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The Deterioration of Democracy in Austria, 1927–1932

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2009

R. John Rath
Affiliation:
Professor Emeritus of History, Rice University and the University of Minnesota, and founder of the Austrian History Yearbook. He can be reached c/o Center for Austrian Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455.

Extract

By the spring of 1927 democratic institutions seemed to have secured a relatively firm footing in Austria. That appearance was deceptive. The same year saw the beginning of the deterioration of Austrian democracy.

The achievement of a secure democratic political environment by 1927 appeared grounded in reality. Within eight years after the Austrian Social Democrats had quashed the threat of a Communist-inspired Soviet republic in Austria, the bourgeois-dominated democratic government had succeeded in building up a reliable police force, gendarmerie, and army adequate to protect it against any internal threats. Rent as it was by the endless power struggles of its leaders, the Heimwehr was still only a relatively weak force on the political horizon. The National Socialist Party, split into quarreling factions, amounted to little more than a noisy opposition group. With the marked improvement in the Austrian economy by the mid-1920s, Austrian anti-Semitism had noticeably declined by the end of 1926. Perhaps most important of all, the foreign financial assistance assured by the Geneva Protocol of 1922 and the subsequent economic stabilization measures under-taken by the government did much to put the country's financial house in good order.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Center for Austrian Studies, University of Minnesota 1996

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References

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22 As cited in Klemperer, Klemens von, Ignaz Seipel, Christian Statesman in a Time of Crisis (Princeton, N.J., 1972), 265Google Scholar. For the Bauer-Seipel negotiations, see especially Haas, “Die österreichische Sozialdemokratie,” 141–48.

23 As quoted in Klemperer, Ignaz Seipel, 266–67. See also Otto Bauer, “Ignaz Seipel,” ArbeiterZeitung, Apr. 3, 1932, as reprinted in Otto Bauer, ed. Braunthal, 239.

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29 Leichter, Glanz und Ende der Ersten Republik, 61.

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31 Edmondson, The Heimwehr and Austrian Politics, 53–54; Klemperer, Klemens von, “Ignaz Seipel 1876 bis 1932,” in Die österreichischen Bundeskanzler. Leben und Werk, ed. Weissensteiner, Friedrich and Weinzierl, Erika (Vienna, 1983), 109Google Scholar; Klemperer, Ignaz Seipel, 274–75.

32 “Morreale—Mussolini gegen Hitler auf den österreichischen Ring (Eigene Erinnerungen und italienische Geheimdokumente über Mussolinis Versuch, den Anschluβ zu verhindern)” (typed manuscript in the archive of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte in Vienna), pt. 2, 14. Eugenio Morreale, the press attaché at the Italian embassy and a reporter for Mussolini's newspaper, Il Popolo d'ltalia, was one of the two main Italian observers of Austrian political life. The other was the Italian minister in Vienna, Giacinto Auriti. For overall discussions of Italian foreign policy in the area, see Macartney, Maxwell H. H. and Cremona, Paul, Italy's Foreign and Colonial Policy, 1914–1937 (London, 1938), 192–99Google Scholar; Cassels, Alan, Mussolini's Early Diplomacy (Princeton, N.J., 1970), especially 315–52Google Scholar; and de Felice, Renzo, Mussolini il duce. Gli anni del consenso 1929–1936 (Turin, 1974), 323–65Google Scholar. See also Collotti, Enzo, “Die Faschisierung des italienischen Staates und die fortschreitende Beeinflussung österreichischer Rechtsgruppen,” in Der 4. Márz 1933. Vom Verfassungsbruch der Diktatur. Beiträge zum wissenschaftlichen Symposion des Dr.-Karl-RennerInstituts abgehalten am 28. Februar und 1. März 1983 in Wien, ed. Fröschl, Erich and Zoitl, Helge (Vienna, 1984), 149Google Scholar; and my own article entitled “Mussolini, Bethlen, and the Heimwehr in 1928–1930,” in The Mirror of History: Essays in Honor of Fritz Fellner, ed. Wank, Solomon et al. (Santa Barbara, Calif., 1988), 432Google Scholar. I wish to thank Solomon Wank for giving me permission to incorporate extensive segments of that article into this particular study.

