Skip to main content
Keeping Languages Alive
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    JONES, MARI C. 2018. Does language loss follow a principled structural path? Evidence from Jersey Norman French. Journal of French Language Studies, p. 1.

    Pelin Oğuz, Sıla 2017. Right to Water: Politics and struggles concerning water. Research and Policy on Turkey, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 25.

    Piirainen, Elisabeth and Sherris, Ari 2015. Language Endangerment. Vol. 7, Issue. , p. 1.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Keeping Languages Alive
    • Online ISBN: 9781139245890
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Many of the world's languages have diminishing numbers of speakers and are in danger of falling silent. Around the globe, a large body of linguists are collaborating with members of indigenous communities to keep these languages alive. Mindful that their work will be used by future speech communities to learn, teach and revitalise their languages, scholars face new challenges in the way they gather materials and in the way they present their findings. This volume discusses current efforts to record, collect and archive endangered languages in traditional and new media that will support future language learners and speakers. Chapters are written by academics working in the field of language endangerment and also by indigenous people working 'at the coalface' of language support and maintenance. Keeping Languages Alive is a must-read for researchers in language documentation, language typology and linguistic anthropology.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Abrate, L. 2001. Occitanie 1900–1968: des idées et des hommes. Puylaurens: Institut d’Études Occitanes.
Afanas’eva, N. E., R. D. Kuruč, E. I. Mečkina, A. A. Antonova, L. D. Jakovlev, and B. A. Gluchov 1985. Saamsko-russkij slovar. Moscow: Russkij jazyk.
Alibert, L. 1943. ‘Origine et destin de la langue d’Oc’, Les Cahiers du Sud, Special issue: Le génie d’oc et l’homme méditerranéen: 17–25.
Amery, R. 2000. Warrabarna Kaurna: Reclaiming an Australian language. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger.
Anderson, C. 2006. The long tail: Why the future of business is selling less of more. New York: Hyperion Books.
Anderson, G. and K. D. Harrison 2007. ‘Global language hotspots’. Available online at (accessed 12 September 2011).
Appadurai, A. 2006. Fear of small numbers: An essay on the geography of anger. Durham, NC/London: Duke University Press.
Arbaud, D. 1864. Chants populaires de la Provence. vol. II. Aix-en-Provence: Makaire.
Arripe, R. 1985. Les siffleurs d’Aas. Pau: Imprimerie de la monnaie.
Austin, P. 2005. ‘Training in language documentation: The SOAS experience.’ Paper presented at the Linguistics Society of America Conference on Language Documentation: Theory, Practice, and Values, Harvard University, 9–11 July.
Austin, P. 2007. ‘Training for language documentation: Experiences at the School of Oriental and African Studies’. In D. Victoria Rau and MargaretFlorey (eds.) Documenting and revitalizing Austronesian languages. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, pp. 25–41.
Austin, P. 2010a. ‘Current issues in language documentation’. In P. K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. VII pp. 12–33.
Austin, P. 2010b. ‘Language documentation and legacy text data’. Handout prepared for LingDy Training Course, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
Austin, P. and T. Crowley 1995. (Repr. 2005) ‘Reconstituting old spellings’. In Nicholas Thieberger (ed.) Paper and talk: A manual for reconstituting materials in Australian indigenous languages from historical sources. Canberra: AIATSIS, pp. 54–102.
Austin, P. and j. Sallabank (eds.) 2011. The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. Cambridge University Press.
Austin, P. K. 2003. ‘Introduction’. In P. K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. I pp. 6–14.
Austin, P. K. and L. A. Grenoble 2007. ‘Current trends in language documentation’. In P. K. Austin (eds) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. IV, pp. 12–25.
Baba, M. and C. Hill 1997. The global practice of anthropology. Williamsburg: College of William and Mary Press.
Baier, N. 2010. ‘Irrealis morphology in Montana Salish’. Unpublished BA thesis, University of Michigan.
Bain, K. 2004. ‘What the best college teachers do’. Unpublished MA thesis, Harvard University.
Baird, J. Little Doe 2012. ‘From our ancestors’ hands to ours’. Paper presented at From language documentation to language revitalization, annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Portland, January.
Baldwin, D. 2012. ‘Neetawaapantamaanki iilinwiaanki: Searching for our talk’. Paper presented at From language documentation to language revitalization, annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Portland, January.
Barcham, M. 2008. ‘Noongar Nation’. In J. Hunt, D. Smith, S. Garling, and W. Sanders (eds.) Contested governance: Culture, power and institutions in indigenous Australia. Canberra: Australian National University E-Press, pp. 265–82.
Barrett, J. and S. Gelfgren 2011. ‘Learning places: A case study of collaborative pedagogy using online virtual worlds’. In G. Vincenti and J. Braman (eds.) Multi-user virtual environments for the classroom: Practical approaches to teaching in virtual worlds. Hershey: IGI Global, pp. 31–46.
Bates, E., S. D’Amico, T. Jacobsen, A. Székely, E. Andonova, A. Devescovi, D. Herron, C. Lu, T. Pechmann, C. Pléh, N. Wicha, K. Federmeier, I. Gerdiikova, G. Gutierrez, D. Hung, J. Hsu, G. Iyer, K. Kohnert, T. Mehotcheva, A. Orozco-Figueroa, A. Tzeng, and O. Tzeng 2003. ‘Timed picture naming in seven languages’, Psycholinguistic Bulletin and Review 10(2): 344–80.
Bauer, W. 2008. ‘Is the health of Te Reo Māori improving?Te Reo 58: 33–73.
Bayle, L. 1968. Dissertation sur l’orthographe provençale. Toulon: L’Astrado.
Bayle, L. 1982. La Provence en danger. Toulon: L’Astrado.
Bec, P. 1973. La langue occitane. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Bell, R. H., R. Harlow, and D. Starks (eds.) 2005. Languages of New Zealand. Wellington: University of Victoria Press.
Bert, M. 2001. Rencontre de langues et francisation: l’exemple du Pilat, Doctorat, Sciences du Langage, UniversitéLyon2.
Bert, M. and C. Grinevald 2010. ‘Proposition de typologie des locuteurs de LED’, Faits de Langues, Linguistique de Terrain sur Langues en Danger: Locuteurs et Linguistes 35–6: 117–32.
Bert, M., C. Grinevald, and L. Amaro (eds.) 2011. ‘Evaluation de la vitalité des langues minoritaires: approches quantitatives vs. qualitatives et implications pour la revitalisation’. Paper presented at Vitalità di una lingua minoritaria. Aspetti e proposte metodologiche. Atti del convegno. Bellinzona, Switzerland, 15–16 October 2010.
Bialystok, E. 1988. ‘Levels of bilingualism and levels of linguistic awareness’, Developmental Psychology 25: 560–7.
Bilik, N. 1996. ‘Emotion gets lost: An Ewenki case’, Inner Asia, Occasional Papers 1(1): 63–70.
Bird, S. and G. Simons 2003. ‘Seven dimensions of portability for language documentation and description’, Language 79: 557–82.
Birdsall, C. 1994. ‘All one family’. In I. Keen (ed.) Being Black: Aboriginal cultures in ‘settled’ Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, pp. 137–58.
Blanchet, P. 1992. Le provençal: essai de description sociolinguistique et différentielle. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters.
Blanchet, P. 2008. ‘Compte rendu de Dominique Sumien’, La standardisation pluricentrique de l’occitan’, Glottopol 11: 171–80.
Blokland, R. and M. Riessler 2011. ‘Saami–Russian–Komi contacts on the Kola Peninsula’. In C. Hasselblatt, P. Houtzagers, and R. van Pareren (eds.) Language contact in times of globalization. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 5–26.
Blommaert, J. 1999a. ‘The debate is open’, in Blommaert (ed.), pp. 1–38.
Blommaert, J. (ed.) 1999b. Language ideological debates. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Bortone, P. 2009. ‘Greek with no models, history or standard: Muslim Pontic Greek’. In A. Georgakopoulou and M. Silk (eds.) Standard languages and language standards: Greek, past and present. Farnham/Burlington: Ashgate, pp. 67–89.
Bourdieu, P. 1980. ‘L’identité et la représentation: éléments pour une réflexion critique sur l’idée de région’, Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales 35(1): 63–72.
Bourdieu, P. 1991. Language and symbolic power. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bowern, C. 2003. ‘Laves’ Bardi texts’. In J. Blythe and M. Brown (eds.) Maintaining the links: Language, identity and the land. Proceedings of the conference FEL VII. Broome, Western Australia: Foundation for Endangered Languages.
Boyson, B., N. Rhodes, and L. Thompson 2006. Administrator’s manual for CAL foreign language assessments, grades K–8. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Bradley, D. and M. Bradley 2002. Language endangerment and language maintenance. London: Routledge Curzon.
