Skip to main content

Cigarette smoking and schizophrenia

  • Ciara Kelly and Robin McCreadie

It has been recognised for many years that patients with psychiatric illnesses, especially schizophrenia, smoke to excess. However, recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the high prevalence of nicotine addiction in patients with schizophrenia. It has become increasingly clear that heavy cigarette smoking is intimately associated with the schizophrenic illness and that this may have implications for the underlying neurobiology of schizophrenia.

Hide All
Addington, J., el-Guebaly, N., Campbell, W. et al (1998) Smoking cessation treatment for patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 974976.
Chiles, J. A., Cohen, S., Roland, M. et al (1993) Smoking and schizophrenic psychopathology. American Journal of Addictions, 2, 315319.
Chong, S. A. & Choo, H. L. (1996) Smoking among Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 30, 350353.
Clarke, P. B. S. (1998) Tobacco smoking, genes and dopamine. Lancet, 353, 8485.
Dalack, G. W. & Meador-Woodruff, J. H. (1996) Smoking, smoking withdrawal and schizophrenia: case reports and a review of the literature. Schizophrenia Research, 22, 133141.
Dawe, S., Gerada, C., Russell, M. A. et al (1995) Nicotine intake in smokers increases following a single dose of haloperidol. Psychopharmacology, 117, 110115.
De Leon, J. (1996) Smoking and vulnerability for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 22, 405409.
De Leon, J., Dadvand, M., Canuso, C. et al (1995) Schizophrenia and smoking: an epidemiological survey in a state hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 453455.
Evins, A. E. & Tisdale, T. (1999) Bupropion and smoking cessation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 798799.
Glassman, A. H. (1998) Psychiatry and cigarettes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 692693.
Goff, D. C., Henderson, D. C. & Amico, E. (1992) Cigarette smoking in schizophrenia: relationship to psychopathology and medication side-effects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 11891194.
Hughes, J. R., Hatsukami, D. K., Mitchell, J. E. et al (1986) Prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 993997.
Iversen, L. L. (1996) Smoking … harmful to the brain. Nature, 382, 206207.
Jorenby, D. E., Leischow, S. J., Nides, M. A. et al (1999) A controlled trial of sustained release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. New England Journal of Medicine, 304, 685691.
Kelly, C. & McCreadie, R. G. (1999) Smoking habits, current symptoms, and premorbid characteristics of schizophrenic patients in Nithsdale, Scotland. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 17511757.
Lavin, M. R., Siris, S. G. & Mason, S. E. (1996) What is the clinical importance of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia? American Journal of Addictions, 5, 189208.
Lohr, J. B. & Flynn, K. (1992) Smoking and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 8, 93102.
McCreadie, R. G. & Kelly, C. (2000) Patients with schizophrenia who smoke. Private disaster, public resource. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 109.
McEvoy, J. P., Freudenreich, O., Levin, E. D. et al (1995) Haloperidol increases smoking in patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology, 119, 124126.
Maier, W. & Schwab, S. (1998) Molecular genetics of schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 11, 1925.
Menza, M. A., Grossman, N., Van Horn, M. et al (1991) Smoking and movement disorders in psychiatric patients. Biological Psychiatry, 30, 109115.
Mortensen, P. B. & Juel, K. (1993) Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 183189.
Nilsson, A., Waller, L., Rosengren, A. et al (1997) Cigarette smoking is associated with abnormal involuntary movements in the general male population. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 717723.
Olincy, A., Young, D. A. & Freedman, R. (1997) Increased levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in schizophrenic smokers compared to other smokers. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 15.
Overall, J. E. & Gorham, D. R. (1962) The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799812.
Pontieri, F. E., Tanda, G., Orzi, F. et al (1996) Effects of nicotine on the nucleus accumbens and similarity to those of addictive drugs. Nature, 382, 255256.
Salokangas, R. K. R., Saarijarvi, S., Taiminen, T. et al (1997) Effect of smoking on neuroleptics in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 23, 5560.
Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group (2000) Smoking habits and plasma lipid peroxide and vitamin E levels in never-treated first-episode patients with schizophrenia. Preliminary report. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 290293.
Yassa, R., Lal, S., Korpassy, A. et al (1987) Nicotine exposure and tardive dyskinesia. Biological Psychiatry, 22, 6772.
Ziedonis, D. M., Kosten, T. R., Glazer, W. M. et al (1994) Nicotine dependence and schizophrenia. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 204206.
Ziedonis, D. M. & George, T. P. (1997) Schizophrenia and nicotine use: report of a pilot smoking cessation programme and review of neurobiological and clinical issues. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23, 247254.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Advances
  • ISSN: 1355-5146
  • EISSN: 1472-1481
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-advances
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 19 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 199 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 20th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Cigarette smoking and schizophrenia

  • Ciara Kelly and Robin McCreadie
Submit a response


No eLetters have been published for this article.


Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *