Hostname: page-component-5db6c4db9b-5lzww Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-25T09:08:51.581Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Research and Diagnostic Algorithmic Rules (RADAR) for mood disorders, recurrence of illness, suicidal behaviours, and the patient’s lifetime trajectory

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 November 2022

Michael Maes*
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Cognitive Fitness and Technology Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria Research Institute, Medical University Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Juliana Brum Moraes
Health Sciences Graduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil
Ana Congio
Health Sciences Graduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil
Heber Vargas
Health Sciences Graduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil
Sandra Nunes
Health Sciences Graduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil
Author for correspondence: Michael Maes, Email:


The top-down Diagnostic and Statistical Manual/International Statistical Classification of Diseases categories of mood disorders are inaccurate, and their dogmatic nature precludes both deductive (as indisputable) and inductive (as top-down) remodelling of case definitions. In trials, psychiatric rating scale scores employed as outcome variables are invalid and rely on folk psychology-like narratives. Using machine learning techniques, we developed a new precision nomothetic model of mood disorders with a recurrence of illness (ROI) index, a new endophenotype class, namely Major Dysmood Disorder (MDMD), characterised by increased ROI, a more severe phenome, and more disabilities. Nonetheless, our previous studies did not compute Research and Diagnostic Algorithmic Rules (RADAR) to diagnose MDMD and score ROI, lifetime (LT), and current suicidal behaviours, as well as the phenome of mood disorders. Here, we provide rules to compute bottom-up RADAR scores for MDMD, ROI, LT and current suicidal ideation and attempts, the phenome of mood disorders, and the lifetime trajectory of mood disorder patients from a family history of mood disorders and substance abuse to adverse childhood experiences, ROI, and the phenome. We also demonstrate how to plot the 12 major scores in a single RADAR graph, which displays all features in a two-dimensional plot. These graphs allow the characteristics of a patient to be displayed as an idiomatic fingerprint, allowing one to estimate the key traits and severity of the illness at a glance. Consequently, biomarker research into mood disorders should use our RADAR scores to examine pan-omics data, which should be used to enlarge our precision models and RADAR graph.

© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Scandinavian College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aas, M, Henry, C, Bellivier, F, Lajnef, M, Gard, S, Kahn, JP, Lagerberg, TV, Aminoff, SR, Bjella, T, Leboyer, M, Andreassen, OA, Melle, I and Etain, B (2017) Affective lability mediates the association between childhood trauma and suicide attempts, mixed episodes and co-morbid anxiety disorders in bipolar disorders. Psychological Medicine 47(5), 902912. doi: 10.1017/S0033291716003081.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Agnew-Blais, J and Danese, A (2016) Childhood maltreatment and unfavourable clinical outcomes in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 3(4), 342349. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00544-1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alberti, KG, Zimmet, P and Shaw, J (2006) Metabolic syndrome–a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabetic Medicine 23(5), 469480. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01858.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Altshuler, SJ and Cleverly-Thomas, A (2011) What do we know about drug-endangered children when they are first placed into care? Child Welfare 90(3), 4568.Google ScholarPubMed
Alvarez, C, Sabina, C, Brockie, T, Perrin, N, Sanchez-Roman, MJ, Escobar-Acosta, L, Vrany, E, Cooper, LA and Hill-Briggs, F (2022) Patterns of adverse childhood experiences, social problem-solving, and mental health among latina immigrants. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30(23-24), NP22401NP22427. doi: 10.1177/08862605211072159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edn. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. 525. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.Google Scholar
Antiseri, D (1991) How to distinguish science from non science. Medicina Nei Secoli 3(2-3), 153174.Google ScholarPubMed
Aryutova, K, Paunova, R, Kandilarova, S, Todeva-Radneva, A and Stoyanov, D (2021) Implications from translational cross-validation of clinical assessment tools for diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry. World Journal of Psychiatry 11(5), 169180. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v11.i5.169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnard, M and McKeganey, N (2004) The impact of parental problem drug use on children: what is the problem and what can be done to help? Addiction 99(5), 552559. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00664.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berk, M, Brnabic, A, Dodd, S, Kelin, K, Tohen, M, Malhi, GS, Berk, L, Conus, P and McGorry, PD (2011) Does stage of illness impact treatment response in bipolar disorder? Empirical treatment data and their implication for the staging model and early intervention. Bipolar Disorders 13(1), 8798. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00889.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernstein, DP, Stein, JA, Newcomb, MD, Walker, E, Pogge, D, Ahluvalia, T, Stokes, J, Handelsman, L, Medrano, M, Desmond, D and Zule, W (2003) Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect 27(2), 169190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boyce, N, Graham, D and Marsh, J (2021) Choice of outcome measures in mental health research. Lancet Psychiatry 8(6), 455. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00123-1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Celik, C, Erdem, M, Cayci, T, Ozdemir, B, Ozgur Akgul, E, Kurt, YG, Yaman, H, Isintas, M, Ozgen, F and Ozsahin, A (2010) The association between serum levels of neopterin and number of depressive episodes of major depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 34(2), 372375. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.01.002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cosci, F and Fava, GA (2022) Staging of unipolar depression: systematic review and discussion of clinical implications. Psychological Medicine 52(9), 16211628. doi: 10.1017/S0033291722001507.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dakof, GA, Cohen, JB, Henderson, CE, Duarte, E, Boustani, M, Blackburn, A, Venzer, E and Hawes, S (2010) A randomized pilot study of the Engaging Moms Program for family drug court. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 38(3), 263274. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2010.01.002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Del-Ben, CM, Vilela, JAA, Crippa, JAS, Hallak, JEC, Labate, CM and Zuardi, AW (2001) Confiabilidade da “Entrevista Clínica Estruturada para o DSM-IV - Versão Clínica” traduzida para o português. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 23(3), 156159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denicoff, KD, Ali, SO, Sollinger, AB, Smith-Jackson, EE, Leverich, GS and Post, RM (2002) Utility of the daily prospective National Institute of Mental Health Life-Chart Method (NIMH-LCM-p) ratings in clinical trials of bipolar disorder. Depression and Anxiety 15(1), 19. doi: 10.1002/da.1078.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Etain, B, Lajnef, M, Henry, C, Aubin, V, Azorin, JM, Bellivier, F, Bougerol, T, Courtet, P, Gard, S, Kahn, JP, Passerieux, C and Leboyer, M (2017) FACE-BD Clinical Coordinating Center (FondaMental Foundation); FACE-BD Data Coordinating Center (FondaMental Foundation); FACE-BD Clinical Sites and Principal Collaborators in France. Childhood trauma, dimensions of psychopathology and the clinical expression of bipolar disorders: a pathway analysis. Journal of Psychiatric Research 95, 3745. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.07.013.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferensztajn, E, Remlinger-Molenda, A and Rybakowski, J (2014) Etapy przebiegu choroby afektywnej jednobiegunowej [Staging of unipolar affective illness]. Psychiatria Polska 48(6), 11271141. doi: 10.12740/PP/24239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleck, MP, Louzada, S, Xavier, M, Chachamovich, E, Vieira, G, Santos, L and Pinzon, V (2000) Application of the Portuguese version of the abbreviated instrument of quality life WHOQOL-BREF. Revista de Saude Publica 34(2), 178183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frances, A (2013) Saving Normal. New York, NY: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
Gershoff, ET (2022) Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: a meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin 128(4), 539579. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grande, I, Magalhães, PV, Chendo, I, Stertz, L, Panizutti, B, Colpo, GD, Rosa, AR, Gama, CS, Kapczinski, F and Vieta, E (2014) Staging bipolar disorder: clinical, biochemical, and functional correlates. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 129(6), 437444. doi: 10.1111/acps.12268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grassi-Oliveira, R, Stein, LB and Pezzi, JC (2006) Translation and content validation of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire into Portuguese language. Revista de Saúde Pública 40(2), 249255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guy, W (1976) Clinical global impressions. In ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology Revised. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Public Health Service, Alcohol; Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; National Institute of Mental Health; Psychopharmacology Research Branch; Division of Extramural Research Programs, pp. 218222.Google Scholar
Hamilton, M (1959) The assessment of anxiety states by rating. British Journal of Medical Psychology 32(1), 5055.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, M (1960) A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 23(1), 5662.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hope, S, Ueland, T, Steen, NE, Dieset, I, Lorentzen, S, Berg, AO, Agartz, I, Aukrust, P and Andreassen, OA (2013) Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 are associated with general severity and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 145(1-3), 3642. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2012.12.023.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyman, SE (2010) The diagnosis of mental disorders: the problem of reification. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 6(1), 155179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jensen, AR (1965) Scoring the Stroop test. Acta Psychologica 24(5), 398408. doi: 10.1016/0001-6918(65)90024-7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapczinski, Fávio, Dias, VV, Kauer-Sant'Anna, M, Brietzke, E, Vázquez, GH, Vieta, E and Berk, M (2009) The potential use of biomarkers as an adjunctive tool for staging bipolar disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 33(8), 13661371. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.07.027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelley, ML, Braitman, A, Henson, JM, Schroeder, V, Ladage, J and Gumienny, L (2010) Relationships among depressive mood symptoms and parent and peer relations in collegiate children of alcoholics. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 80(2), 204212. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01024.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Köhne, ACJ and van Os, J (2021) Precision psychiatry: promise for the future or rehash of a fossilised foundation? Psychological Medicine 51(9), 14091411. doi: 10.1017/S0033291721000271.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M (2022) Precision nomothetic medicine in depression research: a new depression model, and new endophenotype classes and pathway phenotypes, and a digital self. Journal of Personalized Medicine 12(3), 403. doi: 10.3390/jpm12030403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maes, MH and Stoyanov, D (2022) False dogmas in mood disorders research: towards a nomothetic network approach. World Journal of Psychiatry 12(5), 651667. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v12.i5.651.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Scharpé, S, De Meester, I, Goossens, P, Wauters, A, Neels, H, Verkerk, R, De Meyer, F, D'Hondt, P and Peeters, D (1994) Components of biological variation in prolyl endopeptidase and dipeptidyl-peptidase IV activity in plasma of healthy subjects. Clinical Chemistry 40(9), 16861691.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Ombelet, W, De Jongh, R, Kenis, G and Bosmans, E (2001) The inflammatory response following delivery is amplified in women who previously suffered from major depression, suggesting that major depression is accompanied by a sensitization of the inflammatory response system. Journal of Affective Disorders 63(1-3), 8592. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(00)00156-7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Mihaylova, I, Kubera, M and Ringel, K (2012) Activation of cell-mediated immunity in depression: association with inflammation, melancholia, clinical staging and the fatigue and somatic symptom cluster of depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 36(1), 169175. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2011.09.006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Congio, A, Moraes, JB, Bonifacio, KL, Barbosa, DS, Vargas, HO, Morris, G, Puri, BK, Michelin, AP, Nunes, SOV (2018) Early life trauma predicts affective phenomenology and the effects are partly mediated by staging coupled with lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defences. Biomolecular Concepts 9(1), 115130. doi: 10.1515/bmc-2018-0010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Moraes, JB, Congio, A, Bonifacio, KL, Barbosa, DS, Vargas, HO, Michelin, AP, Carvalho, AF and Nunes, SOV (2019) Development of a novel staging model for affective disorders using partial least squares bootstrapping: effects of lipid-associated antioxidant defenses and neuro-oxidative stress. Molecular Neurobiology 56(9), 66266644. doi: 10.1007/s12035-019-1552-z.