Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-mqrwx Total loading time: 0.582 Render date: 2022-12-07T03:30:57.679Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

9 - Mindfulness Training in Elite Athletes: mPEAK with BMX Cyclists

from II - FORMAL MINDFULNESS INTERVENTIONS IN SPORT

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 January 2016

Lori Haase
Affiliation:
University of California, San Diego, U.S.A.
Göran Kenttä
Affiliation:
Stockholm University, Sweden
Steven Hickman
Affiliation:
University of California, San Diego, U.S.A.
Amy L. Baltzell
Affiliation:
Boston University, U.S.A.
Martin Paulus
Affiliation:
Laureate Institute for Brain Research, U.S.A.
Amy L. Baltzell
Affiliation:
Boston University
Get access

Summary

We introduce the Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK) program along with the theory and research that contributed to creating mPEAK, which was developed by Haase, Paulus, and Hickman. The mPEAK program is an intervention for peak performance based on the mindfulness approach and inspired by Jon Kabat-Zinn's Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The mPEAK intervention is specifically designed to support high-level athletes in becoming more resilient to high demands and pressure in competitive sport and ultimately optimizing sport performance (see Haase et al., 2015). This chapter will provide a brief overview of the theory and research upon which mPEAK was based, including mindfulness, resilience, and the tenets and efficacy of MBSR. Other interventions in sport using mindfulness meditation (MM) will be considered. In addition, each of the four pillars of mPEAK will be reviewed, namely interoception (i.e., sensitivity to body experience); intentional versus default mode of thinking and acting; orientation toward pain and difficulty (versus avoidance); and rejection of perfectionism (acceptance or tolerance of what is). Finally, the mPEAK intervention will be presented, including initial empirical support for the program.

Background

Mindfulness

The mPEAK program's underlying premise is based on the Buddhist conceptualization of mindfulness. The most commonly cited Buddhist-inspired definition of mindfulness comes from Jon Kabat-Zinn (2003). He writes, “An operational working definition of mindfulness is: the awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment by moment” (p. 145). The mindful approach to sport performance is quite different from the typical cognitive behavioral approach used in sport psychology, which is geared toward changing or suppressing thoughts. Such attempts to ignore or stop unwanted thoughts, feelings, and physical sensations often result in the increase of such unwanted thoughts and potentially a disappointing performance (Gardner & Moore, 2007; Wegner, 1994). In contrast, a mindfulness-based approach facilitates performance via the acceptance of physical experience, thoughts, and emotions.

