourism Management 41, 228244.Google Scholar
Amelung, B., Nicholls, S., and Viner, D. (2007). Implications of global climate change for tourism flows and seasonality. Journal of Travel Research 45, 285296.Google Scholar
Angell, E., and Stokke, K. B. (2014). Vulnerability and adaptive capacity in Hammerfest, Norway. Ocean and Coastal Management 94, 5665.Google Scholar
Anvarifar, F., Zevenbergen, C., and Thissen, W. (2013). An exploration of multifunctional flood defences with an emphasis on flexibility. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Flood Resilience: Experiences in Asia and Europe, held in Exeter, United Kingdom, September 5–7, 2013.Google Scholar
Aqua-Sheltech Consortium (2002). Draft Structure Plan, Master Plan and Detailed Area Plan (2001–2020) for Khulna City, Volume I: Urban Strategy’. Khulna Development Authority, Ministry of Housing and Public Works, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
Arinaga, R. A., and Cheung, K. F. (2012). Atlas of global wave energy from 10 years of reanalysis and hindcast data. Renewable Energy 39(1), 4964.Google Scholar
Arkema, K. K., Guannel, G., Verutes, G., Wood, S. A., Guerry, A., Ruckelshaus, M., Kareiva, P., Lacayo, M., and Silver, J. M. (2013). Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and storms. Nature Climate Change 3, 913918. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1944.Google Scholar
Arthurton, R. and Korateng, K. (2006). Coastal and marine environments. In Africa Environment Outlook 2 (ch. 5). UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
Baker-Austin, C., Trinanes, J. A., Taylor, N. G. H., Hartnell, R., Siitonen, A., and Martinez-Urtaza, J. (2013). Emerging Vibrio risk at high latitudes in response to ocean warming. Nature Climate Change 3(1), 7377.Google Scholar
Ballica, S. F., Wright, N. G., and van der Meulen, F. (2012). A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts. Natural Hazards 64, 73105.Google Scholar
Bautista, E., Hanhardt, E., Osorio, J. C., and Dwyer, N. (2015a). New York City Environmental Justice Alliance (NYC-EJA) Waterfront Justice Project. Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, 20(6), 664682, Doi: 10.1080/13549839.2014.949644.Google Scholar
Bautista, E., Hanhardt, E., Osorio, J. C., and Dwyer, N. (2015b). The New York City Environmental Justice Alliance’s Efforts to Build Climate Justice and Reduce Industrial Waterfront Vulnerability. Social Research: An International Quarterly. 82(3), 821838.Google Scholar
Bear, J. (ed.). (1999). Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers. Springer.Google Scholar
Bender, M. A., Knutson, T. R., Tuleya, R. E., Sirutis, J. J., Vecchi, G. A., Garner, S. T., and Held, I. M. (2010). Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science 327, 454458.Google Scholar
Bigano, A., Bosello, F., and Roson, R. (2008). Economy-wide impacts of climate change: A joint analysis for sea level rise and tourism. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13, 765791.Google Scholar
Billé, R., Kelly, R., Biastoch, A., Harrould-Kolieb, E., Herr, D., Joos, F., … and Gattuso, J. P. (2013). Taking action against ocean acidification: A review of management and policy options. Environmental Management 52(4), 761779.Google Scholar
Bird, E. C. F. (1996). Beach Management (281). John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Bird, E. (2008). Coastal Geomorphology: An Introduction (ch. 14). John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Birkmann, J., Garschagen, M., Kraas, F., and Quang, N. (2010) Adaptive urban governance: New challenges for the second generation of urban adaptation strategies to climate change. Sustainability Science 5(2), 185206.Google Scholar
Bjerklie, D. M., Mullaney, J. R., Stone, J. R., Skinner, B. J., and Ramlow, M. A. (2012). Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Sea-level Rise on Groundwater Levels in New Haven, Connecticut. USGS OFR 2012–1025. U.S. Geological Survey.Google Scholar
Bodzin, A. M. (1999). Carolina Coastal Science: Relocating a Lighthouse—Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Timeline. North Carolina State University (NCSU). Accessed August 11, 2015: http://www.ncsu.edu/coast/chl/timeline.htmlGoogle Scholar
Brooks, N., and Adger, W. N. (2004). Assessing and enhancing adaptive capacity, Technical Paper 7. In Lim, B., and Spanger-Siegfried, E. (eds.), Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change: Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures (165182). United Nations Development Programme and Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Broto, V., and Bulkeley, H. (2013). A survey of urban climate change experiments in 100 cities. Global Environmental Change 23, 92102.Google Scholar
Broto, V., Obala, B., and Junior, P. (2013). Governing climate change for a just city: Challenges and lessons from Maputo. Mozambique. Local Environment 18(6), 678704.Google Scholar
Brown, S., Hanson, S., and Nicholls, R. J. (2014). Implications of sea-level rise and extreme events around Europe: A review of coastal energy infrastructure. Climatic Change 122(1–2), 8195.Google Scholar
Building Futures and Institution of Civil Engineers. (2010). Facing up to rising sea-levels: Retreat? Defend? Attack? Accessed October 19, 2015: http://www.buildingfutures.org.uk/projects/building-futures/facing-upGoogle Scholar
Bulkeley, H., Edwards, G., and Fuller, S (2014). Contesting climate justice in the city: Examining politics and practice in urban climate change experiments. Global Environmental Change 25, 3140.Google Scholar
Bulkeley, H., Schroeder, H., Janda, K., Zhao, J., Armstrong, A., Chu, S., and Ghosh, S. (2011). The role of institutions, governance, and urban planning. In Hoornweg, D., Freire, M., and Lee, M. J. (eds.), Cities and Climate Change: Responding to an Urgent Agenda. World Bank Publications.Google Scholar
Burke, L. M., Reytar, K., Spalding, M., and Perry, A. (2011). Reefs at Risk Revisited. World Resources Institute, p. 114.Google Scholar
Byers, E. A., Hall, J. W., and Amezaga, J. M. (2014). Electricity generation and cooling water use: UK pathways to 2050. Global Environmental Change 25, 1630.Google Scholar
Cahoon, D. R., Reed, D. J., Kolker, A. S., Brinson, M. M., Stevenson, J. C., Riggs, S., Christian, R., Reyes, E., Voss, C., and Kunz, D. (2009). Coastal wetland sustainability. Coastal sensitivity to sea-level rise: a focus on the mid-Atlantic region. US Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1. 5772. U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Cai, W., Hu, X., Huang, W., Murrell, M. C., Lehrter, J. C., Lohrenz, S. E., Chou, W., Zhai, W., Hollibaugh, J. T., Wang, Y., Zhao, P., Guo, X., Gundersen, K., Dai, M., and Gong, G. (2011). Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication. Nature Geoscience 4, 766770.Google Scholar
Carson, M., Köhl, A., Stammer, D., Slangen, A. B. A., Katsman, C. A., van de Wal, R. S. W., Church, J., and White, N. (2016). Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century. Climatic Change 134, 269281.Google Scholar