Braut, K. T. 2010. ‘Indigenous language revitalization through preschool children learning a second language in a language nest’. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Tromsø.
Brinthaupt, T. M., L. S. Fisher, J. G. Gardner, D. M. Raffo, and J. B. Woodard 2011. ‘What the best online teachers should do’, Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 7(4): 515–24.
Brunstad, E. 2003. ‘Standard language and linguistic purism’. Sociolinguistica 17: 52–70.
Bulatova, N. and L. Grenoble 1999. Evenki. Munich: Lincom Europa.
Busnel, R. and A. Classe 1976. Whistled languages. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Buzzard-Welcher, L. 2001. ‘Can the web save my language?’ In Hinton and Hale (eds.), pp. 331–48.
Cajete, G. 1994. Look to the mountain: An ecology of indigenous education. Durango, CO: Kivakí Press.
Cameron, D., E. Closs Frazer, P. Harvey, M. B. H. Rampton, and K. Richardson 1992. Researching language: Issues of power and method. London/New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.
Campbell, L. 2000. American Indian languages. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cemiloglu, D. 2009. ‘Language policy and national unity: The dilemma of the Kurdish language in Turkey’. Available online at (accessed 23 March 2012).
Cernea, M. (ed.) 1991. Putting people first: Sociological variables in rural development. New York: The World Bank/Oxford University Press.
Chambers, J. 2002. ‘Dynamics of dialect convergence’, Journal of Sociolinguistics 6: 117–30.
Charalambakis, C. 1994. ‘A case of whistled speech from Greece’. In I. Philippaki-Warburton, K. Nicolaidis, and M. Sifianou (eds.) Themes in Greek linguistics: Papers from the first international conference on Greek linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 389–96.
Child, B. 1998. Boarding school seasons. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Chomsky, N. 1987. On power and ideology: The Managua lectures. Boston: South End Press/New York: Black Rose Books.
Chung, S., M. Borja, and M. Wagers 2012. ‘Bridging methodologies: Experimental syntax in the Pacific’. Presidential address, Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting, Portland, 5–8 January.
CIDCA (ed.) 1987. Ethnic groups and the nation state. University of Stockholm: Department of Social Anthropology.
Classe, A. 1957. ‘The whistled language of La Gomera’. Scientific American 196: 111–24.
Clyne, M., E. Eisikovits, and L. Tolfree 2001. ‘Ethnic varieties of Australian English’. In D. Blair and P. Collins (eds.) English in Australia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 223–38.
Colpaert, J. 2006. ‘Pedagogy-driven design for online language teaching and learning’, CALICO Journal 23(3): 477–97.
Conathan, L. 2011a. ‘An archivist’s view of metadocumentation’. Presentation at Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, January. Available online at (accessed 7 April 2011).
Conathan, L. 2011b. ‘Archiving and language documentation’. In Peter K. Austin and Julia Sallabank (eds.) The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. CambridgeUniversity Press, pp. 235–54.
Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes 2004. ‘People of vision’. Available online at (accessed 29 January 2012).
Corscadden, K. F. 2003. ‘Information and communication technologies: Are Māori students disadvantaged in tertiary education?’ Paper presented at the AARE/ NAZARE Conference, Auckland.
Costa, J. 2010a. ‘Des derniers locuteurs aux néo-locuteurs: revitalisation linguistique en Europe’, Faits de Langues, Linguistique de Terrain sur Langues en Danger: Locuteurs et Linguistes 35–6: 205–24.
Costa, J. 2010b. ‘Revitalization linguistique: discours, mythes et idéologies. Approche critique de mouvements de revitalization en Provence et en Écosse’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Grenoble.
Costa, J. 2012. ‘Mythologie(s) occitane(s) et figures de l’autorité: le rôle du linguiste dans l’imaginaire de l’aménagement linguistique’, Cahiers de l’Observatoire des Pratiques Linguistiques 3.
Craig, C. 1977. The structure of Jacaltec. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Craig, C. 1987. ‘Una lengua rama para los ramas’, Wani, Revista del Caribe Nicaragüense 6: 10–15.
Craig, C. 1989. Reference grammar of the Rama (Chibchan) language, with texts, NSF report BNS 8511156 (287 pp. ms+texts), used in pdf by M. Haspelmath, M. S. Dryer, D. Gil, and B. Comrie (eds.) The world atlas of language structures (WALS): An interactive cross-linguistic database for typological research (2005). Available online at
Craig, C. 1990. ‘Review of N. Rigby and R. Schneider: Dictionary of the Rama language: Rama–English–Rama–Creole–Spanish/English–Rama, Speaking with the Tiger, vol. II (Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag)’, The International Journal of American Linguistics 56(2): pp. 293–304.
Craig, C. 1992a. ‘A constitutional response to language endangerment: The case of Nicaragua’, Language 68(1): 17–24.
Craig, C. 1992b. ‘Language shift and language death: The case of Rama in Nicaragua’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 93: 11–26.
Craig, C., B. Tibbitts, and N. Rigby 1986. ‘Notes on the Rama language’, Wani, Revista del Caribe Nicaragüense 4: 29–32.
Crawford, J. 1995. ‘Endangered Native American languages: What is to be done and why?’, Bilingual Research Journal 19(1): 17–38.
Crawford, J. 1996. ‘Seven hypotheses on language loss: Causes and cures’. In G. Cantoni (ed.) Stabilizing indigenous languages. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, pp. 45–60.
Crippen, J. and L. Robinson 2013. ‘In defense of the lone wolf: Collaboration in language documentation’, Language Documentation and Conservation 7: 123–35.
Crossan, R.-M. 2007. Guernsey, 1814–1914: Migration and modernization. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press.
Crystal, D. 1997. English as a global language. Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, D. 2000. Language death. Cambridge University Press.
Csató, E. and D. Nathan 2004. Spoken Karaim. Version So 1. (Multimedia interactive language CD-ROM.) London: SOAS.
Cummins, J. 2001. Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. 2nd edn. Los Angeles: California Association for Bilingual Education.
Czaykowska-Higgins, E. 2009. ‘Research models, community engagement, and linguistic fieldwork: Reflections on working within Canadian indigenous communities’, Language Documentation and Conservation 3(1): 15–50.
Czaykowski-Higgins, E. and M.D. Kinkade 1998. Salish languages and linguistics: Theoretical and descriptive perspectives. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Dale, C. V. and M. Gurevitz 1995. Legal analysis of proposals to make English the official language of the United States. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
Dansuk, E., M. Ozmen, and G. Erdogan 2007. ‘Poverty and social stratification at the regional levels in Turkey’. In Proceedings of Social Policy and Regional Development (Zagreb, 30 November 2006). Ekonomski institut, Zagreb and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, pp. 33–64.
Danziger, E. 2008. ‘A person a place or a thing? Whorfian consequences of syntactic bootstrapping in Mopan Maya’. In M. Bowerman and P. Brown (eds.) Crosslinguistic perspectives on argument structure: Implications for learnability. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 29–48.
Davis, J. 2007. ‘North American Indian signed language varieties: A comparative linguistic assessment’. In D. Quinto-Pozos (ed.) Sign languages in contact; Sociolinguistics of the deaf community. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, vol. XIII pp. 85–150.
Davis, J. 2010. Hand talk: Sign language among American Indian Nations. Cambridge University Press.
Davis, J. 2011. ‘Discourse features of American Indian Sign Language’. In C. Roy (ed.) Discourse in signed languages: Sociolinguistics in deaf communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Pressparse, vol. XVII pp. 179–217.
Davis, J. and M. McKay-Cody 2010. ‘Signed languages and American Indian communities: Considerations for interpreting work and research’. In Melanie Metzger (series ed.) and R. McKee and J. Davis (volume eds.) Studies in interpretation. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, vol. VII Interpreting in multilingual, multicultural contexts pp. 119–57.
Davis, J. and S. Supalla 1995. ‘A sociolinguistic description of sign language use in a Navajo family’. In C. Lucas (series and vol. ed.) Sociolinguistics in deaf communities: Sociolinguistics in deaf communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, vol. I pp. 77–106.
Dawkins, R. M. 1916. Modern Greek in Asia Minor: A study of the dialects of Sill, Cappadocia and Pharasa with grammar, texts, translations and glossary. Cambridge University Press.
Dawkins, R. M. 1937. ‘The pontic dialect of Modern Greek in Asia Minor and Russia’, Transactions of the Philological Society 36: 15–52.
De Garis, M. (ed.) 1967. Dictionnaire Anglais–Guernésiais. Guernsey: La Société Guernésiaise.
Debats, M. 2008. School on the move: A film of 52’. Paris: Lagaptière Production.
Deffner, M. 1878. ‘Die Infinitive in den pontischen Dialekten und die Zusammengesetzten im Neugriechischen’, Monatsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1877: 191–230.