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Moraes, JB, Bonifacio, KL, Barbosa, DS, Vargas, HO, Michelin, AP and Nunes, SOV (2021a) Towards a new model and classification of mood disorders based on risk resilience, neuro-affective toxicity, staging, and phenome features using the nomothetic network psychiatry approach. Metabolic Brain Disease 36(3), 509521. doi: 10.1007/s11011-020-00656-6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Nani, JV, Noto, C, Rizzo, L, Hayashi, MAF and Brietzke, E (2021b) Impairments in peripheral blood T effector and T regulatory lymphocytes in bipolar disorder are associated with staging of illness and anti-cytomegalovirus IgG levels. Molecular Neurobiology 58(1), 229242. doi: 10.1007/s12035-020-02110-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maes, M, Barbosa, DS, Almulla, AF and Kanchanatawan, BA (2022a) Novel pathway phenotype of temporal lobe epilepsy and comorbid psychiatric disorders: results of precision nomothetic medicine. Antioxidants (Basel) 11(5), 803. doi: 10.3390/antiox11050803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Rachayon, M, Jirakran, K, Sodsai, P, Klinchanhom, S, Debnath, M, Basta-Kaim, A, Kubera, M, Almulla, AF and Sughondhabirom, A (2022b) Adverse childhood experiences predict the phenome of affective disorders and these effects are mediated by staging, neuroimmunotoxic and growth factor profiles. Cells 11(9), 1564. doi: 10.3390/cells11091564.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, M, Rachayon, M, Jirakran, K, Sodsai, P, Klinchanhom, S, Gałecki, P, Sughondhabirom, A and Basta-Kaim, A (2022c) The immune profile of major dysmood disorder: proof of concept and mechanism using the precision nomothetic psychiatry approach. Cells 11(7), 1183. doi: 10.3390/cells11071183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Messina, N and Jeter, K (2012) Parental methamphetamine use and manufacture: child and familial outcomes. Journal of Public Child Welfare 6(3), 296312. doi: 10.1080/15548732.2012.683364.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGlade, A, Ware, R and Crawford, M (2009) Child protection outcomes for infants of substance-using mothers: a matched-cohort study. Pediatrics 124(1), 285293. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mccullough, JP Jr, Clark, SW, Klein, DN and First, MB (2016) Introducing a clinical course-graphing scale for DSM-5 mood disorders. American Journal of Psychotherapy 70(4), 383392. doi: 10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2016.70.4.383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miner, JL and Clarke-Stewart, KA (2008) Trajectories of externalizing behavior from age 2 to age 9: relations with gender, temperament, ethnicity, parenting, and rater. Developmental Psychology 44(3), 771786. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.771.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Popper, KR (1962) Conjectures and Refulation: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. London: Routledge. ISBN: 9781135971441. 10.2307/2218271.Google Scholar
Posner, K, Brown, GK, Stanley, B, Brent, DA, Yershova, KV, Oquendo, MA, Currier, GW, Melvin, GA, Greenhill, L, Shen, S and Mann, JJ (2011) The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: initial validity and internal consistency findings from three multisite studies with adolescents and adults. American Journal of Psychiatry 168(12), 12661277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quello, SB, Brady, KT and Sonne, SC (2005) Mood disorders and substance use disorder: a complex comorbidity. Science & Practice Perspectives 3(1), 1321. doi: 10.1151/spp053113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reitan, RM (1955) The relation of the Trail Making Test to organic brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology 19(5), 393394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ringle, CM, da Silva, D and Bido, D (2014) Structural equation modeling with the SmartPLS. Brazilian Journal of Marketing - BJM Revista Brasileira de Marketing – ReMark Edição Especial 13, n2.Google Scholar