Cash, B. A., Rodó, X., Ballester, J., Bouma, M. J., Baeza, A., Dhiman, R., and Pascual, M. (2013). Malaria epidemics and the influence of the tropical South Atlantic on the Indian monsoon. Nature Climate Change 3(5), 502507.Google Scholar
Cheong, S. -M., Silliman, B., Wong, P. P., van Wesenbeeck, B., Kim, C. -K., and Guannel, G. (2013). Coastal adaptation with ecological engineering. Nature Climate Change 3, 787791.Google Scholar
Chou, W. -C., Wu, J. -L., Wang, Y. -C., Huang, H., Sung, F. -C., and Chuang, C. -Y. (2010). Modeling the impact of climate variability on diarrhea-associated diseases in Taiwan (1996–2007). Science of The Total Environment 409(1), 4351.Google Scholar
City of Hallandale Beach. (2013). City of Hallandale Beach-Water Supply Strategy. White Paper, June 14, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2015: http://www.hallandalebeachfl.gov/files/2013–06–17-HBCRA/Item_10A/Water_Supply_White_Paper-June_17_2013_Commission_Workshop, pdf/Google Scholar
City of New York. (2015). One New York, The Plan for a Strong and Just City. Accessed February 20, 2016: http://www1.nyc.gov/html/onenyc/index.htmlGoogle Scholar
Colle, B. A., Booth, J. F., and Chang, E. K. M., 2015. A review of historical and future changes of extratropical cyclones and associated impacts along the U.S. East Coast. Current Climate Change Reports 1, 125143.Google Scholar
Cooley, S. R., and Doney, S. C. (2009). Anticipating ocean acidification’s economic consequences for commercial fisheries. Environmental Research Letters 4, 024007. doi:10.1088/1748–9326/4/2/024007Google Scholar
Coombes, E. G., and Jones, A. P. (2010). Assessing the impact of climate change on visitor behaviour and habitat use at the coast: A UK case study. Global Environmental Change 20, 303313.Google Scholar
Das, A., Justic, D., Inoue, M., Hoda, A., Huang, H., and Park, D. (2012). Impacts of Mississippi River diversions on salinity gradients in a deltaic Louisiana estuary: Ecological and management implications. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 111, 1726.Google Scholar
Dawson, R. J., Ball, T., Werritty, J., Werritty, A., Hall, J. W., and Roche, N. (2011b). Assessing the effectiveness of non-structural flood management measures in the Thames Estuary under conditions of socio-economic and environmental change, Global Environmental Change 21(2), 628646. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.01.013Google Scholar
Dawson, R. J., Dickson, M. E., Nicholls, R. J., Hall, J. W., Walkden, M. J. A., Stansby, P., Mokrech, M., Richards, J., Zhou, J., Milligan, J., Jordan, A., Pearson, S., Rees, J., Bates, P., Koukoulas, S., and Watkinson, A. (2009). Integrated analysis of risks of coastal flooding and cliff erosion under scenarios of long term change, Climatic Change 95, 249288. doi: 10.1007/s10584–008–9532–8Google Scholar
Dawson, R. J., Peppe, R., and Wang, M. (2011a). An agent based model for risk-based flood incident management, Natural Hazards 59(1), 167189. doi: 10.1007/s11069–011–9745–4Google Scholar
De la Vega-Leinert, A. C., and Nicholls, R. J. (2008). Potential implications of sea-level rise for Great Britain. Journal of Coastal Research 24(2), 342357.Google Scholar
Delta Commissie (Committee). (2008). Working together with water: A living land builds for its future. Accessed April 29, 2014: http://www.deltacommissie.com/doc/deltareport_full.pdfGoogle Scholar
Delta Commission. (2013). Delta Programme 2014, The Ministry for Infrastructure and Environment and The Ministry of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
Deltawerken online. (2014). Accessed October 29, 2015: http://www.deltawerken.com/Deltaworks/23.htmlGoogle Scholar
Designs Northwest. (2015). Accessed February 7, 2016: http://www.designsnw.com/portfolio/#fancyboxID-5Google Scholar
Dircke, P., Molenaar, A., and Aerts, J. (2012). Climate adaptation and flood management in the City of Rotterdam. In Aerts, J., Botzen, W., Bowman, M., Ward, P. J., and Dircke, P. (eds.), Climate Adaptation and Flood Risk in Coastal Cities. Earthscan.Google Scholar
Duarte, C. M., Losada, I. J., Hendriks, I. E., Marzarrasa, I., and Marba, N., 2013. The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Nature Climate Change 3, 961968.Google Scholar
Eggleston, J., and Pope, J. (2013) Land subsidence and relative sea-level rise in the southern Chesapeake Bay region: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1392. Accessed February 18, 2014: http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/cir1392.Google Scholar
Elsner, J. B., Kossin, J. P., and Jagger, T. H. (2008). The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature 455(7209), 9295.Google Scholar
Enarrson, L. (2011). Box 8.10. Climate change adaptation in Stockholm, Sweden. In Blanco, H., McCarney, P., Parnell, S., Schmidt, M., and Seto, K. C. (eds.), The role of urban land in climate change. In Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W. D., Hammer, S. A. and Mehrotra, S. (eds.), Climate Change and Cities: First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network (217248). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Engelhart, S. E., and Horton, B. P. (2012). Holocene sea level database for the Atlantic coast of the United States. Quaternary Science Reviews 54, 1225.Google Scholar
Environment Agency (2012). Thames Estuary 2100: Managing Flood Risk Through London and the Thames Estuary: TE2100 Plan. Strategic Environmental Assessment, Environmental Report Summary, London, UK. Accessed June 30, 2014: http://www.environment-agency.gov.ukGoogle Scholar
Estrada, F., Botzen, W. J., and Tol, R. S. J. (2015). Economic losses from U.S. hurricanes consistent with an influence from climate change. Nature Geoscience 8, 880884.Google Scholar
Ezer, T., 2013. Sea level rise, spatially uneven and temporally unsteady: Why the U.S. East Coast, the global tide gauge record, and the global altimeter data show different trends. Geophysical Research Letters 40, 16. doi:10.1002/2013GL057952Google Scholar
Ferguson, G., and Gleeson, T. (2012). Vulnerability of coastal aquifers to groundwater use and climate change. Nature Climate Change 2, 342345.Google Scholar
Finney, C. (2013). A future afloat. Geographical Magazine. Accessed October 3, 2015: http://www.geographical.co.uk/Magazine/Floating_houses_-_Jul_13.htmlGoogle Scholar
Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2006). The homeowner’s guide to the Coastal Construction Control Line Program (Section 161.053), Florida Statutes. Accessed August 12, 2015: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/beaches/publications/pdf/propowner.pdfGoogle Scholar
Fuchs, R. J. (2010). Cities at risk: Asia’s coastal cities in an age of climate change. AsiaPacific Issues, Analysis from the East-West Center No. 96. Accessed October 13, 2014: http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.eduGoogle Scholar
Füssel, H. M., and Klein, R. J. (2006). Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Climatic Change, 75(3), 301329.Google Scholar