33 “Morreale—Mussolini gegen Hitler,” 10–11; Jedlicka, Ludwig, “Österreich und Italien 1922–1938,” in Innsbruck-Venedig. Österreichisch-italienische Historikertreffen 1971 und 1972, ed. Wandruszka, Adam and Jedlicka, Ludwig (Vienna, 1975), 205–6Google Scholar; excerpts from the notes of the conference between the Italian minister-president Mussolini and Hungarian minister-president Bethlen, Milan, Apr. 2, 1928, in Kerekes, Lajos, “Akten zu den geheimen Verbindungen zwischen der Bethlen-Regierung und der österreichischen Heimwehrbewegung,” Acta Historica. Zeitschrift der ungarischen Akademie der Wissenschaft 9, no. 1–4 (1965): 308–9Google Scholar. See also Kerekes, Lajos, “Italien, Ungarn und die österreichische Heimwehrbewegung 1928–1931,” Österreich in Geschichte und Literatur 9, no. 1 (1965): 34Google Scholar; and Jedlicka, Ludwig, “The Austrian Heimwehr,” Journal of Contemporary History 1, no. 1 (1966): 134–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

34 Kerekes, “Italien, Ungarn und die österreichische Heimwehrbewegung,” 2–3; I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 6, 59–60 n; Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Jan. 5, 1928, ibid., doc. no. 5, p. 3. Fifteen volumes of the seventh series, covering the period between October 31, 1922, and March 17, 1934, were published in Rome by the Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato between 1953 and 1989. For this and the next few paragraphs, see also Rath, “Mussolini, Bethlen, and the Heimwehr,” 433–36.

35 Giulio Ricciardi's memorandum to Mussolini, dated Rome, Apr. 27, 1927, with Steidle's and Pabst's petition annexed to it, I documenti diplomatic! italiani, vol. 5, doc. no. 168, pp. 176–78.

36 Excerpts from the notes on the conference between the Italian minister-president Mussolini and Hungarian minister-president Bethlen, Milan, Apr. 2, 1928, in Kerekes, “Akten zu den geheimen Verbindungen,” 309; Jedlicka, “The Austrian Heimwehr,” 135.

37 Continuation of report 83 (secret) signed by András Hory, in Kerekes, “Akten zu den geheimen Verbindungen,” 315.

38 András Hory to Sándor Khuen-Héderváry, Rome, June 26, 1928, ibid., 314.

39 Steidle's memorandum for the Hungarian and Italian governments, Innsbruck, May 23, 1928, ibid., 309–12; Gábor Apor's notes on the conference between Bethlen and Steidle, Budapest, June 8, 1928, ibid., 312; Apor's notes on the conference between Bethlen and Steidle, Fenyõd-Bélatelep, July 28, 1928, ibid., 315; “Morreale—Mussolini gegen Hitler,” pt. 2, 16.

40 Apor's notes on the conference between Bethlen and Steidle, Fenyõd-Bélatelep, July 28, 1928, in Kerekes, “Akten zu den geheimen Verbindungen,” 316. See also Wiltschegg, Die Heimwehr, 45.

41 De Astis, to Grandi, , Budapest, 07 31, 1928, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 6, doc. no. 528, p. 470Google Scholar.

42 Kerekes, “Italien, Ungarn und die österreichische Heimwehrbewegung,” 6; Kerekes, Lajos, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie. Mussolini, Gömbös und die Heimwehr (Vienna, 1966), 24, 2729Google Scholar; Edmondson, The Heimwehr and Austrian Politics, 63–67; “Morreale—Mussolini gegen Hitler,” pt. 2, 16; Botz, Gewalt in der Politik, 164–66.