Dench, A. 1994. ‘Nyungar’. In N. Thieberger and W. McGregor (eds.) Macquarie Aboriginal words. Sydney: Macquarie Library, pp. 173–92.
Dench, A. n.d. ‘Re-transcription of Laves’ Kurin texts’. Unpublished thesis, University of Western Australia.
Dent, K., R. Johnston, and G. Humphreys, 2008. ‘Age of acquisition and word frequency effects in picture naming: A dual-task investigation’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 34(2): 282–301.
Deutschmann, M. and L. Panichi 2009. ‘Instructional design, teacher practice and learner autonomy’. In J. Molka-Danielsen and M. Deutschmann (eds.) Learning and teaching in the virtual world of Second Life. Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press.
Díaz-Polanco, H. and G. López y Rivas (eds.) 1986. Nicaragua: Autonomia y revolucion. Mexico: Juan Pablos Editor.
Dikyuva, H. 2011. ‘Endangered languages: Mardin Sign Language (MarİD)’. Paper presented at the Sign Languages as Endangered Languages conference, Ål, Norway, 6–9 November.
Díaz-Polanco, H. 2012. ‘Mardin Sign Language: Signing in a “deaf” “family”’. In Zeshan and de Vos (eds.), pp. 395–9.
Dikyuva, H. and H. Dilsiz 2009. ‘An extended “deaf” family in Turkey’. In S. Panda (ed.) Sign languages in village communities (Ishara signed publications 2). Nijmegen: Ishara Press.
Dikyuva, H. and U. Zeshan 2008. Türk İşaret Dili – Birinci Düzey [Turkish Sign Language – level one]. Nijmegen: Ishara Press.
DoBeS 2005. DoBeS format and encoding agreements. Available online at (accessed 7 April 2011).
Dobrin, L. 2008. ‘From linguistic elicitation to eliciting the linguist: Lessons in community empowerment from Melanesia’. Language 84(2): 300–24.
Dobrin, Lise. M. 2009. ‘SIL International and the disciplinary culture of linguistics: Introduction’. Language 85(2): 618–19.
Dobrin, L. and J. Berson 2011. ‘Speakers and language documentation’. In P. K. Austin and J. Sallabank (eds.) The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. Cambridge University Press, pp. 187–211.
Dobrin, L., P. K. Austin, and D. Nathan 2009. ‘Dying to be counted: The commodification of endangered languages in documentary linguistics’. In P. K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. VI pp. 37–52.
Dorian, N. 1977a. Investigating obsolescence. Studies in language contraction and death. Cambridge University Press.
Dorian, N. C. 1977b. ‘The problem of the semi-speaker in language death’, Linguistics 191: 23–32.
Dorian, N. C. 1978. ‘The fate of morphological complexity in language death: Evidence from East Sutherland Gaelic’, Language 54(3): 590–609.
Dorian, N. 1981. Language death: The life cycle of a Scottish dialect. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Dorian, N. C. 1993. ‘A response to Ladefoged’s other view of endangered languages’, Language 69(3): 575–9.
Dorian, N. C. 1994. ‘Purism vs. compromise in language revitalization and language revival’, Language in Society 23: 479–94.
Drettas, G. 1997. Aspects pontiques. Paris: Association de recherches pluridisciplinaires.
Drude, S., D. Broeder, and P. Trilsbeek 2011. ‘The “language archiving technology”, solutions for sustainable data from digital research’. In N. Thieberger, L. Barwick, R. Billington, and J. Vaughan (eds.) ‘Sustainable data from digital research: Humanities perspectives on digital scholarship’. University of Melbourne: Custom Book Centre, pp. 1–24.
Dulger, I. 2004. ‘Turkey: Rapid coverage for compulsory education – The 1997 Basic Education Program’. Available online at (accessed 10 January 2013).
Dwyer, A. 2006. ‘Ethics and practicalities of cooperative fieldwork and analysis’. In Jost Gippert, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, and Ulrike Mosel (eds.) Essentials of language documentation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyer, pp. 31–66.
Ellis, R. 2000. ‘Task-based research and language pedagogy’, Language Teaching Research 4: 193–220.
Ellis, R. 2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. 2008. The study of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.
Ember, C. and J. Good 2011. ‘Metadata across the four fields of anthropology’. Presentation at the Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, January. Available online at (accessed 7 April 2011).
E-MELD 2012. ‘School of best practices in language documentation’. Available online at (accessed 5 April 2011).
Ėndjukovskij, A. G. 1937. ‘Saamskij (loparskij) jazyk’. In G.N. Prokof’ev (ed.), Jazyki i pis’mennost’ samoedskich i finno-ugorskich narodov. Moscow/Leningrad: Učpedgiz, pp. 125–62.
Euroversity – EU project available online at (accessed 24 March 2012).
Evans, N. 2001. ‘The last speaker is dead – long live the last speaker!’ In P. Newman and M. Ratliffe (eds.) Linguistic fieldwork. Cambridge University Press, pp. 250–81.
Evans, N. and S. Levinson 2009. ‘The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32: 429–92.
Fang, M. 2011. ‘Classroom as theatre: Drama in a performance approach to language teaching and learning’. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, Canberra, December.
Farrar, S. and W. Lewis. 2007. ‘The GOLD community of practice: An infrastructure for linguistic data on the web’. Language Resources and Evaluation 41: 45–60.
Felder, R. M. and E. R. Henriques 1995. ‘Learning and teaching styles in foreign and second language education’, Foreign Language Annals 28(1): 21–31.
Felix, U. 2003. ‘Pedagogy on the line: Identifying and closing the missing links’. In U. Felix (ed.) Language learning online: Towards best practice. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp. 147–71.
Fernandez-Vest, M. (ed.) 2005. Les langues ouraliennes aujourd’hui: approches linguistiques et cognitives. Paris: Honoré Champion, coll. Bibliothèque de l’École des Hautes Études.
Field, M. C. and P. V. Kroskrity (eds.) 2009. Native American language ideologies: Beliefs, practices, and struggles in Indian country. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Fishman, J. A. 1967. ‘Bilingualism with and without diglossia; diglossia with and without bilingualism’, Journal of Social Issues 32(2): 29–38.
Fishman, J. A. (ed.) 1991. Reversing language shift: Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Fishman, J. A. 2001. Can threatened languages be saved? Reversing language shift, revisited: A twenty-first century perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Fluehr-Lobban, C. 2008. ‘Collaborative anthropology as twenty-first century ethical anthropology’, Collaborative Anthropologies 1: 175–82.
Fox Tree, Erich 2009. ‘Meemul Tziij: An indigenous sign language complex of Mesoamerica’, Sign Language Studies 9: 324–66.
Galla, C. K. 2009. ‘Indigenous language revitalization and technology from traditional to contemporary domains’. In Reyhner and Lockard (eds.), pp. 167–82.
García, O., T. Skutnabb-Kangas, and M. E. Torres-Guzmán (eds.) 2006. Imagining multilingual schools: Languages in education and glocalization. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Gasquet-Cyrus, M. 2004a. ‘Le provençal alternatif à Marseille’, La France latine. Revue d’études d’Oc 143: 97–140.
Gasquet-Cyrus, M. 2004b. ‘The sociolinguistics of Marseilles’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 169: 108–23.
Gawne, L. 2012. ‘Best and worst practice in language documentation: LIP discussion’. Post on Endangered Languages and Cultures blog. Available online at (accessed 7 april 2011).
Genetti, C. 2011. ‘Editors’ introduction’, Himalayan Linguistics 10(1): 9–12.
Genetz, A. 1878. Mah’tveest Pas’-Evangeli: Samas. Helsinki: British and Foreign Bible Society.
Genetz, A. 1891. Kuollan lapin murteiden sanakirja ynnä kielennäytteitä. Helsinki: Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten.
Geschiere, P. 2009. The perils of belonging: Autochthony, citizenship, and exclusion in Africa and Europe. Chicago University Press.
Giacon, J. and D. Nathan 2009. Gayarragi, Winangali. (Multimedia interactive CD-ROM.) Armidale, NSW: Catholic Education Office.
Gippert, J., U. Mosel, and N. P. Himmelmann (eds.) 2006. Essentials of language documentation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Girard, P. 1980. ‘George Métivier, Guernsey’s national poet’, Report and Transactions of La Société Guernésiaise 20: 617–33.
Glenn, A. 2009. ‘Five dimensions of collaboration: Toward a critical theory of coordination and interoperability in language documentation’. Language Documentation and Conservation 3: 149–60.
Goddard, I. 1979. ‘The languages of South Texas and the lower Rio Grande’. In L. Campbell and M. Mithun (eds.) The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press, pp. 70–132.
