Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-hb754 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-02T15:50:39.983Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

An experimental and numerical study of synthetic jet flow

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 July 2016

S. G. Mallinson
University of Technology Sydney, Australia
J. A. Reizes
University of Technology Sydney, Australia
G. Hong
University of Technology Sydney, Australia


The flow generated by a synthetic jet actuator with a circular orifice is investigated experimentally and computationally. The experimental data and computational predictions are in fair to good agreement with each other and with the theory for a steady turbulent jet. It is found, however, that the synthetic jet establishes itself much more rapidly than the steady jet, primarily because of turbulent dissipation. The oscillatory nature of synthetic jet flow also gives rise to a much greater entrainment of ambient fluid compared with the case of a steady jet. Finally, self-similarity seems to be established when the oscillations introduced by the actuator are reduced to negligible levels.

Research Article
Copyright © Royal Aeronautical Society 2001 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1. Ho, C.M. and Tai, Y.C. Review: MEMS and its applications for flow control, ASME J Fluids Eng, 1996, 116, pp 437447.Google Scholar
2. McMichael, J.M. Progress and prospects for active flow control using microfabricated electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), AIAA paper 96–0306, 1996.Google Scholar
3. Mehregany, M., Deanna, R.G. and Roshko, E. Microelectromechanical systems for aerodynamics applications, AIAA paper 96–0421, 1996.Google Scholar
4. Naguib, A., Christophorou, C., Alnajjar, E., Nagib, H., Huang, C.C. and Najafi, K. Arrays of MEMS-based actuators for control of supersonic jet screech, AIAA paper 97–1963, 1997.Google Scholar
5. Jacobson, S.A. and Reynolds, W.C. Active control of streamwise vortices and streaks in boundary layers, J Fluid Mech, 1998, 360, pp 179211.Google Scholar
6. Smith, B.L. and Glezer, A. Vectoring and small-scale motions effected in free shear flows using synthetic jet actuators, AIAA paper 97–0213, 1997.Google Scholar
7. Smith, B.L. and Glezer, A. The formation and evolution of synthetic jets, Phys Fluids, 1998, 10, pp 2,281–2,297.Google Scholar
8. Zhang, X. Co- and contrarotating streamwise vortices in a turbulent boundary layer, J Airc, 1995, 32, pp 1,095–1,101.Google Scholar
9. Bremhorst, K. and Hollis, P.G. Velocity field of an axisymmetric pulsed, subsonic air jet, AIAA J, 1990, 28, pp 2,043–2,049.Google Scholar
10. Wygnanski, I. Boundary layer and flow control by periodic addition of momentum, AIAA paper 97–2117, 1997.Google Scholar
11. Meier, H.U. and Zhou, M.D. The development of acoustic generators and their application as a boundary layer transition control device, Expts in Fluids, 1991, 11, pp 93104.Google Scholar
12. Lorkowski, T., Rathnasingham, R. and Breuer, K.S. Small-scale forcing of a turbulent boundary layer, AIAA paper 97–1792, 1997.Google Scholar
13. Sinha, S.K. and Pal, D. On the differences between the effect of acoustic perturbation and unsteady bleed in controlling flow separation over a circular cylinder, SAE Tech Paper 932573, 1993.Google Scholar
14. Amitay, M., Smith, B.L. and Glezer, A. Aerodynamic flow control using synthetic jet technology, AIAA paper 98–0208, 1998.Google Scholar
15. Tensi, J. and Paillé, F. Visualisation of the flow around a cylinder using steady and unsteady blowing techniques, Proc 8th Int Symp on Flow Vis, 1998, pp 37.137.8.Google Scholar
16. Smith, D.R., Kibens, V., Pitt, D.M. and Hopkins, M.A. Effect of synthetic jet arrays on boundary layer control, SPIE paper 3674–45, 6th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, Newport Beach, CA, March 1999.Google Scholar
17. Roos, F.W. Synthetic-jet microblowing for vortex asymmetry management on a hemisphere-cylinder forebody, AIAA paper 97–1973, 1997.Google Scholar
18. Chen, Y., Liang, S., Aung, K., Glezer, A., and Jagoda, J. Enhanced mixing in a simulated combustor using synthetic jet actuators, AIAA paper 99–0449, 1999.Google Scholar
19. Davis, S.A. and Glezer, A. Mixing control of fuel jets using synthetic jt technology: velocity field measurements, AIAA paper 99–0447, 1999.Google Scholar
20. Ritchie, B.D. and Seitzman, J.M. Acetone mixing control of fuel jets using synthetic jet technology: scalar field measurements, AIAA paper 99–0448, 1999.Google Scholar
21. Ingard, U. and Labate, S. Acoustic circulation and the nonlinear impedance of orifices, J Acoust Soc America, 1950, 22, pp 211218.Google Scholar
22. Zarembo, L.K. Acoustic streaming, In: Rozenburg, (Ed) High-Intensity Acoustic Fields, 1971, pp 135199.Google Scholar
23. Lighthill, M.J. Acoustic streaming, J Sound and Vib, 1978, 61, pp 391418.Google Scholar
24. Lebedeva, I.V. Experimental study of acoustic streaming in the vicinity of orifices, Sov Phys Acoust, 1980, 26, pp 331333.Google Scholar
25. Kral, L.D., Donovan, J.F., Cain, A.B. and Cary, A.W. Numerical simulations of synthetic jet actuators, AIAA paper 97–1824, 1997.Google Scholar
26. Cain, A.B., Kral, L.D., Donovan, J.F. and Smith, T.D. Numerical simulation of compressible synthetic jet flows, AIAA paper 98–0084, 1998.Google Scholar
27. Rathnasingham, R. and Breuer, K.S. Coupled fluid-structural characteristics of actuators for fluid control, AIAA J, 1997, 35, pp 832837.Google Scholar
28. Rediniotis, O.K., Ko, J., Yue, X. and Kurdila, A.J. Synthetic jets, their reduced-order modelling and applications to flow control, AIAA paper 99–1000, 1999.Google Scholar
29. Frolov, I., Qualitative Study on the Behaviour of Synthetic Jets, B Eng Honours Thesis, Monash University, 1998.Google Scholar
30. Rizzetta, D.P., Visbal, M.R. and Stanek, M.J., Numerical investigation of synthetic jet flowfields, AIAA paper 98–2910, 1998.Google Scholar
31. Carpenter, P.W., Davies, C. and Lockerby, D.A. A novel velocity-vorticity method for simulating the effects of MEMS actuators on boundary layers. In: Prahlad, T.S. et al (Eds) Proc 5th Asian CFD Conf, Bangalore, India, 7–11 December 1998, Vol 2, pp 4449.Google Scholar
32. Bruun, H.H. Hot-Wire Anemometry, Oxford Science, 1995.Google Scholar
33. Wills, J.A.B. The correction of hot-wire readings for proximity to a solid boundary, J Fluid Mech, 1962, 12, pp 388396.Google Scholar
34. Launder, B.E. and Sharma, B.I. Turbulence models and their application to the prediction of internal flows, Letts Heat and Mass Transf, 1974, 1, pp 131138.Google Scholar
35. Bremhorst, K. Unsteady subsonic turbulent jets. In: Muller, U., Roesner, K.G. and Schmidt, B. (Eds) Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Springer-Verlag, 1979, pp 480500.Google Scholar
36. Mankbadi, R.R. Transition, Turbulence and Noise: Theory and Applications for Scientists and Engineers , Kluwer Academic, Chapter 5, 1994.Google Scholar
37. Maxworthy, T. The structure and stability of vortex rings, J Fluid Mech, 1972, 51, pp 1532.Google Scholar
38. Widnall, S.E., Bliss, D.B. and Tsai, C.Y. The instability of short waves on a vortex ring, J Fluid Mech, 1974, 66, pp 3547.Google Scholar
39. Rajanatnam, N. Turbulent Jets, Elsevier, 1976.Google Scholar
40. Pearson, B.R. Experiments on Small-Scale Turbulence. PhD thesis, University of Newcastle, Australia, 1999.Google Scholar