43 Wodianer's, Andor report on a conference with Grandi, Rome, 10 10, 1928, in Kerekes, , “Akten zu den geheimen Verbindungen,” 304 nGoogle Scholar.

44 di Monza, Durini to Mussolini, , Budapest, 01 19, 1929, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 7, doc. no. 194, pp. 219–20Google Scholar; Morreale's notes, Vienna, Apr. 19, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 76, p. 386; Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, July 25, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 562, p. 551; pledge of Aug. 10, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 590, p. 387. A copy of this pledge can also be found in Kerekes, “Akten zu den geheimen Verbindungen,” 324–25.

45 See especially Seipel's, speech at the University of Tübingen on 07 26, 1929, quoted in Jedlicka, , “The Austrian Heimwehr,” 133–34Google Scholar.

46 Klemperer, Ignaz Seipel, 351; Ludwig, Eduard, Österreichs Sendung im Donauraum. Die letz n Dezennien österreichischer Innen- und Aussenpolitik (Vienna, 1954), 6768Google Scholar; Goldinger, Walter, Geschichte der Republik Österreich (Vienna, 1962), 142Google Scholar. See also Rath, “Mussolini, Bethlen, and the Heimwehr,” 436–37.

47 Morreale, memorandum, Vienna, 09 10, 1929, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 6, doc. no. 619, p. 617Google Scholar. See also Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, July 25, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 562, pp. 551–52; Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Aug. 21, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 601, p. 601.

48 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 19, 1929, ibid., vol. 8, doc. no. 10, p. 21; report entitled “Situation in Austria” appended to De Astis to Grandi, Budapest, Sept. 18, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 8, p. 15; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 21, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 25, p. 45.

49 Morreale's notes on a conversation with Seipel, appended to Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 4, 1930, ibid., vol. 9, doc. no. 287, p. 397. See also Auriti to Mussolini, July 25, 1929, ibid., vol. 7, doc. no. 562, p. 552; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Jan. 7, 1930, ibid., vol. 8, doc. no. 300, p. 326.

50 Oxilia to Gazzera, Budapest, Sept. 14, 1929, Annex 2 of De Astis to Grandi, Budapest, Sept. 18, 1929, ibid., vol. 8, doc. no. 8, pp. 16–17; Auriti to Mussolini, Aug. 21, 1929, ibid., vol. 7, doc. no. 601, p. 601.

51 Auriti to Mussolini, Aug. 21, 1929, ibid, vol. 7, doc. no. 601, pp. 600–601. For the events at St. Lorenzen, see especially Botz, Gewalt in der Politik, 171–82.

52 Walkó's, Lajos notes on his conference with Mussolini, Rome, 09 12, 1928, in Kerekes, , “Akten zu den geheimen Verbindungen,” 326–27Google Scholar.

53 Walkó's conference with Steidle, Vienna, Sept. 20, 1929, ibid., 329. See also Walkó's conference with Seipel, Vienna, Sept. 19, 1929, ibid., 328–29.

54 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 09 27, 1929, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 8, doc. no. 25, p. 45Google Scholar. See also Veiter, Theodor, “Das 34er Jahr”. Bürgerkrieg in Österreich (Vienna, 1984), 51Google Scholar; and Kerekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 60.

55 Kerekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 51; Kondert, Reinhart, “Schober und die Heim-wehr. Der Niedergang des Austrofaschismus 1929–1930,” Zeitgeschichte 3, no. 6 (03. 1976): 165Google Scholar.

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57 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 8, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 37, p. 59.

58 Grandi to Auriti, Rome, Oct. 18, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 84, p. 107.

59 Leser, Norbert, “Die Rolle der Sozialdemokratie bei der Verfassungsreform 1929,” in Die österreichische Verfassung von 1918 bis 1938. Protokoll des Symposium in Wien am 19. Oktober 1977 (Vienna, 1980), 7173Google Scholar (quote on 71); Leichter, Glanz und Ende der Ersten Republik, 90–93; Gulick, Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2:867–74.