Goddard, I. (ed.) 1996. Handbook of North American Indians, 17: Languages. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Gollan, T., R. Montoya, C. Cera, and T. Sandoval 2008. ‘More use almost always means a smaller frequency effect: Aging, bilingualism, and the weaker links hypothesis’, Journal of Memory and Language 58: 787–814.
Gonzales, M., S. Jentoft, A. Koskinen, and D. Lopez 2006. El pueblo Rama luchando por tierra y cultura. Managua: URACCAN.
Good, J. 2002. ‘A gentle introduction to metadata’. Available online at (accessed 4 July 2011).
Good, J. 2010. ‘Documenting consent, access and rights’. Paper presented at the Linguistics Society of America Annual Conference. Available online at (accessed 7 June 2013).
Goodfellow, A. M. (ed.) 2009. Speaking of endangered languages: Issues in revitalization. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Grenoble, L. 2010. ‘Language documentation and field linguistics: The state of the field’. In Lenore A. Grenoble and N. Louanna Furbee (eds.) Language documentation: Practice and values. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 289–309.
Grenoble, L. and L. Whaley (eds.) 1998. Endangered languages: Language loss and community response. Cambridge University Press.
Grenoble, L.A. and L.J. Whaley. 2006. Saving languages: An introduction to language revitalization: Cambridge University Press.
Grinevald, C. 1997. ‘Language contact and language degeneration’. In Florian Coulmas (ed.) Handbook of sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 257–70.
Grinevald, C. 2002. ‘Recollections of Kenneth L. Hale (1934–2001)’, Linguistic Typology 6(2): 144–51.
Grinevald, C. 2003. ‘Speakers and documentation of endangered languages’. In P. K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. I pp. 52–72.
Grinevald, C. 2005. ‘Why the tiger language and not Rama Cay Creole? Language revitalization made harder’. In Peter K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. III pp. 196–224.
Grinevald, C. 2007a. ‘Endangered languages of Mexico and Central America’. In M. Brenzinger (ed.) Language diversity endangeredBerlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 59–86.
Grinevald, C. 2007b. ‘Encounters at the brink: linguistic fieldwork among speakers of endangered languages’. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. Krauss (eds.) The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim. Oxford University Press, pp. 36–76.
Grinevald, C. 2010a. ‘Quarante ans de perspective sur deux langues en danger: le jakaltek popti’ du Guatemala et le rama du Nicaragua’, Faits de Langues, Linguistique de Terrain sur Langues en Danger: Locuteurs et Linguistes 35–6: 39–78.
Grinevald, C. 2010b. ‘Linguistique de terrain sur deux langues en danger: locuteurs et méthodes’, Faits de Langues, Linguistique de Terrain sur Langues en Danger: Locuteurs et Linguistes 35–6: 133–77.
Grinevald, C. and M. Bert (eds.) 2010. Linguistique de terrain sur langues en danger: locuteurs et linguistes. Paris: Faits de Langues/Ophrys.
Grinevald, C. and M. Bert 2011. ‘Speakers and communities’. In P. K. Austin and J. Sallabank (eds.) The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. Cambridge University Press, pp. 45–65.
Grinevald, C. & Bert, M. In press. ‘Whose ideology, when and where: Revitalization of Rama (Nicaragua) and Francoprovençal (France)?’ In P. K. Austin and J. Sallabank (eds.) Endangered languages: Ideologies and beliefs. Oxford University Press.
Grinevald, C. and M. Kauffmann 2006. ‘Toponimia del territorio en la lengua y cultural del pueblo Rama’. In M. Gonzales, S. Jentoft, A. Koskinen, and D. Lopez, pp. 323–70.
Guerin, V. and S. Lacrampe. 2010. ‘Trust me, I am a linguist! Building partnership in the field’. Language Documentation and Conservation 4: 22–33.
Haan, J. 2001. ‘The grammar of Adang: A Papuan language spoken on the island of Alor, East Nusa Tenggara – Indonesia’. PhD thesis, University of Sydney.
Haig, G. 2003. ‘The invisibilization of Kurdish: The other side of language planning in Turkey’. In S. Conermann and G. Haig (eds.) Die Kurden: Studien zu ihrer Sprache, Geschichte und Kultur. Schenefeld: EB-Verlag, pp. 121–50.
Hairullin, R. 2006. ‘Development of education systems for Northern Peoples in Russia’. Available online at (accessed 3 June 2013).
Halász, I. 1883. ‘Orosz-lapp nyelvtani vázlat’, Nyelvtudományi közlemények 17: 1–45.
Hale, K. 2000. ‘Ulwa (Southern Sumu): The beginnings of a language research project’. In P. Newman, and M. Ratliff (eds.) Linguistic fieldwork. Cambridge University Press, pp. 76–101.
Hale, K., M. Krauss, L. J. Watahomigie, A. Y. Yamamoto, C. Craig, L. M. Jeanne, and N. C. England 1992. ‘Endangered languages’, Language 68(1): 1–42.
Hall, R. 2002. ‘Aligning learning, teaching and assessment using the web: An evaluation of pedagogic approaches’, British Journal of Educational Technology 33(2): 149–58.
Hanks, B. 2011. ‘Metadata in archaeology? Engaging with materiality and cultural transmission’. Presentation at the Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, January. Available online at (accessed 7 April 2012).
Harris, R., H. Holmes and D. Mertens 2009. ‘Research ethics in sign language communities’, Sign Language Studies 9(2): 104–31.
Harrison, K. D. 2007. When languages die: The extinction of the world’s languages and the erosion of human knowledge. Oxford University Press.
Heller, M. 2003. ‘Globalization, the new economy, and the commodification of language and identity’, Journal of Sociolinguistics 7: 473–92.
Henderson, J. 2002. ‘Language and native title’. In J. Henderson, and D. Nash (eds.) Language in native title. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, pp. 1–20.
Henderson, J. 2008. ‘Capturing chaos: Rendering hand-written language documents’, Language Documentation and Conservation 2: 212–43.
Hermes, M., J. Nichols, K. Roach, M. Sullivan and A. Cowell 2011. ‘Re-imagining Ojibwe domains: Documentation as revitalization’. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Language Documentation and Conservation (ICLDC), University of Hawai’i, February.
Hess, T. and J. van Eijk 1986. ‘Noun and verb in Salish’, Lingua 69(4): 319–31.
Hill, J. H. 2006. ‘The ethnography of language and language documentation’. In J. Gippert, N. P. Himmelman, and U. Mosel (eds.) Essentials of language documentation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 113–28.
Himmelmann, N. 1998. ‘Documentary and descriptive linguistics’, Linguistics 36: 161–95.
Himmelmann, N. 2002. ‘Documentary and descriptive linguistics’. In Osamu Sakiyama and Fubito Endo (eds.) Lectures on endangered languages. Kyoto: Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim, vol. V pp. 37–83.
Himmelman, N. P. 2006. ‘Language documentation: What is it and what is it good for?’ In J. Gippert, N. P. Himmelman, and U. Mosel (eds.) Essentials of language documentation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1–30.
Himmelman, N. P. 2008. ‘Reproduction and preservation of linguistic knowledge: Linguistics’ response to language endangerment’, Annual Review of Anthropology 37: 337–50.
Hinton, L. 2001a. ‘Language revitalization: An overview’, in Hinton and Hale (eds.), pp. 3–18.
Hinton, L. 2001b. ‘Sleeping languages: Can they be awakened?’ In Hinton and Hale (eds.), pp. 413–18.
Hinton, L 2006. ‘Language planning’. In Hinton and Hale (eds.), pp. 51–9.
Hinton, L. 2011. ‘Language revitalization and language pedagogy: New teaching and learning strategies’, Language and Education 25(4): 307–18.
Hinton, L. and J. Ahlers 1999. ‘The issue of “authenticity” in Californian language restoration’, Anthropology and Education Quarterly 30: 56–67.
Hinton, L. and K. Hale (eds.) 2001. The green book of language revitalization in practice. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Hodder, I. 1999. The archaeological process: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
Holton, G. 2009. ‘Creating sustainable language communities through creolization’, in Goodfellow (ed.), pp. 238–65.
Holton, G. 2011. ‘“Unknown Unknowns” and the retrieval problem in language documentation and archiving’, Language Documentation and Conservation 5: 157–68.
Hornberger, N. H. (ed.) 2008. Can schools save indigenous languages? Policy and practice on four continents. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Huss, L. 2008. ‘Revitalization through indigenous education: A forlorn hope?’ In Hornberger (ed.), pp. 125–35.
HyltenstamK. and C. Stroud 1991. Språkbyte och språkbevarande: om samiskan och andra minoritetsspråk. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
Ingram, D. E. 2006. ‘Language diversity in the Pacific: Endangerment and survival: An overview’. In D. Cunningham, D. E. Ingram, and K. Sumbuk (eds.) Language diversity in the Pacific: Endangerment and survival. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 1–14.