Sheehan, DV, Harnett-Sheehan, K and Raj, BA (1996) The measurement of disability. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 11(Suppl 3), 8995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simeonova, D, Stoyanov, D, Leunis, JC, Murdjeva, M and Maes, M (2021) Construction of a nitro-oxidative stress-driven, mechanistic model of mood disorders: a nomothetic network approach. Nitric Oxide 106, 4554. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2020.11.001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siwek, M, Sowa-Kućma, M, Styczeń, K, Misztak, P, Nowak, RJ, Szewczyk, B, Dudek, D, Rybakowski, JK, Nowak, G and Maes, M (2017) Associations of serum cytokine receptor levels with melancholia, staging of illness, depressive and manic phases, and severity of depression in bipolar disorder. Molecular Neurobiology 54(8), 58835893. doi: 10.1007/s12035-016-0124-8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skevington, SM, Lotfy, M, O'Connell, KA and WHOQOL Group (2004) The World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL group. Quality of Life Research 13(2), 299310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sowa-Kućma, M, Styczeń, K, Siwek, M, Misztak, P, Nowak, RJ, Dudek, D, Rybakowski, JK, Nowak, G and Maes, M (2018) Are there differences in lipid peroxidation and immune biomarkers between major depression and bipolar disorder: effects of melancholia, atypical depression, severity of illness, episode number, suicidal ideation and prior suicide attempts. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 81, 372383. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.08.024.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stanger, C, Dumenci, L, Kamon, J and Burstein, M (2004) Parenting and children’s externalizing problems in substance-abusing families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 33(3), 590600. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3303_16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoyanov, D (2020) The reification of diagnosis in psychiatry. Neurotoxicity Research 37(3), 772774.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoyanov, D and Maes, MH (2021) How to construct neuroscience-informed psychiatric classification? Towards nomothetic networks psychiatry. World Journal of Psychiatry 11(1), 112. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v11.i1.1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoyanov, D, Kandilarova, S, Borgwardt, S, Stieglitz, RD, Hugdahl, K and Kostianev, S (2018) Psychopathology assessment methods revisited: on translational cross-validation of clinical self-evaluation scale and fMRI. Frontiers in Psychiatry 9, 21. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoyanov, D, Aryutova, K, Kandilarova, S, Paunova, R, Arabadzhiev, Z, Todeva-Radneva, A, Kostianev, S and Borgwardt, S (2021) Diagnostic task specific activations in functional MRI and aberrant connectivity of insula with middle frontal gyrus can inform the differential diagnosis of psychosis. Diagnostics (Basel) 11(1), 95. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11010095.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stroop, JR (1935) Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18(6), 643662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Summerfield, D (2006) Depression: epidemic or pseudo-epidemic? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 99(3), 161162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Troyer, AK, Moscovitch, M and Winocur, G (1997) Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology 11(1), 138146. doi: 10.1037//0894-4105.11.1.138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J and Kohne, ACJ (2021) It is not enough to sing its praises: the very foundations of precision psychiatry may be scientifically unsound and require examination. Psychological Medicine 51(9), 14151417. doi: 10.1017/S0033291721000167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vasupanrajit, A, Jirakran, K, Tunvirachaisakul, C and Maes, M (2021) Suicide attempts are associated with activated immune-inflammatory, nitro-oxidative, and neurotoxic pathways: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 295, 8092. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vasupanrajit, A, Jirakran, K, Tunvirachaisakul, C, Solmi, M and Maes, M (2022) Inflammation and nitro-oxidative stress in current suicidal attempts and current suicidal ideation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry 27(3), 13501361. doi: 10.1038/s41380-021-01407-4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (2004) ICD-10: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: Tenth Revision, 2nd edn. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Wu, P, Hoven, CW, Liu, X, Cohen, P, Fuller, CJ and Shaffer, D (2004) Substance use, suicidal ideation and attempts in children and adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 34(4), 408420. doi: 10.1521/suli.34.4.408.53733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zachar, P and Kendler, KS (2007) Psychiatric disorders: a conceptual taxonomy. American Journal of Psychiatry 164(4), 557565. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2007.164.4.557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Maes et al. supplementary material

Maes et al. supplementary material

Download Maes et al. supplementary material(File)
File 965 KB