60 Kerekes, Abenddámmerung einer Demokratie, 55–56.

61 Grandi, to di Monza, Durini, Rome, 10 31, 1929, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 8, doc. no. 127, p. 143Google Scholar. See also Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 8, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 141, pp. 160–61.

62 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 19, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 109, pp. 109–12 (quote on 112); Durini di Monza to Grandi, Budapest, Nov. 6, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 138, p. 159.

63 Grandi to Durini di Monza, Rome, Oct. 22, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 98, p. 118; Grandi to Auriti, Rome, Oct. 22, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 101, pp. 119–20.

64 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 25, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 108, p. 125.

65 Grandi to Auriti, Rome, Oct. 26, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 112, pp. 129–30.

66 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 19, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 167, pp. 183–84; Morreale report, Nov. 4, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 136, p. 156.

67 Article 60 of the 1920 constitution as revised by paragraph 30 of the 1929 B-VG Novelle (hereafter cited as “B-VG, 1929 text”), in Texte zur österreichischen Verfassungs-Geschichte. Von der Pragmatischen Sanktion zur Bundesverfassung (1713–1966), ed. Fischer, Heinz and Silvestri, Gerhard (Vienna, 1970), 238Google Scholar. For the constitutional revisions made in 1929, see also MacDonald, Mary, The Republic of Austria: A Study in the Failure of Democratic Government (London, 1946), 4962Google Scholar; and Leser, “Die Rolle der Sozialdemokratie,” in Die österreichische Verfassung, 69–74.

68 Articles 70, 28, 29, and 18 of the 1929 constitution as revised by paragraphs 36, 13, 14, and 6 of B-VG, 1929 text, in Texte zur österreichischen Verfassungs-Geschichte, ed. Fischer, and Silvestri, , pp. 234, 236, 239Google Scholar.

9 Ricciardi to Grandi, Innsbruck, , 12. 9, 1929, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 8, doc. no. 232, pp. 239–40Google Scholar. For a good evaluation of the defects of the Heimwehr, see Morreale's report of Nov. 4, 1929, ibid., doc. no. 136, pp. 154–55.

70 Eduard Ludwig, Österreichs Sendung im Donauraum, 75; Winkler, Die Diktatur in Oesterreich, 29–30; Kondert, “Schober and the Heimwehr,” 167–69. It should be noted that Bauer also approved Schober's plan to disarm the parliamentary organizations. See Bauer, to Adler, Friedrich, 04 3, 1930, Otto Bauer. Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, , 9:1073–76Google Scholar. Mussolini expressed the opinion that since it was apparent that Schober was submitting to pressures from London and Paris, he hoped that “the Heimwehr will find a way again to support the government.” Egger, to General Secretary, Rome, 051 30, 1930Google Scholar (telegram), Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv (Vienna), Neue Politische Akten (Vienna), carton 477, no. 27.646–13/30, fol. 325.

71 Jedlicka, “The Austrian Heimwehr,” 118. See also Jedlicka, Ludwig, “Zur Vorgeschichte der Korneuburger Eides,” Österreich in Geschichte und Literatur 7, no. 4 (04 1963): 146–53Google Scholar; Edmondson, The Heimwehr and Austrian Politics, 97–100.

72 Morreale's notes concerning his conversations with the Heimwehr leaders, appended to Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, , 05 25, 1930, documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 9, doc. no. 59, p. 85Google Scholar.

73 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 10, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 242, pp. 334–35.

74 Jedlicka, “The Austrian Heimwehr,” 118. For the Strafella affair, see espeially Staudinger, Anton, “Bemühungen Carl Vaugoins um Suprematie der christlichsozialen Partei in Österreich (1930–1933)” (Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1969), 2637Google Scholar; idem, “Carl Vaugoin 1873 bis 1949,” in Die österreichischen Bundeskanzler, ed. Weissensteiner and Weinzierl, 154; Schumy Nachlaβ, pt. 2: “Landbund,” 92–93; Kerekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 81–82; Helmer, 50 Jahre erlebte Geschichte, 123–24.

