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Water mills in the area of Sagalassos: a disappearing ancient technology

  • K. Donners (a1), M. Waelkens (a1) and J. Deckers (a1)
Abstract

As water mills are quickly disappearing throughout Turkey, it is becoming very difficult to collect information about this type of ancient technology. By means of an ethno-archaeological study carried out in the territory of ancient Sagalassos (Pisidia), the very limited remains of 15 water mills were recorded. Following the recent introduction of electric mills, water mills have lost their previous importance and today some of the mill houses are used as stables or shelters. Interviews with local people provided some information about the capacity of the mills and about the kind of grain that was ground in them. All the mills under discussion belong to the ‘ordinary’ horizontal-wheeled type of water mill. This type may have originated in or near Turkey during the Hellenistic period. A literary and archaeological study concerning the various types of mills showed that the type found near Sagalassos was best suited to local circumstances. Tax records confirm the presence of water mills in the area during early Ottoman times.

Türkiye'nin hemen hemen heryerinde su deǧirmenlerinin hızla yok olması, bu tip antik dönem teknolojisiyle ilgili bilgi toplanmasını zorlaştırmaktadır. Antik Sagalassos (Pisidia) kenti sinirlan içerisinde sürdürülmüş olan etnoarkeolojik bir araştirma sonucunda 15 su deǧirmenine ait çok sınırlı kalintilar kayitlara geçirilmiştir. Yakın geçmişte elektrik enerjisiyle çalışan deǧirmenlerin kullanılmaya başlanmasıyla, su deǧirmenleri eski önemlerini kaybetmiş ve deǧirmen yapıları günümüzde ahır veya barinak olarak kullanılmaya başlanmıstır. Yöre halkıyla yapılan görüşmeler deǧirmenlerin kapasitesi ve hangi tip tahılın bu deǧirmenlerde öǧütüldüǧüne dair bilgi saǧlamıştır. Bu çalişmada tartışılan tüm deǧirmenler, ‘alışılmış’ yatay-tekerlekli su deǧirmenleridir. Bu tip deǧirmenler, ilk defa Helenistik dönemde Anadolu'da veya yakın çevresinde ortaya çıkmış olabilir. Yazılı kaynaklar ve arkeolojik çalışmalar, Sagalassos çevresinde bulunmuş olan pekçok tip su deǧirmeninin, yerel koşullara en uygun tipler olduǧunu ortaya koymuştur. Vergi kayıtları da erken Osmanlı döneminde bu bölgede su deǧirmenlerinin olduǧunu doǧrulamaktadır.

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Anatolian Studies
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