Innes, Pamela 2010. ‘Ethical problems in archival research: Beyond accessibility’, Journal of Language and Communication 30(3): 198–203.
Ioannou, S. 1980. Antia. Video documentary.
Itkonen, T. I. (ed.) 1931. Koltan-ja kuolanlappalaisia satuja. I–II. Kolttalaisia ja kildiniläisiä satuja. Koonnut T. I. Itkonen. III Jokangalaisia satuja. Konnut D. E. D. Europaeus. Helsinki: SUS.
Itkonen, T. I. 1958. Koltan-ja kuolanlapin sanakirja. Helsinki: SUS.
Jennings, G. and Y. Marquis (eds.) 2011. The toad and the donkey: An anthology of Norman literature from the Channel Islands. London: Francis Boutle Publishers.
Jescheniak, J. and W. Levelt 1994. ‘Word frequency effects in speech production: Retrieval of syntactic information and of phonological form’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 20(4): 824–43.
Joachim, G. and S. Prillwitz 1993. International bibliography of sign language. Hamburg: Signum.
Johansen, I. 2010. ‘Linguistic purism and South Sámi revitalization: A story of language police and linguistic criminals’. Paper presented at Sosiolingvisttalaš fágaseminára, Sámi allaskuvla, Guovdageaidnu, 6 October.
Johnson, C. A., Paivio, and J. Clark 1996. ‘Cognitive components of picture naming’, Psychological Bulletin 120(1): 113–99.
Johnson, R. 1994. ‘Sign language and the concept of deafness in a traditional Yucatec Mayan village’. In C. Erting, R. Johnson, D. Smith, and B. Snider (eds.) The deaf way: Perspectives from the international conference on deaf culture. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, pp. 102–9.
Jones, A. 2002. Archaeological theory and scientific practice. Cambridge University Press.
Jones, M. C. 2002. ‘“Mette a haut dauve la grippe des anglais”: Convergence on the island of Guernsey’. In M. C. Jones and E. Esch (eds.) Language change: The interplay of internal, external and non-linguistic factors. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 143–68.
Kaplan, R B. and R. B. Baldauf 1997. Language planning: From practice to theory. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Karatsareas, P. 2011. ‘A study of Cappadocian Greek nominal morphology from a diachronic and dialectological perspective’. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge.
Karttunen, F. 1994. Between worlds: Interpreters, guides, and survivors. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Karvovskaya, E. 2010. ‘Not only about “only”: Focus particles in Kola Saami’. Unpublished BSc thesis, University of Potsdam.
Karvovskaya, E. 2012. ‘Focus particles in endangered languages’. In P. Austin, O. Bond, D. Nathan, and L. Marten (eds.) Proceedings of the conference on language documentation and linguistic theory 3. London: SOAS, 18–20 November 2011, pp. 161–70.
Kaufman, D. 2004. ‘Constructivist issues in language learning and teaching’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24: 303–19.
Kendon, A. 1988. Sign languages of aboriginal Australia: Cultural, semiotic, and communicative perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kern, R. and M. Warschauer 2000. ‘Theory and practice of network-based language teaching’, in Warschauer and Kern (eds.), pp. 1–19.
Kert, G. M. 1971. Saamskij jazyk (kil’dinskij dialekt). Leningrad: Nauka.
Kert, G. M. 1986. Slovar’ saamsko-russkij i russko–saamskij. Leningrad: Prosveščenie.
King, K. A. 2001. Language revitalization processes and prospects: Quichua in the Ecuadorian Andes. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Kinkade, M. D. 1983. ‘Salish evidence against the universality of “noun” and “verb”’, Lingua 60(1): 25–39.
Kisch, S. 2008. ‘“Deaf discourse”: The social construction of deafness in a Bedouin community’, Medical Anthropology: Cross-Cultural Studies in Health and Illness 27(3): 283–313.
König, E. 1991. The meaning of focus particles. London: Routledge.
Krauss, M. E. 1992. ‘The world’s languages in crisis’, Language 68(1): 4–10.
Krauss, M. E. 2007. ‘Mass language extinction and documentation: The race against time’. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds.) The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 3–24.
Kroskrity, P. 2009. ‘Language renewal as sites of language ideological struggle: The need for “ideological clarification”’. In Reyhner and Lockard (eds.), pp. 71–83.
Kroskrity, P. and J. Reynolds 2001. ‘On using multimedia in language renewal: Observations from making the CD-ROM Taitaduhaan’, in Hinton and Hale (eds.), pp. 317–33.
Ladefoged, P. 1992. ‘Another view of endangered languages’, Language 68(4): 809–11.
Lafitte, J. and G. Pépin 2009. La ‘Langue d’Oc’ ou leS langueS d’oc?Monein: Pyremonde/Princi Negue.
Lafont, R. 1954. Mistral ou l’illusion. Paris: Plon.
Lafont, R. 1997. Quarante ans de sociolinguistique à la périphérie. Paris: L’Harmattan.
Lanesman, S. 2011. ‘Algerian Jewish sign language: Survival or extinction?’ Unpublished MA thesis, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
Lavrillier, A. 2005. ‘Dialectes et norme écrite en évenk contemporain’. In Fernandez-Vest (ed.), pp. 433–46.
Lavrillier, A. and H. Lecomte 2002. Evenk: Ritual songs of the nomads of the taiga (introduction text CD 3015792, songs translation). Paris: Buda Records.
Le Page, R. B. and A. Tabouret-Keller 1985. Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge University Press.
Lehmann, C. 2001. ‘Language documentation: A program’. In Walter Bisang (ed.) Aspects of typology and universals. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, pp. 83–97.
Lehtola, V. P. 2004. The Sámi people: Traditions in transition. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press.
Leonard, W. and E. Haynes 2010. ‘Making “collaboration” collaborative: An examination of perspectives that frame linguistic field research’, Language Documentation and Conservation 4: 268–93.
Lewis, C. and A. Garrett 2012. ‘Using documentation in Yurok language revitalization’. Paper presented at From language documentation to language revitalization, annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Portland, January.
Lewis, M. (ed.) 2009. Ethnologue: languages of the world. 16th edn. Dallas: SIL International. Available online (accessed 7 June 2013).
Li, S. 2010. ‘The effectiveness of corrective feedback in SLA: A meta-analysis’, Language Learning 60: 309–65.
Lincoln, K. 1985. Native American renaissance. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Long, M. H. 2007. ‘Recasts in SLA: The story so far’. In M. H. Long (ed.) Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 75–116.
Long, N. and A. Long (eds.) 1992. Battlefields of knowledge: The interlocking of theory and practice in social research and development. London: Routledge.
López, L. E. 2006. ‘Desde arriba y desde abajo: Visiones contrapuestas de la educación intercultural bilingüe en América Latina’. In C. Gros and M.-C. Strigler (eds.) Être indien dans les Amériques – Spoliations et résistance. Mobilisations ethniques et politiques du multiculturalisme. Paris: editions de l’Institut des Amériques, pp. 235–50.
Luepke, F. 2009. ‘Data collection methods for field-based language documentation’. In P. K. Austin (ed.), Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. VI pp. 53–100.
Lüpke, F. 2010. ‘Research methods in language documentation’. In P. K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. VII pp. 55–104.
Lyster, R. and K. Saito 2010. ‘Oral feedback in classroom SLA: A meta-analysis’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition 32: 65–302.
Mackey, A. and J. Goo 2007. ‘Interaction research in SLA: A meta-analysis and research synthesis’. In A. Mackey (ed.) Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A collection of empirical studies. Oxford University Press, pp. 407–52.
Mackridge, P. 1987. ‘Greek-speaking Moslems of north-east Turkey: Prolegomena to the study of the Ophitic sub-dialect of Pontic’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 11: 115–37.
Mackridge, P. 1995. ‘Τα Ποντιακά στη σημερινή Τουρκία: αρχαία στοιχεία στο ιδίωμα του ΄Οφη’, Αρχείον Πόντου 46: 153–61.
Mackridge, P. 1996. ‘The Medieval Greek infinitive in the light of modern dialectal evidence’. In Costas C. Constantinides (ed.) (ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝ: Studies in honour of Robert Browning. Venice: Istituto) Ellenico di studi Bizantinie Postbizantini di Venezia, pp. 191–204.
Mackridge, P. 2009. Language and national identity in Greece, 1766–1976. Oxford University Press.
Macri, M. 2010. ‘Language documentation: Whose ethics?’ In Lenore A. Grenoble and N. Louanna Furbee (eds.) Language documentation: Practice and values. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 37–47.
Maffi, L. 2003. ‘The “business” of language endangerment: Saving languages or helping people keep them alive?’ In H. Tonkin and T. Reagan (eds.) Language in the twenty-first century: Selected papers of the millennial conferences of the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 67–86.