75 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, Sept. 27, 1930, documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 9, doc. no. 275, pp. 373–77Google Scholar; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 30, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 281, pp. 390–91; Staudinger, “Carl Vaugoin 1873 bis 1949,” 154; Veiter, “Das 34er Jahr,” 63.

76 Kluge, Ulrich, Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung in der europäischen Zwischenkriegszeit. Studien zur Agrargesellschaft und -wirtschaft der Republik Österreich 1918 bis 1938 (Stuttgart, 1988), 332–33Google Scholar. See also Scheu, Friedrich, Der Weg ins ungewisse. Österreichs Schicksalskurve 1929–1938 (Vienna, 1972), 75Google Scholar.

77 Morreale's notes appended to Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 10 4, 1930, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 9, doc. no. 287, p. 397Google Scholar; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 5, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 290, pp. 405–6; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 13, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 296, p. 417.

78 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 13, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 296, p. 416.

79 Starhemberg to Mussolini, Vienna, Oct. 21, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 319, p. 452; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 13, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 296, pp. 417–20; Kerekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 86.

80 Arlotta, to Grandi, , Budapest, 10 18, 1930, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 9, doc. no. 308, pp. 433–36Google Scholar. Auriti disagreed sharply with Arlotta's report about Hungarian opposition to Starhemberg's plans for a coup. See Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 25, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 406, pp. 583–84.

81 Geisser Celesia to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 21, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 318, pp. 450–52.

82 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 25, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 326, p. 465.

83 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 11, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 369, p. 524. On December 27 Auriti wrote Grandi that Starhemberg “was ready to march to stage a coup d'état, and only the weakness of Vaugoin, who is a friend of the Heimwehr but not part of it, prevented the scheme from being executed.” Ibid.1, doc. no. 476, p. 706.

84 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 31, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 342, p. 489.

85 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 6–8, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 380, p. 510.

86 See the discussion of the 1927 elections early in this essay.

87 Rot-Weiss-Rot Buck. Gerechtigkeit für Österreich! Darstellungen, Dokumente und Nachweise zur Vorgeschichte und Geschichte der Okkupation Österreichs, pt. 1: (nach amtlichen Quellen) (Vienna, 1946), 28.

88 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 11 15, 1930, documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 9, doc. no. 377, p. 539Google Scholar; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 18, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 385, p. 552; Grandi to Auriti, Rome, Nov. 19, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 386, p. 553; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 21–22, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 396, pp. 568–70.

89 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 30, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 428, pp. 624–25.

90 Ender to president of the Nationalrat, Dec. 4, 1930, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 2nd session on Dec. 4, 1930, of the 4th legislative period (1930–32), vol. 1, p. 7Google Scholar. For Ender's policies and actions as chancellor, see Gerhard Wanner, “Otto Ender 1875 bis 1960,” in Die österreichischen Bundeskanzler, ed. Weissensteiner and Weinzierl, 162–66, 171–72; Huebmer, Hans, Dr. Otto Ender (Dornbirn, 1957), 128–43Google Scholar; and Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934, 123–34 (see n. 5).

91 See Ender's, speech in the Nationalrat on 12 5, 1930, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 2nd session on Dec. 5, 1930, of the 4th legislative period (1930–32), vol. 1, 1112Google Scholar; Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934, 122–25; Gulick, Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2:925–26; and Huebmer, Dr. Otto Ender, 131–32.

92 Celesia's, Geisser and Morreale's, notes on a conversation with Major Pabst, appended to Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, 11 22, 1930, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 9, doc. no. 397, p. 571Google Scholar.

93 Arlotta to Grandi, Budapest, Dec. 20, 1930, ibid., vol. 9, doc. no. 470, p. 693. See also Grandi to Auriti, Rome, Dec. 13, 1930, ibid., doc. no. 455, p. 674, and Kerekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 88–89.