Bishop and colleagues’ (2004) two-component definition of mindfulness brings to light the potential benefit that a mindful approach can bring to performance. Mindfulness practices can cultivate attention, enhance engagement, and when necessary also strengthen the individual's tolerance of emotional or physical difficulty.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ahern, C., Moran, A. P., and Lonsdale, C. (2011). The effects of mindfulness training on athletes’ flow: An initial investigation. Sport Psychologist, 25, 177–189.Google Scholar
Baltzell, A. L., and Ahktar, V. L. (2014). Mindfulness Meditation Training for Sport (MMTS) intervention: Impact of MMTS with Division I female athletes. Journal of Happiness and Well-being, 2(2), 160–173.Google Scholar
Baltzell, A. L., Caraballo, N., Chipman, K., and Hayden, L. (2014). A qualitative study of the Mindfulness Meditation Training for Sport (MMTS): Division I female soccer players’ experience. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 8, 221–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., … Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bph077Google Scholar
Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T. M., Chawla, N., Simpson, T. L., Ostafin, B. D., … Marlatt, G. A. (2006). Mindfulness meditation and substance use in an incarcerated population. Psychology Addictive Behaviors, 20(3), 343–347. doi: 10.1037/0893-164x.20.3.343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brewer, J. A., and Garrison, K. A. (2014). The posterior cingulate cortex as a plausible mechanistic target of meditation: Findings from neuroimaging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1307, 19–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewer, J. A., Worhunsky, P. D., Gray, J. R., Tang, Y. Y., Weber, J., and Kober, H. (2011). Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 108(50), 20254–20259. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1112029108CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell-Sills, L., Cohan, S. L., and Stein, M. B. (2006). Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(4), 585–599. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.05.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, L. E., Speca, M., Faris, P., and Patel, K. D. (2007). One year pre-post intervention follow-up of psychological, immune, endocrine and blood pressure outcomes of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in breast and prostate cancer outpatients. Brain, Behavior, Immunity, 21(8), 1038–1049. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2007.04.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiesa, A., and Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for stress management in healthy people: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(5), 593–600. doi:10.1089/acm.2008.0495CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cioffi, D., and Holloway, J. (1993). Delayed costs of suppressed pain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(2), 274–282. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.2.274CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craig, A. D. (2003). Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13(4), 500–505. doi: 10.1016/S0959-4388(03)00090-4Google Scholar
Craig, A. D. (2009). How do you feel – now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(1), 59–70. doi: 10.1038/nrn2555Google ScholarPubMed
Critchley, H. D., Wiens, S., Rotshtein, P., Ohman, A., and Dolan, R.J., 2004. Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 189–195. doi:10.1038/nn1176CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Petrillo, L., Kaufman, K., Glass, C., and Arnkoff, D. (2009). Mindfulness for long-distance runners: An open trial using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 357–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, K. C., Spreng, R. N., Ellamil, M., and Andrews-Hanna, J. R. (2015). The wandering brain: Meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of mind-wandering and related spontaneous thought processes. Neuroimage, 111, 611–621. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.02.039CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, F. L., and Moore, Z. E. (2007). The psychology of enhancing human performance: The Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Gardner, F. L., and Moore, Z. E. (2012). Mindfulness and acceptance models in sports psychology: A decade of basic and applied scientific advancements. Canadian Psychology, 53(4), 309–318. doi: 10.1037/a0030220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garrison, K. A., Santoyo, J. F., Davis, J. H., and Thornhill, T. A. T. (2013). Effortless awareness: Using real time neurofeedback to investigate correlates of posterior cingulate cortex activity in meditators' self-report. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 440–449. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00440CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garrison, K. A., Zeffiro, T. A., Scheinost, D., and Constable, R. T. (2015). Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 1-9. doi: 10.3758/s13415-015-0358-3Google Scholar
Germer, C. (2009). The mindful path to self-compassion. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K., and Moffett, A. (2002). Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 172–204. doi: 10.1080/10413200290103482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haase, L., May, A., Falahpour, M., Isakovic, S., Simmons, A., Hickman, S., Liu, T., and Paulus, M. (2015). A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 1–12. doi: 0.3389/fnbeh.2015.00229CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haase, L., Thom, N. J., Shukla, A., Davenport, P. W., Simmons, A. N., Paulus, M. P., and Johnson, D. C. (2014). Mindfulness-based training attenuates insula response to an aversive interoceptive challenge. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 1-9. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsu042CrossRef
Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy, 35, 639–665. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80013-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., and Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169–183. doi: 10.1037/a0018555CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D. R., and Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 537–559.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
John, S., Verma, S. K., and Khanna, G. L. (2011). The effect of mindfulness meditation on HPA-Axis in pre-competition stress in sports performance of elite shooters. National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, 2(3), 15–21.Google Scholar
Johnson, D. C., Thom, N. J., Stanley, E. A., Haase, L., Simmons, A. N., Shih, P. A., … Paulus, M. P. (2014). Modifying resilience mechanisms in at-risk individuals: A controlled study of mindfulness training in marines preparing for deployment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(8), 844–853. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13040502CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33–47. doi: 10.1016/0163-8343(82)90026-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–156. doi: 10.1093/clipsy/bpg016Google Scholar
Kabat-Zinn, J., Beall, B., and Rippe, J. (1985, June). A systematic mental training program based on mindfulness meditation to optimize performance in collegiate and Olympic rowers. Poster presented at the World Congress in Sport Psychology, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., and Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 163–190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., and Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). Evaluation of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 334–356.Google Scholar
Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., and Pineau, T. R. (in press). Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): A mindfulness-based mental training program for athletes. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Keng, S. L., Smoski, M. J., and Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 1041–1056. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Killingsworth, M. A., and Gilbert, D. T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, 330, 932. doi: 10.1126/science.1192439CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masten, A. S., Best, K. M., and Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400005812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive behavioral modification: An integrative approach. New York, NY: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mosewich, A. D., Kowalski, K. C., Sabiston, C. M., Sedgwick, W. A., and Tracy, J. L. (2011) Self-compassion: A potential resource for young women athletes. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 103–123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neff, K. D. (2003a). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250. doi: 10.1080/15298860390209035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neff, K. D. (2003b). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85–101. doi: 10.1080/15298860390129863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paulus, M. P., Flagan, T., Simmons, A. N., Gillis, K., Kotturi, S., Thom, N., … Swain, J. L. (2012). Subjecting elite athletes to inspiratory breathing load reveals behavioral and neural signatures of optimal performers in extreme environments. PloS One, 7, e29394. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029394CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paulus, M. P., Potterat, E. G., Taylor, M. K., Van Orden, K. F., Bauman, J., Momen, N., … Swain, J. L. (2009). A neuroscience approach to optimizing brain resources for human performance in extreme environments. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 1080–1088. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.05.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raichle, M. E., MacLeod, A. M., Snyder, A. Z., and Powers, W. J. (2001). A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(2), 676–682. doi: 10.1073/pnas.98.2.676CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reis, N. A., Kowalski, K. C., Ferguson, L. J., Sabiston, C. M., Sedgwick, W. A., and Crocker, P. R. E. (2015). Self-compassion and women athletes’ responses to emotionally difficult sport situations: An evaluation of a brief induction. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 18–25. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarkar, M., and Fletcher, D. (2014). Psychological resilience in sport performers: A review of stressors and protective factors. Journal of Sport Sciences, 32(15), 1419–1434. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2014.901551Google ScholarPubMed
Spreng, R. N., Sepulcre, J., Turner, G. R., Stevens, W. D., and Schacter, D. L. (2013). Intrinsic architecture underlying the relations among the default, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control networks of the human brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(1), 74–86. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00281CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stankovic, D., and Baltzell, A. L. (2015). Mindfulness meditation in sport: Improved sport performance of master tennis players. Manuscript in preparation.
Stanley, E. A. (2014) Mindfulness-Based Mind Fitness Training (MMFT): An approach for enhancing performance and building resilience in high stress contexts. In Ie, A., Ngnoumen, C. T. and Langer, E. J. (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell handbook of mindfulness (pp. 964–985). London, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Stoeber, J. (2012). Perfectionism and performance. In Murphy, S. (Ed.) The Oxford handbook of sport and performance psychology (pp. 294–306). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Swann, C., Keegan, R. J., Piggott, D., and Crust, L. (2012). A systematic review of the experience, occurrence, and controllability of flow states in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 807–819. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wegner, D. M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101(1), 34–52. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.101.1.34CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., and Ford, J. M. (2012). Default mode network activity and connectivity in psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 49–76. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143049CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zeidan, F., Gordon, N. S., Merchant, J., and Goolkasian, P. (2010). The effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on experimentally induced pain. Journal of Pain, 11(3), 199–209. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2009.07.015CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zeidan, F., Martucci, K. T., Kraft, R. A., Gordon, N. S., McHaffie, J. G., and Coghill, R. C. (2011). Brain mechanisms supporting the modulation of pain by mindfulness meditation. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(14), 5540–5548. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5791-10.2011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zeidan, F., Martucci, K. T., Kraft, R. A., McHaffie, J. G., and Coghill, R. C. (2014). Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 9(6), 751–759.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
1
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×