Manolessou, I. and N. Pantelidis 2011. ‘To archaio elliniko /ɛː/ stin Pontiaki’ [The Ancient Greek /ɛː/ in Pontic], Neoelliniki Dialektologia [Modern Greek Dialectology] 6: 245–71.
Marian, V., H. Blumenfeld, and M. Kaushanskaya 2007. ‘The language experience and proficiency questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals’, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 50: 940–67.
Marsaja, I. 2008. Desa Kolok: A deaf village and its sign language in Bali, Indonesia. Nijmegen: Ishara Press.
Martel, P. 1989. ‘Un peu d’histoire: bref historique de la revendication occitane, 1978–1988’, Amiras/Repères occitans 20: 11–23.
Martel, P. 1997. ‘Le Félibrige’. In Nora (ed.), pp. 3515–53.
Martel, P. 2010. Les Félibres et leur temps: renaissance d’oc et opinion (1850–1914). Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux.
Mattina, N. J. 1996. ‘Aspect and category in Okanagan word formation’. Unpublished PhD thesis, Simon Fraser University.
McDonough, K. and P. Trofimovich 2008. Using priming methods in second language research. New York: Routledge.
McKay-Cody, M. 1997. ‘Plains Indian Sign Language: A comparative study of alternate and primary signers’. Master’s thesis, University of Arizona.
Merlan, F. 1981. ‘Land, language and social identity in Aboriginal Australia’, Mankind 13: 133–48.
Meyer, J. 2005. ‘Description typologique et intelligibilité des langues sifflées: approche linguistique et bioacoustique’. Doctoral thesis. Lyons: Cyberthèse Publications. Université Lyon 2.
Meyer, J. 2008. ‘Typology and acoustic strategies of whistled languages: Phonetic comparison and perceptual cues of whistled vowels’. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38(1): 69–94.
Meyer, J. 2010. ‘Parole sifflée dans le monde: variété des locuteurs et de leurs pratiques’. Faits de Langues, Linguistique de Terrain sur Langues en Danger: Locuteurs et Linguistes 35–6: 443–68.
Meyer, J. 2012. ‘La parole sifflée en Amazonie’. In A. Anakesa (ed.) Homme, nature, patrimonialisation: traditions et pratiques, discours et représentations, connaissances et savoirs dans les cultures plurielles de la Guyane et de la Caraïbe, DVD-ROM. Cayenne: France.
Meyer, J. and J. N. Casimiro 2008. ‘Exploiting the didactic role of whistled speech: Interactions between phonetic research and education in Gomero Spanish and Mazatec’, Language Design, Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Linguistics, Special Issue 2: 57–64.
Michelioudakis, D. and I. Sitaridou 2012. ‘Syntactic microvariation: Dative constructions in Greek’. In R. Etxepar and B. Fernández (eds.) Datives in variation: A micro-comparative perspective. Oxford University Press, pp. 212–55.
Miles, M. 2000. ‘Signing in the Seraglio: Mutes, dwarfs and gestures at the Ottoman court 1500–1700’, Disability and Society 15(1): 115–34.
Milroy, L. 1987. Language and social networks. Oxford: Blackwell.
Mithun, M. 1999. The languages of native North America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mithun, M. 2011. ‘Being special’. In M. Haboud and N. Ostler (eds.) Endangered languages: Voices and images. Proceedings of the conference FEL XV – PUCE I. Quito, Ecuador, pp. 3–11.
Montgomery, S. and S. C. Fogler 1996. ‘Selecting computer-aided instructional software’, Journal of Engineering Education 85(1): 53–60.
Moore, D. 2007. ‘Endangered languages of lowland tropical South America’. In Matthias Brenzinger (ed.) Language diversity endangered. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 29–58.
Mosel, U. 2006a. ‘Fieldwork and community language work’, in Gippert et al. (eds.), pp. 67–85.
Mosel, U. 2006b. ‘Sketch grammar’, in Gippert, Mosel, and Himmelmann (eds.), pp. 301–9.
Moseley, C. (ed.) 2009. UNESCO atlas of the world’s languages in danger of disappearing. Paris: UNESCO. Available online at (accessed 7 January 2011).
Munasinghe, M. 1993. Environmental economics and sustainable development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Mussa, H. 2010. ‘Analysis of the Greek whistled vowels of Evia (Village of Antia)’. MA thesis, University College London.
Nash, D. 1993. ‘Gerhardt Laves 15/7/1906–14/3/1993 [Obituary]’, Australian Aboriginal Studies 1: 101–2.
Nathan, D. 2006a. ‘Proficient, permanent, or pertinent: Aiming for sustainability’. In L. Barwick and N. Thieberger (eds.) Sustainable data from digital sources: From creation to archive and back. Sydney University Press, pp. 57–68.
Nathan, D. 2006b. ‘Sound and unsound documentation: Questions about the roles of audio in language documentation’. Paper presented at the Georgetown University Roundtable on Linguistics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, March.
Nathan, D. 2009. ‘The soundness of documentation: Towards an epistemology for audio in documentary linguistics’, Journal of the International Association of Sound Archives (IASA) 33. Available online at (accessed 22 March 2012).
Nathan, D. 2010a. ‘Sound and unsound practices in documentary linguistics: Towards an epistemology for audio’. In Peter K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. VII pp. 1–17.
Nathan, D. 2010b. ‘Archives and language documentation: From disk space to MySpace’. In P. K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. VII pp. 172–208.
Nathan, D. 2011. ‘Better data about metadata: A survey of depositor metadata submitted to the Endangered Languages Archive’. Presentation given at the Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, 9 January. Available online at (accessed 4 July 2011).
Nathan, D. and P. Austin 2004. ‘Reconceiving metadata: Language documentation through thick and thin’. In P. K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. II pp. 179–87.
Nathan, D. and M. Fang 2009. ‘Language documentation and pedagogy for endangered languages: A mutual revitalization’, Language Documentation and Description 6: 132–60.
Nedjalkov, I. 1997. Evenki. London: Routledge.
Nettle, D. and S. Romaine 2000. Vanishing voices. Oxford University Press.
Nonaka, A. 2004. ‘Sign languages – the forgotten endangered languages: Lessons on the importance of remembering from Thailand’s Ban Khor sign language’, Language in Society 33(5): 737–67.
Nonaka, A. 2009. ‘Estimating size, scope, and membership of the speech/sign communities of undocumented indigenous/village sign languages: The Ban Khor case study’, Language and Communication 29(3): 210–29.
Noonan, M. 2006. ‘Grammar writing for a grammar-reading audience’, Studies in Language 30(2): 35–65.
Nora, P. (ed.) 1997. Les lieux de mémoire. vol. III. Paris: Quarto / Gallimard.
Norris, J. 2009. ‘Task-based teaching and testing’. In M. H. Long and C. J. Doughty (eds.) The handbook of language teaching. Malden, MA: Wiley–Blackwell, pp. 578–94.
Nyst, V. 2007. A descriptive analysis of Adamorobe sign language (Ghana). Utrecht: LOT.
Ogilvie, S. 2011. ‘Linguistics, lexicography, and the revitalization of endangered languages’, International Journal of Lexicography 24(4): 1–16.
O’Grady, G. N., C. F. Voegelin and F. M. Voegelin 1966. ‘Languages of the world: Indo-Pacific fascicle 6’, Anthropological Linguistics 8: 1–197.
O’Grady, W., A. Schafer, J. Perla, O. Lee, and J. Wieting 2009. ‘A psycholinguistic tool for the assessment of language loss: The HALA project’, Language Documentation and Conservation 3(1): 100–12. Available online at (accessed 20 February 2011).
OLAC 2012. Open Language Archives Community. Available online at (accessed 7 April 2012).
O’Meara, C. and J. Good 2010. ‘Ethical issues in legacy language resources’, Language and Communication30(3): 162–70.
O’Neill, D. 2011. Patterns of subsistence: Classification of cultures based on the sources and techniques of acquiring food and other necessities. San Marcos, California: Palomar College Behavioral Sciences Department. Available online at (accessed 16 April 2011).
Ortega, L. 2009. ‘Sequences and processes in language learning’. In M. H. Long and C. J. Doughty (eds.) The handbook of language teaching. Malden, MA: Wiley–Blackwell, pp. 81–105.
Otsuka, Y. and A. Wong 2007. ‘Fostering the growth of budding community initiatives: The role of linguists in Tokelauan maintenance in Hawai’i’, Language Documentation and Conservation 1(2): 240–56. Available at (accessed 15 January 2012).
Parcharidis, I. 1880. ‘Γραμματική της διαλέκτου Τραπεζουντος: περί επιθέτων, αντωνυμιών και Βαρυτόνων ρημάτων’. Χειρόδραϕο 335, Κέντρο Ερεύνης των Νεοελληνικών Διαλέκτων και Ιδιωμάτων, Ακαδημία Αθηνών.