94 Grandi, to Arlotta, , Rome, 01 5, 1931, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 10, doc. no. 4, p. 8Google Scholar.

95 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Feb. 14, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 68, pp. 114–15; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Mar. 12, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 127, pp. 196–97.

96 Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 12th session on 02 6, 1931, of the 4th legislative period (1930–32), vol. 1, p. 278Google Scholar; Between Hitler and Mussolini: Memoirs of Ernst Rudiger Prince Starhemberg (New York, 1942) (hereafter cited as Starhemberg, Memoirs), 52Google Scholar; Carsten, Fascist Movements in Austria, 179–82; Kerekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 92–93; Wiltschegg, Die Heimwehr, 60–62; Edmondson, The Heimwehr and Austrian Politics, 124–30.

97 Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934, 130; Veiter, “Das 34er,” 75

98 Guariglia, to Grandi, , Rome, 02 13, 1931, I documenti diplomatici italiani, vol. 10, doc. no. 65, p. 111Google Scholar. While Vaugoin was still chancellor, the administrative director of the Lower Austrian chamber of agriculture, Engelbert Dollfuβ, was named president of the federal railways. Soon thereafter Dollfuβ appointed Strafella, a Heimwehr man, as general director of the railways. See Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Dec. 29, 1930, ibid., vol. 9, doc. no. 481, p. 716; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Feb. 3, 1931, ibid., vol. 10, doc. no. 57, p. 97; and Grandi to Arlotta, Rome, Jan. 5, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 4, p. 8.

99 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, May 7, 1931, ibid., vol. 10, doc. no. 254, pp. 382–83. See also Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Dec. 29, 1930, ibid., vol. 9, doc. no. 481, p. 717; Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Mar. 27, 1931, ibid., vol. 10, doc. no. 171, p. 270; and Grandi to Auriti, May 4, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 245, p. 373.

100 Grandi's notes about his conference with Schober, Geneva, May 14, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 267, pp. 402–4. See also his notes on his conference with Schober at Geneva on May 20, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 277, pp. 426–28.

101 For a solid, lengthy discussion of the British role in dealing with the customs union project, see Beer, Siegfried, Der “unmoralische” Anschluβ. Britische Österreichpolitik zwischen Containment und Appeasement 1931–1934 (Vienna, 1988), 2161Google Scholar.

102 Scheu, Der Weg ins ungewisse, 82–84; Kluge, Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung in der europäischen Zwischenkriegszeit, 343–44; Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv (Vienna), Ministerratsprotokoll no. 702 of June 16, 1931, carton 140, fol. 2.

103 Huebmer, Dr. Otto Ender, 160.

104 Ibid., 160–61; Scheu, Der Weg ins ungewisse, 84–85; Deutsch, Julius, Ein writer Weg. Lebenserinnerungen (Vienna, 1960), 179–80Google Scholar; Funder, Friedrich, Als Österreich den Sturm bestand. Aus der Ersten in die Zweite Republik, 3rd ed. (Vienna, 1957), 4750Google Scholar; Leichter, Otto, Otto Bauer, Tragödie oder Triumph (Vienna, 1970), 272–74Google Scholar.

105 As quoted in Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934, 134. Leser hints that Renner's resentment may have been a factor. Leser, Norbert, “Österreichs Demokratie am 19. Juni 1931. Das Koalitionsangebot Ignaz Seipels an Otto Bauer,” Christliche Demokratie 2, no. 1 (02 1984): 1934–1984Google Scholar. Konflikt und Versböhnung, 56.

106 Scheu, Der Weg ins ungewisse, 84–85. See also Leser, “Österreichs Demokratie am 19. Juni 1931,” 52–53; Leser, Zwischen Reformismus und Bolschewismus, 450–52; Schausberger, Franz, Letzte Chance für die Demokratie. Die Bildung der Regierung Doltfuβ I im Mai 1932. Bruch der österreichischen Proporzdemokratie (Vienna, 1992), 3031Google Scholar.