Gao, Y., Cornwell, J. C., Stoecker, D. K., and Owens, M. S. (2012). Effects of cyanobacterial-driven pH increases on sediment nutrient fluxes and coupled nitrification-denitrification in a shallow fresh water estuary. Biogeosciences Discussions 9(1), 11611198.Google Scholar
Gehrels, W. R., and Woodworth, P. L. (2013). When did modern rates of sea-level rise start? Global and Planetary Change 100, 263277.Google Scholar
Giosan, L. (2014). Protect the world’s deltas. Nature 516, 3133.Google Scholar
Glibert, P. M., Icarus Allen, J., Artioli, Y., Beusen, A., Bouwman, L., Harle, J., Holmes, R., and Holt, J. (2014). Vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to changes in harmful algal bloom distribution in response to climate change: Projections based on model analysis. Global Change Biology. doi:10.1111/gcb.12662Google Scholar
Gilbert, S. (1986). The Thames Barrier. Thomas Telford Ltd.Google Scholar
Gornitz, V. (2013). Coping with the rising waters. In Gornitz, V (ed.), Rising Seas: Past, Present, Future (211247). Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Grinsted, A., Moore, J. C., and Jevrejeva, S. (2012). Homogeneous record of Atlantic hurricane surge threat since 1923. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(48), 1960119605.Google Scholar
Grinsted, A., Moore, J. C., and Jevrejeva, S. (2013). Projected Atlantic hurricane surge threat from rising temperatures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(14), 53695373.Google Scholar
Hall, J. W., Sayers, P. B., and Dawson, R. J. (2005), National-scale assessment of current and future flood risk in England and Wales, Natural Hazards 36(1–2), 147164.Google Scholar
Hallegatte, S., Green, C., Nicholls, R. J., and Corfee-Morlot, J. (2013). Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nature Climate Change 3(9), 802806.Google Scholar
Handmer, J., Honda, Y., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Arnell, N., Benito, G., Hatfield, J., Mohamed, I. F., Peduzzi, P., Wu, S., Sherstyukov, B., Takahashi, K., and Yan, Z. (2012). Changes in impacts of climate extremes: Human systems and ecosystems. In Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (231290). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hanson, S., Nicholls, R., Ranger, N., Hallegatte, S., Corfee-Morlot, J., Herweijer, C., and Chateau, J. (2011). A global ranking of port cities with high exposure to climate extremes. Climatic Change 104, 89111.Google Scholar
Haque, S. A. (2006). Salinity problems and crop production in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38(5), 13591365.Google Scholar
Hartig, E. K., Gornitz, V., Kolker, A., Mushacke, F., and Fallon, D. (2002). Anthropogenic and climate-change impacts on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Wetlands 22, 7189.Google Scholar
Heering, H., Firoz, R., and Khan, Z. H. (2010). Climate change adaptation measures in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. In Deltas in Times of Climate Change, Rotterdam, Sept. 29–Oct. 1, 2010, PDD1.5–09 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
Hefty, N. L. (2011). Miami-Dade County: A case study on mitigation and adaptation. Climate information for managing risks symposium. Accessed June 28, 2015: www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/cimr/Presentations/Wednesday/pm/0315(2)_Hefty.pdfGoogle Scholar
Heimlich, B. N., Bloetscher, F., Meeroff, D. E., and Murley, J. (2009). Southeast Florida’s Resilient Water Resources: Adaptation to Sea Level Rise and Other Impacts of Climate Change. Center for Urban and Other Environmental Solutions at Florida Atlantic University, 11/15/09. Accessed December 11, 2015: www.fau.edu/SE_Florida_Resilient_Water_Resources.pdfGoogle Scholar
Hein, L., Metzger, M. J., and Moreno, A. (2009). Potential impacts of climate change on tourism; A case study for Spain. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1, 170178.Google Scholar
Henderson, J. V. and Wang, H. G (2007). Urbanization and city growth: The role of institutions Regional Science and Urban Economics 37(3), 283313.Google Scholar
Hinkel, J., Lincke, D., Vafeidis, A. T., Perrette, M., Nicholls, R. J., Tol, R. S. J. et al. (2014). Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(9), 32923297.Google Scholar
Hopkinson, C. S., Lugo, A. E., Alber, M., Covich, A. P., and Van Bloem, S. J. (2008) Forecasting effects of sea-level rise and windstorms on coastal and inland ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 6, 255263.Google Scholar
Horton, R., Bader, D.A., Kushner, Y., Little, C., Blake, R. and Rosenzweig, C. (2015). New York City Panel on Climate Change 2015 Report: Climate observations and projections. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 1336, 1835, doi:10.1111/nyas.12586.Google Scholar
Hu, A., Meehl, G. A., Han, W., and Yin, J. (2011). Effect of the potential melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the Meridional Overturning Circulation and global climate in the future. Deep-Sea Research II 58, 19141926.Google Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2012). Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Dokken, D. J., Ebi, K. L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Plattner, G. -K., Allen, S. K., Tignor, M., and Midgley, P. M. (eds.). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); Church, J. A., Clark, P. U., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J. M., Jevrejeva, S., Levermann, A., Merrifield, M. A., Milne, G. A., Nerem, R. S., Nunn, P. D., Payne, A. J., Pfefer, W. T., Stammer, D., and Unnikrishnan, A. S. (2013). Sea level change. In Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G. -K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M. (eds.), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2014a). Summary for policymakers. In Field, C. B., Barros, V. R., Dokken, D. J., Mach, K. J., Mastrandrea, M. D., Bilir, T. E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K. L., Estrada, Y. O., Genova, R. C., Girma, B., Kissel, E. S., Levy, A. N., MacCracken, S., Mastrandrea, P. R., and White, L. L. (eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (132). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2014b). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
International Global Change Institute (IGCI). (2015). Accessed March 7, 2016: http://igci.org.nz/dunes/solutions/solution-1/Google Scholar
Jenkins, G. J., Perry, M. C., and Prior, M. J. (2008). The Climate of the United Kingdom and Recent Trends. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK.Google Scholar
Jin, D., Ashton, A. D., and Hoagland, P. (2013). Optimal responses to shoreline changes: An integrated economic and geological model with application to curved coasts. Natural Resource Modeling 26(4), 572604.Google Scholar
Jones, L., Angus, S., Cooper, A., Doody, P., Everard, M., Garbutt, A., Gilchrist, P., Hansom, J., Nicholls, R., Pye, K., Ravenscroft, N., Rees, S., Rhind, P., and Whitehouse, A. (2011). Chapter 11: Coastal margins. In The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. UK National Ecosystem Assessment. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Jones, M. R., Fowler, H. J., Kilsby, C. G., and Blenkinsop, S. (2013). An assessment of changes in seasonal and annual extreme rainfall in the UK between 1961 and 2009. International Journal of Climatology 33, 11781194.Google Scholar
Jongman, B., Ward, P. J., and Aerts, J. C. (2012). Global exposure to river and coastal flooding: Long term trends and changes. Global Environmental Change 22(4), 823835.Google Scholar
Kabat, P., Fresco, L. O., l Stive, M. J. F., Veerman, C. P., van Alphen, J. S. L., Parmat, B. W. A. H., Hazeleger, W., and Katsman, C. A. (2009). Dutch coasts in transition. Nature Geoscience 2, 450452.Google Scholar
Kadiri, M., Ahmadian, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B., Rauen, W., and Falconer, R. (2012). A review of the potential water quality impacts of tidal renewable energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(1), 329341.Google Scholar
Katsman, C. A., Sterl, A., Beersma, J. J., van den Brink, H. W., Church, J. A., Hazeleger, H., Kopp, R. E., Kroon, D., Kwadijk, J., Lammersen, R., Lowe, J., Oppenheimer, M., Plag, H. -P., Ridley, J., van Storch, H., Vaughn, D. G., Vellinga, P., Vermeersen, L. L. A., van de Wal, R. S. W., and Weisse, R. (2011). Exploring high-end scenarios for local sea level rise to develop flood protection strategies for a low-lying delta—the Netherlands as an example. Climatic Change 109, 617645.Google Scholar
Kemp, A. C., Horton, B. P., Donnelly, J. P., Mann, M. E., Vermeer, M., and Rahmstorf, S. (2011). Climate related sea-level variations over the past two millennia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(27), 1101711022.Google Scholar
Khan, M. S. A., Mondal, M. S., Kumar, U., Rahman, R., Huq, H., and Dutta, D. K. (2013). Climate change, salinity intrusion and water insecurity in peri-urban Khulna, Bangladesh. In Prakash, A., and Singh, S. (eds.), Water Security in Peri-urban South Asia: Adapting to Climate Change and Urbanisation (930). SaciWATERs and IDRC.Google Scholar
Kirwan, M. L., Guntenspergen, G. R., D’Alpaos, A. D., Morris, J. T., Mudd, S. M., and Temmermann, S. (2010). Limits on the adaptability of coastal marches to rising sea level. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L23401. doi:10.1012/2010GL045489Google Scholar
Kirwan, M. L., and Megonigal, J. P. (2013). Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise. Nature 504, 5360.Google Scholar
Kiunsi, R. (2013). The constraints on climate change adaptation in a city with a large development deficit: The case of Dar es Salaam. Environment and Urbanization 25(2), 321337.Google Scholar
Knutson, T. R., McBride, J.L., Chan, J., Emanuel, K., Holland, G., Landsea, C., Held, I., Kossin, J.P., Srivastava, A.K., and Sugi, M. (2010). Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience 3, 157163.Google Scholar
Kossin, J. P., Emanuel, K. A., and Vecchi, G. A. (2014). The poleward migration of the location of tropical cyclone maximum intensity. Nature 509, 349352.Google Scholar
Lal, R. (2008). Carbon sequestration. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1492), 815830.Google Scholar
Le Dang, H., Li, E., Nuberg, I., and Bruwer, J. (2014). Understanding farmers’ adaptation intention to climate change: A structural equation modelling study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Environmental Science and Policy 41, 1122.Google Scholar
Lerman, A., Guidry, M., Andersson, A. J., and Mackenzie, F. T. (2011). Coastal ocean last glacial maximum to 2100 CO2-carbonic acid-carbonate system: A modeling approach. Aquatic Geochemistry 17, 749773.Google Scholar
Lewis, A., Estefen, S., Huckerby, J., Musial, W., Pontes, T., and Torres-Martinez, J. (2011). Ocean energy. In Edenhofer, O., Pichs-Madruga, R., Sokona, Y., Seyboth, K., Matschoss, P., Kadner, S., Zwickel, T., Eickemeier, P., Hansen, G., Schlömer, S., and von Stechow, C. (eds.), IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lichter, M., Vafeidis, A. T., Nicholls, R. J., and Kaiser, G. (2010). Exploring data-related uncertainties in analyses of land area and population in the Low-Elevation Coastal Zone(LECZ). Journal of Coastal Research 27(4), 757768.Google Scholar
Little, C. M., Horton, R. M., Kopp, R. E., Oppenheimer, M., Vecchi, G. A., and Villarini, G. (2015). Joint projections of U.S. East Coast sea level and storm surge. Nature Climate Change 5, 11141120.Google Scholar
Liu, L. (2014). Feasibility of large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects, New Journal of Physics 16(12) (123019).Google Scholar
Maantay, J., and Maroko, A. (2009) Mapping urban risk: Flood hazards, race, and environmental justice in New York. Applied Geography 29(1), 111124.Google Scholar
Malm, A., and Esmailian, S. (2013) Ways in and out of vulnerability to climate change: Abandoning the Mubarak Project in the northern Nile Delta, Egypt. Antipode 45(2), 474492.Google Scholar
Masters, D., Nerem, R. S., Choe, C., Leuliette, E., Beckley, B., White, N., and Ablain, M. (2012). Comparison of global mean sea level time series from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2. Marine Geodesy 35(suppl. 1), 2041.Google Scholar
Mazi, K., Koussis, A. D., and Destouni, G. (2013). Tipping points for seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers under rising sea level. Environmental Research Letters 8(1), 014001.Google Scholar
McGranahan, G., Balk, D., and Anderson, B. (2007). The rising tide: Assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environment and Urbanization 19 (1), 1737.Google Scholar
McIvor, A. L., Möller, I., Spencer, T., and Spalding, M. (2012). Reduction of Wind and Swell Waves by Mangroves. Natural Coastal Protection Series: Report 1. Cambridge Coastal Research Unit Working Paper 40. The Nature Conservancy and Wetlands International. Accessed July 28, 2015: http://www.naturalcoastalprotection.org/documents/reduction-of-wind-and-swell-waves-by-mangrovesGoogle Scholar
McLeman, R. A. (2011). Settlement abandonment in the context of global environmental change. Global Environmental Change 21, S108S120.Google Scholar
Mendelsohn, R., Emanuel, K., Chonabayashi, S., and Bakkensen, L. (2012). The impact of climate change on global tropical cyclone damage. Nature Climate Change 2, 205209.Google Scholar
Milligan, J., O’Riordan, T., Nicholson-Cole, S. A., and Watkinson, A. R. (2009). Nature conservation for sustainable shorelines: Lessons from seeking to involve the public. Land Use Policy 26(2), 203213.Google Scholar
Möller, I., Kudella, M., Rupprecht, F., Spencer, T., Paul, M., van Wesenbeeck, B., Wolters, G., Jensen, K., Bouma, T. J., Miranda-Lange, M., and Schimmels, S. (2014). Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions. Nature Geoscience 7 (Oct. 2014). doi:10.1038/NGEO2251Google Scholar
Mondal, M. S., Jalal, M. R., Khan, M. S. A., Kumar, U., Rahman, R., and Huq, H. (2013, March). Hydro-meteorological trends in southwest coastal Bangladesh: Perspectives of climate change and human interventions. American Journal of Climate Change, Scientific Research 6270.Google Scholar
Moriarty, P., and Honnery, D. (2012). What is the global potential for renewable energy?. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(1), 244252.Google Scholar
Moser, S., Williams, S., and Boesch, D. (2012). Wicked challenges at Land’s End: Managing coastal vulnerability under climate change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 37, 5178.Google Scholar
Murtaza, G. (2001). Environmental problems in Khulna City, Bangladesh: A spatio-household level study. Global Built Environment Review 1(2), 3237.Google Scholar
Nakicenovic, N., and Swart, R. (eds.). (2000, July). Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Narita, D., Rehdanz, K., and Tol, R. S. J. (2011). Economic costs of ocean acidification: A look into the impacts on global shellfish production. Climate Change. doi:10.1007/s10584–011–0383–3Google Scholar
National Park Service (NPS). U.S. Dept. of Interior (2016). Moving the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse. Accessed April 6, 2017: http://nps.gov/caha/historyculture/movingthelighthouse.htmGoogle Scholar
National Research Council (NCR). (1995). Beach Nourishment and Protection. National Academies Press. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
Neumann, B., Vafeidis, A.T., Zimmermann, J., and Nicholls, R.J. 2015. Future coastal population growth and coastal flooding – a global assessment. PLoS ONE 10(3):e0118571;doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118571.Google Scholar
New York City Environmental Justice Alliance (NYC-EJA). (2015). Project Description for the South Bronx Community Resiliency Agenda. Accessed April 9, 2016: http://www.nyc-eja.org/Google Scholar
New York City Office of Emergency Management. (2014). NYC Hazard Mitigation Plan. Accessed August 10, 2015: http://www.nyc.gov/html/oem/html/planning_response/planning_hazard_mitigation_2014.shtmlGoogle Scholar
New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC). (2010). Climate change adaptation in New York City: Building a risk management response, Rosenzweig, C. and Solecki, W., eds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Accessed December 2, 2015: http://www.nyas.orgGoogle Scholar
New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC). (2013). Climate Risk Information 2013: Observations, Climate Change Projections, and Maps, Rosenzweig, C. and Solecki, W., eds. Prepared for use by the City of New York Special Initiative on Rebuilding and Resiliancy. Accessed July 9, 2015: www.nyc.gov/planyc, www.nyc.gov/resiliencyGoogle Scholar
New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC). (2015). Building the knowledge base for climate resiliency, Rosenzweig, C. and Solecki, W., eds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1336.Google Scholar
Nicholls, R. J. (2004). Coastal flooding and wetland loss in the 21st century: Changes under the SRES climate and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environment Change 14, 6986.Google Scholar
Nicholls, R. J., Wong, P. P., Burkett, V. R., Codignotto, J. O., Hay, J. E., McLean, R. F., Ragoonaden, S., and Woodroffe, C. D. (2007). Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In Parry, M. L., Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden, P. J., and Hanson, C. E. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (315356). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Nicholls, R. J., Wong, P. P., Burkett, V. R., Woodroffe, C. D., and Hay, J. E. (2008). Climate change and coastal vulnerability assessment: Scenarios for integrated assessment. Sustainability Science 3(1), 89102.Google Scholar
Nicholls, R. J., Woodroffe, C. D., Burkett, V., Hay, J., Wong, P. P., and Nurse, L. (2012). Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment. In Wolanski, E. and McLusky, D. (eds.), Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science: Volume 12: Ecological Economics of Estuaries and Coasts (289303). Elsevier.Google Scholar
Nicholls, R. J., Dawson, R. J., and Day, S. (2015). Broad Scale Coastal Simulation: New Techniques to Understand and Manage Shorelines in the Third Millennium, Springer.Google Scholar
Nicholson-Cole, S. A., and O’Riordan, T. (2009). Adaptive governance for a changing coastline: Science, policy and publics in search of a sustainable future. In Adger, W. N., Lorenzoni, I., and O’Brien, K. L. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values, Governance. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Nitto, D., Neukermans, G., Koedam, N., Defever, H., Pattyn, F., Kairo, J. G., and Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2014). Mangroves facing climate change: Landward migration potential in response to projected scenarios of sea level rise. Biogeosciences 11(3), 857871.Google Scholar
NOAA. (2015). Coastal flooding in California. Accessed March 19, 2016: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/news/dec15/california-flooding.htmlGoogle Scholar
NOAA Tides and Currents. Accessed May 15, 2017: (2016). http://www.tidesandcurrents/noaa.gov.Google Scholar
Nordenson, G., Seavitt, C., and Yarinsky, A. (2010). On the Water/Palisade Bay. Hatje Cantz Verlag and the Museum of Modern Art.Google Scholar
Norfolk Virginia. (2013). Coastal resilience strategy. Accessed July 9, 2015: http://www.norfolk.gov/DocumentCenter/View/16292Google Scholar
Olsson, L., Opondo, L., Tschakert, P., Agrawal, A., Eriksen, S., Ma, S., Perch, L., and Zakieldeen, S. (2014). Livelihoods and poverty. In Field, C. B., Barros, V. R., Dokken, D. J., Mach, K. J., Mastrandrea, M. D., Bilir, T. E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K. L., Estrada, Y. O., Genova, R. C., Girma, B., Kissel, E. S., Levy, A. N., MacCracken, S., Mastrandrea, P. R., and White, L. L. (eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (793832). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
O’Neill, B. C., Kriegler, E., Riahi, K., Ebi, K. L., Hallegatte, S., Carter, T. R., Mathur, R. and van Vuuren, D. P. (2014). A new scenario framework for climate change research: The concept of shared socioeconomic pathways. Climatic Change 122(3), 387400.Google Scholar
Paavola, J., Adger, W. N., and Huq, S. (2006). Multifaceted Justice in Adaptation to Climate Change. In Adger, W. N., Paavola, J., and Huq, S. (eds.), Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change (263277). MIT Press.Google Scholar
Peduzzi, P. et al. (2012). Global trends in tropical cyclone risk. Nature Climate Change 2, 289294.Google Scholar
Pelling, M., and Blackburn, S. (eds.). (2014). Megacities and the Coast: Risk, Resilience and Transformation. Routledge.Google Scholar
Perry, A. (2006). Will predicted climate change compromise the sustainability of Mediterranean tourism? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14(4), 367375.Google Scholar
Pilkey, O., and Young, R. (2009). The Rising Sea. Island Press.Google Scholar
Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. (2013). Plano de Contingência. Accessed July 22, 2014: http://www.rio.rj.gov.br/web/defesacivil/plano-de-contingenciaGoogle Scholar
Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. (2015). Rio Resiliente: Diagnóstico e Áreas de Foco. Accessed March 10, 2016: http://www.centrodeoperacoes.rio.gov.br/Google Scholar
Raucoules, D., Le Cozannet, G., Wöppelmann, G., de Michele, M., Gravelle, M., Daag, A., and Marcos, M. (2013). High nonlinear urban ground motion in Manila (Philippines) from 1993 to 2010 observed by DInSAR: Implications for sea-level measurement. Remote Sensing of Environment 139, 386397.Google Scholar
Resch, G., Held, A., Faber, T., Panzer, C., Toro, F., and Haas, R. (2008). Potentials and prospects for renewable energies at global scale. Energy Policy 36(11), 40484056.Google Scholar
Rijcken, T. (2010). Rhine Estuary closable but open—An integrated systems approach to floodproofing the Rhine and Meuse estuaries in the 21st century. In Rotterdam’s Climate Adaptation Research Summaries 2010 (1011). Accessed May 8, 2014: www.rotterdamclimateinitiative.nlGoogle Scholar
Romero-Lankao, P. (2007). How do local governments in Mexico City manage global warming? Local Environment 12, 519535.Google Scholar
Rossello-Nadal, J. (2014). How to evaluate the effects of climate change on tourism. Tourism Management 42, 334340.Google Scholar
Rotterdam Climate Proof. (2010). Rotterdam’s Climate Adaptation—Research Summaries 2010. Accessed October 5, 2014: http://www.rotterdamclimateinitiative.nlGoogle Scholar
Rotzoll, K., and Fletcher, C. H. (2013). Assessment of groundwater inundation as a consequence of sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change 3(5), 477481.Google Scholar
Rowe, M. (2013). On shaky ground. Geographical Magazine. Accessed June 9, 2014: http://www.geographical.co.uk/Magazine/Asias_inking_cities_-_May_13.html/Google Scholar
Sandy Regional Assembly. (2013). Sandy Regional Assembly recovery agenda. Accessed September 18, 2014: http://www.nyc-eja.org/public/publications/SandyRegionalAssembly_SIRRAnalysis.pdf/Google Scholar
Satterthwaite, D. (2013). The political underpinnings of cities’ accumulated resilience to climate change. Environment and Urbanization 25(2), 381391.Google Scholar
Satterthwaite, D., Huq, S., Pelling, M., Reid, H., and Romero-Lankao, P. (2007). Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-Income Nations. Human Settlements Working Paper Series, Climate Change and Cities No.1. International Institute for Environment.Google Scholar
Schiermeir, Q. (2014). Holding back the tide. Nature 508, 164166.Google Scholar
Schlosberg, D., and Collins, L. (2014). From environmental to climate justice: Climate change and the discourse of environmental justice. WIREs Climate Change 5(3), 359374.Google Scholar
Schmidt, C. (2015). Alarm over a sinking delta. Science 348, 845846.Google Scholar
Scott, D., Hall, C. M., and Gossling, S. (2012). Government, industry and destination adaptation to climate change. In Scott, D., Hall, C. M., and Gossling, S. (eds.), Tourism and Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (265297). Routledge.Google Scholar
Scråmestø, O. S., Skilhagen, S. -E., and Nielsen, W. K. (2009). Power production based on osmotic pressure. In Waterpower XVI Conference, Spokane, Washington, July 27–30, 2009.Google Scholar
Seto, K. C. (2011). Exploring the dynamics of migration to mega-delta cities in Asia and Africa: Contemporary drivers and future scenarios. Global Environmental Change 21, S94S107.Google Scholar
Sherbinin, A., Schiller, A., and Pulsipher, A. (2013). The vulnerability of global cities to climate hazards. Environment and Urbanization 19(1), 3964.Google Scholar
SIRR and PlaNYC (2013, June). A Stronger, More Resilient New York. City of New York, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg.Google Scholar
Small, C., and Nicholls, R. J. (2003). A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones. Journal of Coastal Research, 584599.Google Scholar
Smit, B., Pilifosova, O., Burton, I., Challenger, B., Huq, S., Klein, R. J. T., Yohe, G., Adger, N., Downing, T., Harvey, E., Kane, S., Parry, M., Skinner, M., Smith, J., and Wandel, J. (2001). Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity. In McCarthy, J. J., Canziani, O. F., Leary, N. A., Dokken, D. J., and White, K. S. (eds.), Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Smit, B. and Pilifosova, O. (2003). From adaptation to adaptive capacity and vulnerability reduction. In Smith, J., Klein, R., and Huq, S. (eds.), Climate Change: Adaptive Capacity and Development. Imperial College Press.Google Scholar
Southall, A. (2016). El Niño Puts Pacifica Cliff Apartments at risk. New York Times. Accessed April 3, 2016: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/0127/us/el-nino-storms-put-pacifica-cliff-apartments-at-risk.html?_r=0Google Scholar
Southeast Florida Regional Compact Climate Change. (2011). A Unified Sea Level Rise Projection for Southeast Florida. Accessed June 7, 2015: www.broward.org/NaturalResources/ClimateChange/Documents/SE_FL_Sea_Level_Rise_White_Paper_April_2011ADAFINAL.pdfGoogle Scholar
Southeast Florida Regional Compact Climate Change. (2012). A Region Responds to a Changing Climate: Southeast Regional Compact Counties Regional Climate Action Plan, October 2012. Accessed October 22, 2014: http://www.southeastfloridaclimatecompact.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/regional-climate-action-plan-final-adn-compliant.pdfGoogle Scholar
Southeast Florida Regional Compact Climate Change. (2014). Integrating Climate Change and Water Supply Planning in Southeast Florida, June 14, 2014. Accessed March 11, 2015: http://southeastfloridaclimatecompact.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/rcap-igd-water-supply-final-v-3.pdfGoogle Scholar
Stalenberg, B. (2012). Innovative flood defences in highly urbanized water cities. In Aerts, J., Botzen, W., Bowman, M. J., Ward, P. J. and Dircke, P. (eds.), Climate Adaptation and Flood Risk in Coastal Cities (145164). Earthscan.Google Scholar
Strauss, B. H., Kopp, R. E., Sweet, W. V., and Bittermann, K. (2016). Unnatural Coastal Floods: Sea level Rise and the Human Fingerprint on U.S. Floods Since 1950 (116). Climate Central Research Report.Google Scholar
Sweet, W. V., and Marra, J. J. (2015). 2014 State of nuisance tidal flooding. Accessed March 19, 2016: http://www.noaa.gov/pub/data/cmb/special-reports/sweet-marra-nuisance-flooding-2015.pdfGoogle Scholar
Sweet, W., Park, J., Marra, J., Zervas, C., and Gill, S. (2014). Sea Level Rise and Nuisance Flood Frequency Changes around the United States. NOAA Technical Report NOS CO-OPS 073.Google Scholar
Syvitski, J. P. M., Kettner, A. J., Overeem, I., Hutton, E. W. H., Hannon, M. T., Brakenridge, G. R., Day, J., Vörörosmarty, Saito, Y., Giosan, L., and Nicholls, R. J. (2009). Sinking deltas due to human activities. Nature Geoscience 2, 681686. doi:10.1038/NGE0629Google Scholar
Talke, S., Orton, P., and Jay, D. (2014). Increasing storm tides at New York City, 1844–2013. Geophysical Letters 41. doi:10.1002/2014GL059574Google Scholar
Tebaldi, C., Strauss, B. H., and Zervas, C. E. (2012). Modelling sea level rise impacts on storm surges along U.S. coasts. Environmental Research Letters 7, 014032.Google Scholar
Titus, J. G., and Craghan, M. (2009). Shore protection and retreat. In Titus, J. G. et al. (eds.), Coastal Sensitivity to Sea Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region. U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1. (87103). U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Torio, D. D., and Chmura, G. L. (2013). Assessing coastal squeeze of tidal wetlands. Journal of Coastal Research 29(5), 10491061.Google Scholar
UN-DESA (2012). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.Google Scholar
UN-Habitat. (2008). State of the World’s Cities: Harmonious Cities. Earthscan.Google Scholar
UN-Habitat. (2011). Global Report on Human Settlements 2011: Cities and Climate Change. Earthscan.Google Scholar
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (2009). Sustainable Coastal Tourism: An Integrated Planning and Management Approach. UNEP.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). (2010). Energy Effi ciency and Renewable Energy Marine and Hydrokinetic Database. US DOE. Accessed September 23, 2014: www.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydrokinetic/default.aspx.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). (2012). Turbines off NYC East River will provide power to 9, 500 residents. Accessed February 8, 2015: http://energy.gov/articles/turbines-nyc-east-river-will-provide-power-9500-residents/Google Scholar
Vafeidis, A. T., Nicholls, R. J., McFadden, L., Tol, R. S., Hinkel, J., Spencer, T., Grashoff, P. S., Boot, G. and Klein, R. J., 2008. A new global coastal database for impact and vulnerability analysis to sea-level rise. Journal of Coastal Research, pp.917924.Google Scholar
Valverde, H. R., Trembanis, A. C., and Pilkey, O. H. (1999). Summary of beach nourishment episodes on the U.S. East Coast Barrier Islands. Journal of Coastal Research 15, 11001118.Google Scholar
Van Lavieren, H., Spalding, M., Alongi, D., Kainuma, M., Clüsener-Godt, M., and Adeel, Z. (2012). Securing the future of mangroves. A policy brief. UNU-INWEH, UNESCO-MAB with ISME, ITTO, FAO, UNEP-WCMC, and TNC (319). Earthscan.Google Scholar
van Veelen, P. (2010). Adaptive building is an important component of flood-proofing strategy. In Rotterdam’s Climate Adaptation Research Summaries 2010 (12–15). Accessed May 2, 2015: www.rotterdamclimateinitiative.nlGoogle Scholar
Verdant Power. (2014). The RITE Project, New York, NY (East River-East Channel). Accessed May 8, 2015: http://verdantpower.com/rite-project.html/Google Scholar
Wahl, T., Jain, S., Bender, S., Meyers, S. D., and Luther, M. E. (2015). Increasing risk of compound flooding from storm surge and rainfall for major cities. Nature Climate Change 5, 10931097.Google Scholar
Walsh, C. L., Roberts, D., Dawson, R. J., Hall, J. W., Nickson, A., and Hounsome, R. (2013). Experiences of integrated assessment modelling in London and Durban, Environment and Urbanisation 25(2), 257376.Google Scholar
Wilbanks, T. J., and Fernandez, S. (2014). Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities: Technical Report for the US Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment. Island Press.Google Scholar
Wolf, J., Walkington, I. A., Holt, J., and Burrows, R. (2009). Environmental impacts of tidal power schemes. Proceedings of the ICE-Maritime Engineering 162(4), 165177.Google Scholar
Wong, P. P., Losada, I. J., Gattuso, J. -P., Hinkel, J., Khattabi, A. McInnes, K. L., Saito, Y., and Sallenger, A. (2014). Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In Field, C. B., Barros, V. R., Dokken, D. J., Mach, K. J., Mastrandrea, M. D., Bilir, T. E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K. L., Estrada, Y. O., Genova, R. C., Girma, B., Kissel, E. S., Levy, A. N., MacCracken, S., Mastrandrea, P. R., and White, L. L. (eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Yin, J. and Goddard, P.B, Oceanic control of sea level rise patterns along the East Coast of the United States, 2013. Geophysical Research Letters 40, 55145520, doi:10.1002/2013GL057992.Google Scholar
Yin, J., Griffies, S. M., and Stouffer, R. J. (2010). Spatial variability of sea level rise in twenty-first projections. Journal of Climate 23, 45854608.Google Scholar
Yoo, G., Kim, A., and Hadi, S. (2014). A methodology to assess environmental vulnerability in a coastal city: Application to Jakarta, Indonesia. Ocean and Coastal Management 102, 169177.Google Scholar
Boon, J. D. (2012). Evidence of sea level acceleration at U.S., and Canadian tide stations, Atlantic coast, North America. Journal of Coastal Research 28(6), 14371445. doi:10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-12–00102.1Google Scholar
Boon, J. D., Brubaker, J. M., and Forrest, D. R. (2010). Chesapeake Bay Land Subsidence and Sea Level Change: An Evaluation of Past and Present Trends and Future Outlook. Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering Report No. 425. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA.Google Scholar
Ezer, T. (2013). Sea level rise, spatially uneven and temporally unsteady: Why the U.S. East Coast, the global tide gauge record and the global altimeter data show different trends. Geophysical Research Letters 40(20), 54395444. doi:10.1002/2013GL057952Google Scholar
Ezer, T., and Atkinson, L. P. (2014), Accelerated flooding along the U.S. East Coast: On the impact of sea level rise, tides, storms, the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Oscillations. Earth’s Future 2(8), 362382. doi:10.1002/2014EF000252Google Scholar
Ezer, T., Atkinson, L. P. Corlett, W. B., and Blanco, J. L. (2013). Gulf Stream’s induced sea level rise and variability along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast, Journal of Geophysical Research 118(2), 685697. doi:10.1002/jgrc.20091Google Scholar
Ezer, T., and Corlett, W. B. (2012). Is sea level rise accelerating in the Chesapeake Bay? A demonstration of a novel new approach for analyzing sea level data. Geophysical Research Letters 39(19), L19605. doi:10.1029/2012GL053435Google Scholar
Norfolk. (2013). Coastal resilience strategy. Page 2. Accessed November 21, 2015: http://www.norfolk.gov/DocumentCenter/View/16292Google Scholar
Norfolk. (2014). Norfolk’s Resilience Challenge. Accessed February 11, 2015: http://www.100resilientcities.org/cities/entry/norfolks-resilience-challenge#/-_/Google Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
Sallenger, A. H., Doran, K. S., and Howd, P. (2012) Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic coast of North America. Nature Climate Change 2, 884888. doi:10.1038/NCILMATE1597Google Scholar
Steinhilber, E. E., Considine, C., and Whitelaw, J. (2015). Hampton Roads Sea Level Rise Preparedness and Resilience Intergovernmental Pilot Project. Accessed February 26, 2015: http://digitalcommons.odu.edu/hripp_reports/1/Google Scholar