Parks, D., J. Kushner, W. Hooper, D. Flavin, Yellow Bird, and S. Ditmar 2001. ‘Documenting and maintaining Native American languages for the twenty-first century’. In Reyhner, Cantoni, StClair, and Yazzie (eds.), pp. 331–48.
Penfield, S., A. Serratos, B. V. Tucker, A. Flores, G. Harper, jnr, J. Hill and N. Vasquez 2008. ‘Community collaborations: Best practices for North American indigenous language documentation’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language: 187–202.
Penfield, S., P. Cash, C.K. Galla, T. Williams, and D. ShadowWalker 2006. Technology-enhanced language revitalization. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.
Pete, T. 2010. Seliš nyoʔnuntn Medicine for the Salish Language. Pablo, MT: Salish Kootenai College Press.
Pievin, L. 2005. ‘Pāla kīnnt’. In K. E. Korkina and Ė. A. Galkina (eds.) Sām’. Lovozero: Samizdat, pp. 6–7.
Pivot, B. 2010. ‘Évaluation d’une situation de revitalisation d’une langue en danger, le cas du rama au Nicaragua’. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Université Lyon 2.
Poplack, S. 1980. ‘Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español: Toward a typology of code-switching’, Linguistics 18: 581–618.
Reyhner, J. A. and J. Eder 2004. American Indian education: A history. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Reyhner, J. and L. Lockard (eds.) 2009. Indigenous language revitalization: Encouragement, guidance and lessons learned. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University.
Reyhner, J., G. Cantoni, R. StClair, and E. P. Yazzie 2001. Preserving indigenous languages of the Americas. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Rialland, A. 2005. ‘Phonological and phonetic aspects of whistled languages’, Phonology 22: 237–71.
Rice, K. 2006. ‘Ethical issues in linguistic fieldwork’, Journal of Academic Ethics 4: 123–55.
Rice, K. 2011. ‘Documentary linguistics and community relations’, Language Documentation and Conservation 5: 187–207.
Riessler, M. 2007. ‘Kildin Saami’. In Y. Matras and J. Sakel (eds.) Grammatical borrowing in cross-linguistic perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 229–44.
Rießler, Michael 2009. ‘Loanwords in Kildin Saami, a Uralic language of northern Europe’. In M. Haspelmath and U. Tadmor (eds.) Loanwords in the world’s languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 384–413.
Riverstone, G., 2003. Living in the land of our ancestors: Rama Indian and Creole territory on Nicaragua’s Caribbean coast. Managua: Agencia Suecapara el Desarrollo Internacional (ASDI).
Riverstone, G. 2008. La tierra de nuestros ancestros, territorio de los indígenas Rama y Krioles en el Caribe Nicaragüense. Managua: IBIS.
Robins, R. and E. Uhlenbeck (eds.) 1991. Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg.
Romaine, S. 2006. ‘Planning for the survival of linguistic diversity’, Language Policy 5: 441–73.
Russell, J. and N. Spada 2006. ‘The effectiveness of corrective feedback for second language acquisition: A meta-analysis of the research’. In J. Norris and L. Ortega (eds.) Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 131–64.
Salish Kootenai College 2008. Challenge to survive: History of the Salish tribes of the Flathead Indian Reservation. Pablo, MT: Salish Kootenai College Press.
Sallabank, J. 2010. ‘Endangered language maintenance and revitalization: The role of social networks’, Anthropological Linguistics 52(3): 184–205.
Sammallahti, P. 1998. The Saami languages: An introduction. Kárášjohka: Davvi girji.
Sandler, W., I. Meir, C. Padden, and M. Aronoff 2005. ‘The emergence of a grammar: Systematic structure in a new language’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102: 2661–5.
Sankoff. G. 2006. ‘Age: Apparent time and real time’. In Elsevier Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 2nd edn. Article Number: LALI: 01479.
Schafer, A, W. O’Grady, O. Lee, J. Perla, J. Wieting, and K. Perdue 2009. ‘On the psycholinguistic assessment of relative language strength in bilinguals: Evidence from Korean heritage speakers’, MAPLL. Available online at (accessed 27 January 2012).
Scheller, E. 2009. ‘Situacija saamskich jazykov v Rossii i perspektivy ich revitalizacii’. Public lecture presented at the Centre for National Culture, Lovozero, 9 March 2009, and the State Pedagogical University, Murmansk, 10 March 2009.
Scheller, E. 2011. ‘Samisk språkrevitalisering i Ryssland: Möjligheter och utmaningar’, NOA 27(1): 86–119.
Scheller, E. 2013. ‘Kola Saami language revitalization’. In K. Andersson (ed.) L’Image du Sápmi 2, Örebro University, pp. 392–420.
Schmidt, T. and J. Bennöhr 2008. ‘Rescuing legacy data’, Language Documentation and Conservation 2(1): 109–29.
Schuit, J. M. 2012. ‘Signing in the Arctic: External influences on Inuit sign language’. In U. Zeshan and C. de Vos (eds.) Sign languages in village communities. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 181–208.
Scott, K., H. McGlade, D. Smith-Ali and J. Henderson 2006. ‘A protocol for Laves’ 1931 Noongar field notes’. Perth: University of Western Australia. Available online at (accessed 7 June 2013).
Second Life – Virtual world website. Available online at (accessed 24 March 2012).
Seifart, F. 2008. ‘The representativeness of language documentations’. In P. K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. V pp. 60–76.
Selinker, L. 1972. ‘Interlanguage’, International Review of Applied Linguistics 10: 209–41.
Shaw, P. A., L. Grant, J. Campbell, M. Point, and F. Gabriel 2012. ‘Linguistics and language revitalization: Community capacity-building’. Paper presented at From language documentation to language revitalization, annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Portlands, 5 January.
Sherris, A. 2008. ‘Integrated content and language instruction’, CAL Digest, Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Available online at (accessed 29 January 2012).
Sherris, A. 2009. ‘Talmudic pair work: A hermeneutic approach to language teacher education’. Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on Language Teacher Education, Washington, DC, 29 May.
Silva-Corvalán, C. 2003. ‘Linguistic consequences of reduced input in bilingual first language acquisition’. In S. Montrul and F. Ordóñez (eds.) Linguistic theory and language development in hispanic languages. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, pp. 375–97.
Simpson, J. 2007. ‘FiFo linguistics’. Endangered Languages and Cultures blog post, 20 September 2007. Available online at (accessed 16 April 2012).
Sitaridou, I. and S. Chatzikyriakidis 2012. ‘Cultural survival shifts focus: The case of Pontic Greek’. Paper presented at MedWorlds 4, 29 Mayis University, Istanbul, 5–7 September, 2012.
Snodgrass, J. and M. Vanderwart 1980. ‘A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6(2): 174–215.
Snyder, I. (ed.) 1997. Page to screen: Taking literacy into the electronic era. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
SWALSC (South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council) n.d. About SWALSC. Available online at (accessed 9 February 2012).
SWALSC (South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council), J. Host, and C. Owen 2009. ‘It’s still in my heart, this is my country’ – the Single Noongar claim history. Perth: University of Western Australia Press.
Spolsky, B. 2005. ‘Māori lost and regained’, in Bell, Harlow, and Starks (eds.), pp. 67–85.
Stammler, F. 2009. ‘Mobile phone revolution in the tundra? Technological change among Russian reindeer nomads’, Folklore: Electronic Journal of Folklore 41: 47–78. Also in A. Ventsel (ed.) 2009. Generation P in the tundra. Folklore 41. Talinn: Estonian Literary Museum, pp. 47–8. Available online at
States of Guernsey 2009. Guernsey annual population bulletin 2009. States of Guernsey Press.
States of Guernsey 2010. Our way of life: A cultural strategy for Guernsey 2010–14. Available online at (accessed 23 June 2011).
Steele, J. 2005. ‘The Aboriginal language of Sydney: A partial reconstruction of the indigenous language of Sydney based on the notebooks of William Dawes of 1790–91, informed by other records of the Sydney and surrounding languages to c.1905’. Unpublished MA thesis, Macquarie University.
Sulyandziga, R., D. Kudryashova, and P. Sulyandziga 2003. Indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation: Review of the Current Situation. Moscow: CIDA.
Sumien, D. 2009a. ‘Classificacion dei dialèctes occitans’, Linguistica Occitana 7: 1–56.
Sumien, D. 2009b. ‘La standardisation pluricentrique de l’occitan: Domergue Sumien répond à Philippe Blanchet’, Glottopol. Available online at
Sutton, P. 1997. ‘Materialism, sacred myth and pluralism: Competing theories of the origin of Australian languages’. In F. Merlan, J. Morton, and A. Rumsay (eds.) Scholar and sceptic: Australian Aboriginal studies in Honour of L. R. Hiatt. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, pp. 211–42.
Svensson, P. 2003. ‘Virtual worlds as arenas for language learning’. In U. Felix (ed.) Language learning online: Towards best practice. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp. 123–42.
Szekely, A., S. D’Amico, A. Devescovi, K. Federmeier, D. Herron, G. Iyer, T. Jacobsen, A. Arévalo, A. Vargha, and E. Bates 2005. ‘Timed action and object naming’, Cortex 41: 7–25.
Tainturier, M., M. Tremblay, and A. Lecours 1992. ‘Educational level and word frequency effect: A lexical decision investigation’, Brain and Language 43: 460–74.
Tang, A. 2011. ‘From diagnosis to remedial plan: A psycholinguistic assessment of language shift, L1 proficiency, and language planning in Truku Seediq’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Hawai’i atMānoa, Honolulu. Available online at (accessed 10 January 2012).
Taylor, A. 1981. ‘Indian lingua francas’. In C. Ferguson and S. Heath (eds.) Languages in the USA. Cambridge University Press, pp. 79–95.
Taylor, A. 1996. ‘Nonspeech communication systems’. In I. Goddard (ed.) Handbook of the North American Indian. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, vol. XVII Languages, pp. 275–89.
Te Puni Kōkiri 2008. Te Oranga o te Reo Māori: The health of the Maori language. Wellington: Te Puni Kōkiri.
Tenenbaum, G., S. Naidu, J. Olugbemiro, and J. Austin 2001. ‘Constructivist pedagogy in conventional on-campus and distance learning practice: An exploratory investigation’, Learning and Instruction 11: 87–111.
Tezcür, G. M. 2009. ‘Kurdish nationalism and identity in Turkey: A conceptual reinterpretation’, European Journal of Turkish Studies 10:1–33.
Thieberger, N. 1993/1996. Handbook of Western Australian languages south of the Kimberley region. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Thieberger, N. 2002. ‘Extinction in whose terms?’ In D. Bradley and M. Bradley (eds.) Language endangerment and language maintenance: An active approach. London: Curzon, pp. 310–28.
Thieberger, N. and S. Musgrave. 2006. ‘Documentary linguistics and ethical issues’. In Peter K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. IV pp. 26–37.
Thiong’o, N. wa. 2009. Something torn and new: An African renaissance. New York: Basic Cavitas Books.
Thomas, G. 1991. Linguistic purism. London: Longman.
Thomason, L. 1994. ‘Transitivity-related morphological alternation in Montana Salish’. Papers for the 29th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages, Salish-Kootenai College, Pablo, Montana, pp. 265–301.
Thomason, S. G. 2006. ‘Salishan languages’. In K. Brown (ed.) Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. 2nd edn. Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 732–3.
Thompson, L. C. 1985. ‘Control in Salish grammar’. In F. Plank (ed.) Relational typology. Berlin/New York/Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 391–428.
Tindale, N. B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: Their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Trosterud, T. 2003. ‘Språkdaude, purisme og språkleg revitalisering’. In H. Sandøy, R. B. Brodersen, and E. Brunstad (eds.) Purt og reint, Volda: Høgskulen i Volda, pp. 181–216.
Turkulka: Diccionnario de la Llengua rama. Available online at
Ubelaker, D. H. (ed.) 2006. Handbook of North American Indians (HNAI). vol. III Environment, Origins and Population. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
Ülker, E. 2007. ‘Assimilation of the Muslim communities in the first decade of the Turkish Republic (1923–1934)’, European Journal of Turkish Studies, available online at (accessed 15 January 2013).
Umiker-Sebeok, J. and T. Sebeok (eds.) 1978. Aboriginal sign languages of the Americas and Australia. vols. I and II. New York: Plenum.
UNESCO Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Languages 2003. ‘Language vitality and endangerment’. Paper presented to the International Expert Meeting on UNESCO Programme Safeguarding of Endangered Languages, Paris, 10–12 March. Available online at (accessed 23 September 2011).
Vasilevich, G. M. 1969. Evenki: Istoriko-etnograficheskie ocherki (xviii–nachalo xx vekov). Leningrad: Izdatelstvo ‘Nauka’.
Van den Branden, K. 2006. Task-based language education: From theory to practice. Cambridge University Press.
von Sturmer, J. 2009. ‘Language matters’, Voice of the Land (newsletter of the Federation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages) 39: 12.
Walters, K., A. Stately, T. Evans-Campbell, J. Simoni, B. Duran, K. Schultz, and D. Guerrero 2009. ‘“Indigenist” collaborative research efforts in Native American communities’. In A. R. Stiffman (ed.) The field research survival guide. Oxford University Press.
Warschauer, M. 2006. ‘Technology and indigenous language revitalization: Analyzing the experience of Hawai’i’. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), pp. 140–61.
Warschauer, M. and R. Kern (eds.) 2000. Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Warschauer, M. and D. Grimes 2007. ‘Audience, authorship, and artifact: The emergent semiotics of web 2.0.’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 27: 1–23.
Weatherwax, M. 2002. Indian sign language. Videotape. Department of Blackfeet Studies, Blackfeet Community College, Browning, MT.
Weichel, L. 2007. ‘Grammatical radial categories in the languages of the northwest coast’. Paper presented at LingO, the second Oxford postgraduate conference in linguistics, St Anne’s College, Oxford, 21–2 September.
West, L. 1960. ‘The sign language: An analysis’. vols. I and II. Unpublished PhD thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
Wheatley, M. and A. Pabsch 2010. Sign language legislation in the European Union. Brussels: European Union of the Deaf.
Wieting, J. 2010. ‘The effect of repeated measures on bilingual lexical access’. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Honolulu. Available online at (accessed 24 January 2012).
Wilkins, D. P. 1992. ‘Linguistic research under Aboriginal control: A personal account of fieldwork in central Australia’, Australian Journal of Linguistics 12: 171–200.
Witherspoon, G. 1977. Language and art in the Navajo universe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Woodbury, A. 2003. ‘Defining language documentation’. In Peter K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: SOAS, vol. I pp. 35–51.
Woodbury, A. 2011a. ‘Language documentation’. In Peter K. Austin and Julia Sallabank (eds.) The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. Cambridge University Press, pp. 159–86.
Woodbury, A. 2011b. ‘Archives and audiences: Toward making endangered language documentations people can read, use, understand, and admire’. In David Nathan (ed.) Proceedings of workshop on language documentation and archiving. London: SOAS, pp. 11–20.
Wurm, S. 2001. Atlas of the world’s languages in danger of disappearing. 2nd edn. Paris: UNESCO.
Wykman, H. 2005. ‘A description of Kurin/Minong Noongar as documented by Gerhardt Laves in his field notes of 1931’. Unpublished B.Sc. (Hons) dissertation, University of Western Australia.
Xiromeritis, N. and H. C. Spyridis 1995. ‘An acoustical approach to the vowels of the village Antias in the Greek Island of Evia’, Acustica 80(5): 425–30.
Yamada, Racquel-María. 2007. ‘Collaborative linguistic fieldwork: Practical application of the empowerment model’, Language Documentation and Conservation 1(2): 257–82.
Yamada, R.-M. 2011. ‘Integrating documentation and formal teaching of Kari’nja: Documentary materials as pedagogical materials’, Language Documentation and Conservation 5: 1–30. Available online at (accessed 22 March 2012).
Yamamoto, A. and O. Zepeda 2004. ‘Native American Languages’. In E. Finnegan (ed.) Language in the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153–81.
Zaborščikova, S. 2010. Jēll’em vuez’. Kárášjohka: Davvi girji.
Zaretsky, R. 2004. Cock and bull stories: Folco de Baroncelli and the invention of the Camargue. Lincoln/London: University of Nebraska Press.
Zeshan, U. 2003. ‘Aspects of Türk Isaret Dili (Turkish Sign Language)’, Sign Language and Linguistics 6(1): 43–75.
Zeshan, U. 2007. ‘The ethics of documenting sign languages in village communities’. In P. K. Austin, O. Bond, and D. Nathan (eds.) Proceedings of the conference on language documentation and linguistic theory. London: SOAS, pp. 269–79.
Zeshan, U. 2008. ‘Roots, leaves and branches: The typology of sign languages’. In R. M. de Quadros (ed.) Sign languages: Spinning and unraveling the past, present and future. TISLR9, papers from the 9th Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research Conference. Petrópolis: Editora Arara Azul, pp. 671–95.
Zeshan, U. 2011. ‘Village sign languages: A commentary’. In G. Mathur and D. J. Napoli (eds.) Deaf around the world: The impact of language. Oxford University Press.
Zeshan, U. and C. de Vos (eds.) 2012. Sign Languages in Village Communities: anthropological and linguistic insights. Sign language typology 4. Boston/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; Nijmegen: Ishara Press.