107 Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934, 136. See also Veiter, “Das 34erJahr,” 78; Leser, Zwischen Reformismus und Bolschewismus, 450–51; Leichter, Glanz und Ende der Ersten Republik, 130–31; Joseph Franz Desput, “Geschichtsbewuβtsein und Erste Republik,” in Österreich 1934–1984, ed. Desput, 50.

108 Gertrude Enderle-Burcel, “Karl Buresch 1878 bis 1936,” in Die österreichischen Bundeskanzler, ed. Weissensteiner and Weinzierl, 179; Gulick, Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2:949–50.

109 Auriti reported to Grandi on September 16 that a member of General Hans von Seeckt's general staff had telephoned him the previous night that the Germans had given “Pfrimer moral and material encouragement. The reason is to be sought in Germany's diminished influence in Austria after recent events and in consequence of Schober's weakened position. The calculations of the Germans are as follows: If Pfrimer succeeds, people will come to power who will of necessity be obedient to Berlin; if he fails, his repression will reinforce … [Schober's] position.” I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 11, doc. no. 9, p. 4. See also Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 16, 1931, ibid, doc. no. 11, p. 13. It should also be noted that Starhemberg believed that the National Socialists were the real instigators of the putsch. Starhemberg, Memoirs, 54, 61.

110 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 10 5, 1931, I documenti diplomatici italiani 7th ser., vol. 11, doc. no. 40, p. 73Google Scholar. See also Winkler's, speech to the Nationalrat on Oct. 1, 1931, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 47th session on 10 1, 1931, of the 4th legislative period (1930–32), vol. 4, pp. 1222–26Google Scholar; Winkler, Die Diktatur in Oesterreich, 36–37; Carsten, Fascist Movements in Austria, 182; Botz, Gewalt in der Politik, 184–86; Edmondson, The Heimwehr and Austrian Politics, 735–41; Lewis, Jill, Fascism and the Working Class in Austria, 1918–1934: The Failure of Labour in the First Republic (New York, 1991), 181–99Google Scholar; and Starhemberg, Memoirs, 52–54.

111 It should be noted that the Social Democrats and Vice-Chancellor Schober, initially at least, “wanted the government to proceed with great vigor against all persons implicated in the Pfrimer movement.” The Christian Socials, however, were opposed to such a course. Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 09 16, 1931, I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 11, doc. no. 10, p. 12Google Scholar.

112 Carsten, Fascist Movements in Austria, 183–84.

113 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 09 17, 1931, I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 11, doc. no. 12, p. 15Google Scholar. See also Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 16, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 11, pp. 13–15, and Collotti, “Die Faschisierung des italienischen Staates,” in Der 4. März 1933, ed. Fröschl and Zoitl, 160.

114 Gulick, Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2:963; Enderle-Burcel, “Karl Buresch 1878 bis 1938,” in Die österreichischen Bundeskanzler, ed. Weissensteiner and Weinzierl, 180; Kluge, Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung in der europäischen Zwischenkriegszeit, 346–47; Huebmer, Dr. Otto Ender, 166; Kaufmann, Fritz, Sozialdemokratie in Österreich. Idee und Geschichte einer Partei. Von 1889 bis zur Gegenwart (Vienna, 1978), 273Google Scholar.

115 Gulick, Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2:963.

116 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 09 2, 1931, I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 10, doc. no. 453, p. 718Google Scholar.

117 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Aug. 22, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 440, p. 698.

118 Gulick, Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2:963; Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934, 138–39.

119 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 08 22, 1931, I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 10, doc. no. 440, pp. 696–97Google Scholar; Grandi to Auriti, Geneva, Sept. 17, 1931, ibid., vol. 11, doc. no. 13, pp. 16–18.

