Abel, GG, Huffman, J, Warberg, G et al (1998) Visual reaction time and plethymography as measures of sexual interest in child molesters. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 10: 81–95.
Abracen, J, Looman, J, Anderson, D (2000) Alcohol and drug abuse in sexual and nonsexual violent offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 12: 263–74.
Ahlmeyer, S, Kleinsasser, D, Stoner, J et al (2003) Psychopathology of incarcerated sex offenders. Journal of Personality Disorder, 17: 306–18.
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR). APA.
American Psychiatric Association (2013a) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM-5). APA.
American Psychiatric Association (2013b) Paraphilic Disorders Fact Sheet – DSM-5. APA.
Bhugra, D, Popelyuk, D, McMullen, I (2010) Paraphilias across cultures: Contexts and controversies. Journal of Sex Research, 47: 242–56.
Blanchard, R, Watson, MS, Choy, A et al (1999) Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age and sexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 28: 111–27.
Bogaerts, S, Vanheule, S, Declercq, F (2005) Recalled parental bonding, adult attachment style and personality disorders in child molesters: a comparative study. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 16: 445–58.
Bogaerts, S, Vanheule, S, Leeuw, F et al (2006) Recalled parental bonding and personality disorders in a sample of exhibitionists: a comparative study. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 17: 636–46.
Bogaerts, S, Daalder, A, Vanheule, S et al (2008) Personality disorders in a sample of paraphilic and nonparaphilic child molesters: a comparative study. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52: 21–30.
Brooks-Gordon, B, Bilby, C, Wells, H (2006) A systematic review of psychological interventions for sex offenders – I. Randomised controlled trials. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 17: 442–66.
Butcher, JN, Graham, JR, Ben-Porath, YS et al (2001) Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2: Manual for Administration, Scoring and Interpretation (Revised Edition). University of Minnesota Press.
Camilleri, JA, Quinsey, VL (2008) Pedophila: assessment and treatment. In Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment and Treatment (eds Laws, R, O'Donohue, WT) 183–212. Guilford Press.
Cantor, JM, Blanchard, R, Christensen, BK et al (2004) Intelligence, memory and handedness in pedophilia. Neuropsychology, 18: 3–14.
Chantry, K, Craig, RJ (1994) Psychological screening of sexually violent offenders with the MCMI. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50: 430–5.
Chaplin, TC, Rice, ME, Harris, GT (1995) Salient victim suffering and the sexual responses of child molesters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63: 249–55.
Cohen, LJ, Nikiforov, K, Gans, S et al (2002) Heterosexual male perpetrators of child sexual abuse: a preliminary neuropsychiatric model. Psychiatric Quarterly, 73: 313–36.
Darjee, R, Russel, K (2012) What clinicians need to know before assessing risk in sexual offenders. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 18: 467–78.
Department of Health (2003) Confidentiality: NHS Code of Practice. Department of Health.
Department of Health (2010) Confidentiality: NHS Code of Practice. Supplementary Guidance on Public Interest Disclosures. Department of Health.
Dickey, R (1992) The management of a case of treatment-resistant paraphilia with a long-acting LHRH agonist. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 37: 567–9.
Dietz, PE, Evans, B (1982) Pornographic imagery and prevalence of paraphilia. American Journal of Psychology, 139: 1493–5.
Dreznick, MT (2003) Heterosocial competence of rapists and child molesters: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sex Research, 40: 170–8.
Dunn, N, Seaburne-May, M, Gatter, P (2012) Internet sex addiction: a licence to lust?
Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 18: 270–7.
Dunsieth, NW, Nelson, EB, Brusman-Lovins, LA et al (2004) Psychiatric and legal features of 113 men convicted of sexual offenses. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65: 293–300.
Federoff, JP (2009) The paraphilias. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (2nd edn) (eds Gelder, MG, Andreasen, NC, Lopez-Ibor, JL et al): 832–42. Oxford University Press.
Federoff, JP, Marshall, WL (2010) Paraphilias. In Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Refractory Cases: Turning Failure into Success (eds McKay, D, Abramowitz, JS, Taylor, S): 369–84 American Psychological Association.
Finkelhor, D (1984) Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research. Free Press.
Frances, A, First, MB (2011) Paraphilia NOS, nonconsent: not ready for the courtroom. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 39: 555–61.
Gannon, TA, Wood, J, Pina, A et al (2012) The Evaluation of the Mandatory Polygraph Pilot (Ministry of Justice Research Series 14/12). Ministry of Justice.
General Medical Council (2009) Confidentiality. GMC.
Gordon, H (2008) The treatment of paraphilias: an historical perspective. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 18: 79–87.
Gray, NS, Brown, AS, MacCulloch, MJ et al (2005) An implicit test of the associations between children and sex in pedophiles. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114: 304–8.
Greenwald, AG, McGhee, JL, Schwartz, JL (1998) Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 1454–80.
Grubin, D, Madsen, L, Parsons, S et al (2004) A prospective study of the impact of polygraphy on high-risk behaviours in adult sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 16: 209–22.
Grubin, D (2008) Medical models and interventions in sexual deviance. In Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment and Treatment (eds Laws, R, O'Donohue, WT) 594–610. Guilford Press.
Guidry, LL, Saleh, FM (2004) Clinical considerations of paraphilic sex offenders with comorbid psychiatric conditions. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 11: 21–34.
Hall, GCN, Hirschman, R (1992) Sexual aggression against children: a conceptual perspective of etiology. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 19: 8–23.
Hanson, RK, Morton-Bourgon, K (2004) Predictors of Sexual Recidivism: An Updated Meta-Analysis (Research Rep. No. 2004–02). Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada.
Hanson, RK, Harris, AJR, Scott, T et al (2007) Assessing the Risk of Sexual Offenders on Community Supervision: The Dynamic Supervision Project User Report 2007–05. Department of the Solicitor General of Canada.
Hanson, RK, Bourgon, G, Helmus, L et al (2009) The principles of effective correctional treatment also apply to sexual offenders: a meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36: 865–91.
Hill, A, Habermann, N, Berner, W et al (2007) Psychiatric disorders in single and double sexual murderers. Psychopathology
Jesperson, AF, Lalumiere, ML, Seto, MC (2009) Sexual abuse history among adult sex offenders and non-sex offenders: a meta-analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect, 33: 179–92.
Kafka, MP (1997) Hypersexual desire in males: an operational definition and clinical implications for men with paraphilias and paraphilia-related disorders. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26: 505–26.
Kafka, MP, Hennen, J (2002) A DSM-IV Axis I comorbidity study of males (n=120) with paraphilias and paraphilia-related disorders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 14: 349–66.
Kafka, MP, Hennen, J (2003) Hypersexual desire in males: are males with paraphilias different from males with paraphilia-related disorders?
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 15: 307–21.
Kinsey, A, Pomeroy, W, Martin, C (1948) Sexual Behaviour in the Human Male. Saunders.
Kinsey, A, Pomeroy, W, Martin, C et al (1953) Sexual Behaviour in the Human Female. Saunders.
Kruger, HC, Schiffer, B (2011) Neurocognitive and personality factors in homo- and heterosexual pedophiles and controls. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8: 1650–59.
Langevin, R, Wortzman, G, Dickey, R et al (1988) Neuropsychological impairment in incest offenders. Annals of Sex Research, 1: 401–15.
Langevin, R, Wortzman, G, Wright, P et al (1989) Studies of brain damage and dysfunction in sex offenders. Annals of Sex Research, 2: 163–79.
Langstrom, N, Zucker, KJ (2005) Transvestic fetishism in the general population: prevalence and correlates. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 31: 87–95.
Langstrom, N, Hanson, R (2006a) High rates of sexual behaviour in the general population: correlates and predictors. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 35: 37–52.
Langstrom, N, Seto, MC (2006b) Exhibitionistic and voyeuristic behaviour in a Swedish national population survey. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 35: 427–35.
Laws, R, O'Donohue, WT (eds) (2008) Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment and Treatment. Guilford Press.
Leue, A, Borchard, B, Hoyer, J (2004) Mental disorders in a forensic sample of sexual offenders. European Psychiatry, 19: 123–30.
Looman, J, Abracen, J, DiFazio, R et al (2004) Alcohol and drug abuse among sexual and nonsexual offenders: relationship to intimacy deficits and coping strategy. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 16: 177–89.
Losel, F, Schmucker, M (2005) The effectiveness of treatment for sex offenders: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1: 117–46.
Lyn, TS, Burton, DL (2004) Adult attachment and sexual offender status. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74: 150–9.
