1 Quoting Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, Decl. Bedjaoui, J., 1996 ICJ Rep. 226, 271, para. 13 (July 8).
2 Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, pmbl., Apr. 15, 1994, in World Trade Organization, The Legal Texts:The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations 4 (1999) [hereinafter Legal Texts].
3See, e.g., Dispute Settlement at the WTO: The Developing Country Experience (Gregory C. Shaffer & Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz eds., 2010).
4See, e.g., Jackson, John H., The World Trading System109–11 (2d ed.1997).
5See, e.g., Bagwell, Kyle, Mavroidis, Petros C. & Staiger, Robert W., The Case for Auctioning Countermeasures in the WTO 2 (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 9920, Aug. 2003), available athttp://www.nber.org/papers/w9920.pdf.
6 Borrowing from European Union law, the term acquis was used to refer to the accumulated body of law resulting from the GATT andWTOyears. See Japan— Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, at 14, WTO Doc. WT/DS8/AB/R, WT/DS10/AB/R, WT/DS11/AB/R (adopted Nov. 1, 1996).
7 Deborah Z. Cass, The Constitutionalization of the World Trade Organization: Legitimacy, Democracy, and Community in the International Trading System (2005).
8Steger, Debra P., The World Trade Organization: A New Constitution for the Trading System, inNew Directions in International Economic Law: Essays in Honour of John H. Jackson135 (Bronckers, Marco & Quick, Reinhard eds., 2000).
9Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich, The WTO Constitution and Human Rights, 3J. Int’l Econ. L.19 (2000).
10See, e.g., Dunoff, Jeffrey L., Constitutional Conceits: The WTO’s ‘Constitution’ and the Discipline of International Law, 17Eur. J. Int’l L.647 (2006).
11See, e.g., Howse, Robert & Nicolaïdis, Kalypso, Legitimacy and Global Governance: Why Constitutionalizing the WTO Is a Step Too Far, inEfficiency, Equity, and Legitimacy: The Multilateral Trading System at the Millennium227 (Porter, Roger B., Sauvé, Pierre, Subramanian, Arvind & Zampetti, Americo Beviglia eds., 2001).
12 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, June 14, 1992, UN Doc. A/CONF. 151/5/Rev. 1 (1992), 31 ILM 874 (1992).
13 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Mar. 3, 1973, 993 UNTS 243, 12 ILM 1085 (1973).
14Lang, Andrew & Scott, Joanne, The Hidden World of WTO Governance, 20Eur. J. Int’l L.575 (2009).
15 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, Art. XXIV, in Legal Texts, supra note 2, at 17.
16 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1C, in id. at 321.
17 Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, in id. at 143.
18 Goss Int’l Corp. v. Man Roland Druckmaschinen Aktiengesellschaft, 491 F.3d 355, 358 (8th Cir. 2007) (acknowledging the WTO proceedings and their impact on the domestic litigation between private parties). These domestic proceedings were a direct consequence of a WTO case between the United States and Japan, United States—Anti-Dumping Act of 1916, WTO Doc. WT/DS136/AB/R (adopted Sept. 26, 2000).
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