Sweet, W. V., and Park, J. (2014). From the extreme to the mean: Acceleration and tipping points of coastal inundation from sea level rise. Earth’s Future 2(12), 579.Google Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Decennial census, summary file 1. Accessed February 11, 2015: http://www.census.gov/population/metro/files/CBSA%20Report%20Chapter%203%20Data.xlsGoogle Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
ADB. (2011). Adapting to Climate Change: Strengthening the Climate Resilience of the Water Sector Infrastructure in Khulna, Bangladesh. The Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
Aqua-Sheltech Consortium. (2002). Draft Structure Plan, Master Plan and Detailed Area Plan (2001–2020) for Khulna City, Volume I: Urban Strategy. Khulna Development Authority, Ministry of Housing and Public Works, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
Hallegatte, S., Green, C., Nicholls, R. J., and Corfee-Morlot, J. (2013) Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nature Climate Change 3, 802806.Google Scholar
IIED. (2009). Climate Change and the Urban Poor: Risk and Resilience in 15 of the World’s Most Vulnerable Cities. International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
Khan, M. S. A., Mondal, M. S., Kumar, U., Rahman, R., Huq, H., and Dutta, D. K. (2013), Climate change, salinity intrusion and water insecurity in peri-urban Khulna, Bangladesh. In Prakash, A., and Singh, S. (eds.), Water Security in Peri-urban South Asia: Adapting to Climate Change and Urbanisation (930). SaciWATERs and IDRC.Google Scholar
Mondal, M. S., Jalal, M. R., Khan, M. S. A., Kumar, U., Rahman, R., and Huq, H. (2013). Hydro-meteorological trends in southwest coastal Bangladesh: Perspectives of climate change and human interventions. American Journal of Climate Change, Scientific Research March, 6270.Google Scholar
Murtaza, G. (2001). Environmental problems in Khulna City, Bangladesh: A spatio-household level study. Global Built Environment Review 1(2), 3237.Google Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
City of Hallandale Beach. (2013). City of Hallandale Beach-Water Supply Strategy. White paper, June 14, 2013. Accessed December 5, 2015: http://www.hallandalebeachfl.gov/files/2013–06–17-HBCRA/Item_10A/Water_Supply_White_Paper-June_17_2013_Commission_Workshop, pdf/Google Scholar
Hefty, N. L. (2011). Miami-Dade County: A case study on mitigation and adaptation. Climate Information for Managing Risks Symposium. Accessed September 25, 2015: http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/cimr/Presentations/Wednesday/pm/0315%20(2)%20%20Hefty.pdfGoogle Scholar
Heimlich, B. N., Bloetscher, F., Meeroff, D. E., and Murley, J. (2009). Southeast Florida’s resilient water resources: Adaptation to sea level rise and other impacts of climate change. Center for Urban and Other Environmental Solutions at Florida Atlantic University, 11/15/09. Accessed November 21, 2015: http://www.ces.fau.edu/files/projects/climate_change/SE_Florida_Resilient_Water_Resources.pdfGoogle Scholar
Knutson, T. R., McBride, J.L, Chan, J., Emanuel, K., Holland, G., Landsea, C., Held, I., Kossin, J.P, Srivastava, A.K, and Sugi, M. (2010). Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience 3, 157163.Google Scholar
Miami-Dade County (2015). Miami Dade Green. Accessed January 3, 2016: http://www.miamidade.gov/green/Google Scholar
NOAA Tides and Currents (2016). Accessed February 12, 2017: http://www.tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/Google Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
Southeast Florida Regional Compact Climate Change (2011). A Unified Sea Level Rise Projection for Southeast Florida. Accessed November 27, 2014: https://www. broward. org/NaturalResources/ClimateChange/Documents/SE%20FL%20Sea%20Level%20Rise%20White%20Paper%20April%202011%20ADA%20FINAL.pdfGoogle Scholar
Southeast Florida Regional Compact Climate Change Compact Counties. (2012). A Region Responds to a Changing Climate: Southeast Regional Compact Counties Regional Climate Action Plan. Accessed December 18, 2015: http://www.southeastfloridaclimatecompact.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/regional-climate-action-plan-final-ada-compliant.pdfGoogle Scholar
Southeast Florida Regional Compact Climate Change (2014). Integrating Climate Change and Water Supply Planning in Southeast Florida, June 14 2014. Accessed July 4, 2015: http://southeastfloridaclimatecompact.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/rcap-igd-water-supply-final-v-3.pdf.Google Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Decennial census, summary file 1. Accessed December 1, 2015: http://www.census.gov/population/metro/files/CBSA%20Report%20Chapter%203%20Data.xlsGoogle Scholar
World Bank. (2017). 2016 GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). Accessed August 9, 2017: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
Boon, J. D. (2012). Evidence of sea level acceleration at U.S., and Canadian tide stations, Atlantic coast, North America. Journal of Coastal Research 28(6), 14371445. doi:10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-12–00102.1Google Scholar
Boon, J. D., Brubaker, J. M., and Forrest, D. R. (2010). Chesapeake Bay Land Subsidence and Sea Level Change: An Evaluation of Past and Present Trends and Future Outlook. Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering Report No. 425. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA.Google Scholar
Ezer, T. (2013). Sea level rise, spatially uneven and temporally unsteady: Why the U.S. East Coast, the global tide gauge record and the global altimeter data show different trends. Geophysical Research Letters 40(20), 54395444. doi:10.1002/2013GL057952Google Scholar
Ezer, T., and Atkinson, L. P. (2014), Accelerated flooding along the U.S. East Coast: On the impact of sea level rise, tides, storms, the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Oscillations. Earth’s Future 2(8), 362382. doi:10.1002/2014EF000252Google Scholar
Ezer, T., Atkinson, L. P. Corlett, W. B., and Blanco, J. L. (2013). Gulf Stream’s induced sea level rise and variability along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast, Journal of Geophysical Research 118(2), 685697. doi:10.1002/jgrc.20091Google Scholar
Ezer, T., and Corlett, W. B. (2012). Is sea level rise accelerating in the Chesapeake Bay? A demonstration of a novel new approach for analyzing sea level data. Geophysical Research Letters 39(19), L19605. doi:10.1029/2012GL053435Google Scholar
Norfolk. (2013). Coastal resilience strategy. Page 2. Accessed November 21, 2015: http://www.norfolk.gov/DocumentCenter/View/16292Google Scholar
Norfolk. (2014). Norfolk’s Resilience Challenge. Accessed February 11, 2015: http://www.100resilientcities.org/cities/entry/norfolks-resilience-challenge#/-_/Google Scholar
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4(2), 462.Google Scholar
Sallenger, A. H., Doran, K. S., and Howd, P. (2012) Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic coast of North America. Nature Climate Change 2, 884888. doi:10.1038/NCILMATE1597