Maes, M, van West, D, De Vos, N et al (2001a) Lower baseline plasma Cortisol and prolactin together with increased body temperature and higher mCPP-induced Cortisol response in men with pedophilia. Neuropsychopharmacology
Maes, M, De Vos, N, van Hunsel, F et al (2001b) Pedophilia is accompanied by increased plasma concentrations of catecholamines, in particular epinephrine. Psychiatric Research, 103: 43–9.
Marsa, F, O'Reilly, G, Carr, A et al (2004) Attachment styles and psychological profiles of child sex offenders in Ireland. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19: 228–51.
Marsh, PJ, Odlaug, BL, Thomarios, N et al (2010) Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 22: 129–34.
Marshall, WL, Barbaree, HE (1990) An integrated theory of the etiology of sexual offending. In Handbook of Sexual Assault: Issues, Theories, and Treatment of the Offender (eds Marshall, WL, Laws, DR, Barbaree, HE): 257–75. Plenum Press.
Marshall, WL, Marshall, LE (2000) The origins of sexual offending. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse: A Review Journal, 1: 250–63.
Marshall, WL (2006) Clinical and research limitations in the use of phallometric testing with sexual offenders. Sex Offender Treatment, 1: 1–32.
Middleton, D, Mandeville-Norton, R, Hayes, E (2009) Does treatment work with internet sex offenders? Emerging findings from the Internet Sex offender treatment programme (i-SOTP). Journal of Sexual Aggression, 15: 5–9.
Minoudis, P, Shaw, J, Craissati, J (2012) The London Pathways Project: Evaluating the effectiveness of a consultation model for personality disordered offenders. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 22: 218–32.
O'Donohue, WT, Regev, L, Hagstrom, A (2000) Problems with the DSM-IV diagnosis of pedophilia. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 12: 95–105.
Ogloff, JRP, Cutajar, MC, Mann, E et al (2012) Child Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Offending and Victimisation: A 45 Year Follow-Up Study. Australian Institute of Criminology.
Raymond, NC, Coleman, E, Ohlerking, F et al (1999) Psychiatric comorbidity in pedophilic sex offenders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156: 786–8.
Rousseau, L, Couture, M, Dupont, A et al (1990) Effect of combined androgen blockade with an LHRH agonist and flutamide in one severe case of male exhibitionism. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 35: 338–41.
Royal College of Psychiatrists (2010) Good Psychiatric Practice: Confidentiality and Information Sharing (2nd edn) (College Report CR160). Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Russell, K, Darjee, R (2013) Practical assessment and management of risk in sexual offenders. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 19: 56–66.
Ruszczynski, R (2007) The problem of certain psychic realities: aggression and violence as perverse solutions. In Lectures on Violence, Perversion and Delinquency (eds Morgan, D, Ruszczynski, S) Karnac.
Schiffer, B, Peschel, T, Paul, T et al (2007) Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41: 753–62.
Seto, M C., Lalumiere, ML (2010) What is so special about male adolescent sexual offending? A review and test of explanations using meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136: 526–75.
Suchy, Y, Whittaker, JW, Strassberg, DS et al (2009) Neurocognitive differences between pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15: 248–57.
Thibaut, F, Cordier, B, Kuhn, JM (1993) Effect of a long-lasting gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone agonist in six cases of severe male paraphilia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87: 445–50.
Thibaut, F, de la Barra, F, Gordon, H et al (2010) The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the biological treatment of paraphilias. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 11: 604–55.
Ward, T, Siegert, RJ (2002) Toward a comprehensive theory of child sexual abuse: a theory knitting perspective. Psychology, Crime and Law, 8: 319–51.
Ward, T, Beech, A (2006a) An integrated theory of sexual offending. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11: 44–63.
Ward, T, Gannon, T (2006b) Rehabilitation, etiology, and self-regulation: the Good Lives Model of rehabilitation for sexual offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11: 77–94.
Willis, GM, Ward, T (2011) Striving for a good life: the good lives model applied to released child molesters. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 17: 290–303.
Wood, H (2013) The nature of the addiction in ‘sex addiction’ and paraphilias. In Addictive States of Mind (eds Bower, M, Hale, R, Wood, H) Karnac.
World Health Organization (1992) International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). WHO.
Wright, P, Nobrega, J, Langevin, R et al (1990) Brain density and symmetry in pedophilic and sexually aggressive offenders. Annals of Sex Research, 3: 319–28.
Zander, T (2008) Commentary: Inventing diagnosis for civil commitment of rapists. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 36: 459–69.
Zonana, H (2011) Sexual disorders: new and expanded proposals for the DSM-5 – do we need them?
Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 39: 245–9.