120 Ministerratsprotokoll no. 766 of Jan. 27, 1932, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv (Vienna), carton 146, fol. 4. See also Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Feb. [19?], 1932, ibid., doc. no. 228, p. 402; Enderle-Burcel, “Karl Buresch 1878 bis 1936,” in Die österreichischen Bundeskanzler, ed. Weissen-steiner and Weinzierl, 180–82; Huebmer, Dr. Otto Ender, 166–67; Schumy Nachlaβ, pt. 3: “Heimwehr,” p. 78; and Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934, 142.

121 Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934, 142–43. For Winkler's and Schuschnigg's appointments, see Buresch, to president of the Nationalrat, Jan. 29, 1932, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates 72nd session on Feb. 4, 1932, of the 4th legislative period (19301932), vol. 4, p. 1714Google Scholar.

122 Ministerratsprotokoll no. 772 of Feb. 13, 1932, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv(Vienna), carton 146, fols. 14–16.

123 Schumy Nachlaβ, pt. 2: “Landbund,” 126a–27.

124 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, , 09 2, 1931, I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 10, doc. no. 453, p. 718Google Scholar.

125 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 29, 1931, ibid., vol. 11, doc. no. 33, pp. 52–53.

126 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 5, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 40, pp. 73–74.

127 Geisser Celesia to Grandi, Vienna, Nov. 5, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 67, p. 119.

128 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 29, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 33, p. 51.

129 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 5, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 40, p. 74.

130 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Sept. 29, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 33, pp. 53–54. See also Grandi to Auriti, Rome, Oct. 23, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 56, p. 98.

131 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Oct. 5, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 40, p. 75.

132 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Dec. 5, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 106, pp. 192–93.

133 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Dec. 10, 1931, ibid., doc. no. 115, pp. 205–208; minutes of Mussolini's conference with Bethlen, Rome, Jan. 14, 1932, ibid., doc. no. 166, pp. 285–86.

134 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, Jan. 5, 1932, ibid., doc. no. 154, p. 274.

135 Capasso, , the general consul at Munich, to Grandi, Munich, 12 2, 1931Google Scholar, ibid, doc. no. 102, p. 185. See also Pauley, Bruce, “A Case Study in Fascism: The Styrian Heimatschutz and Austrian National Socialism,” Austrian History Yearbook 12–13, pt. 1 (19661967): 267–68Google Scholar.

136 Starhemberg, Memoirs, 80–84.

137 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, , 04 16, 1932, I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 12, doc. no. 17, pp. 1718 (here, 18)Google Scholar. See also Ricciardi to Grandi, Innsbruck, Apr. 4, 1932, ibid., doc. no. 5, p. 3.

138 See especially Renner, Nachgelassene Werke, vol. 2: Österreich von der ersten zur zweiten Republik, 79–80, 82; Kaufmann, Sozialdemokratie in Österreich, 233, 244; Pelinka, Anton, Karl Renner zur Einführung (Hamburg, 1989), 5759Google Scholar; and Hannak, Karl Renner und seine Zeit, 495–501.

139 Schneidemadl, Über Dollfuβ zu Hitler, 9–10.

140 Among Otto Bauer's numerous writings expressing this opinion, see especially his “Klassenkampf und Ständeverfassung,” published in the Jan. 1934 issue of Der Kampf, as reprinted in Otto Bauer. Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, 9:341–60.

141 See table 2 (union membership) and table 3 (strikes) in the appendix of Lewis, Fascism and the Working Class in Austria, 212–13; Otruba, Gustav, “‘Bauer’ und ‘Arbeiter’ in der Ersten Republik,” in Geschichte und Gesellschaft. Festschrift für Karl R. Stadler zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Botz, Gerhard, Hautmann, Hans, and Konrad, Helmut (Vienna, 1974), 91Google Scholar.

142 Vlcek, Christine, “Der republikanische Schutzbund in Österreich. Geschichte, Aufbau und Organisation” (Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1971), 272, 274–92, 299300Google Scholar; Duczynska, Workers in Arms, 108, 125–29.

143 Memorandum sent from Vienna on Nov. 5, 1934, for the joint session of the , S.A.D. and , I.G.B. in Paris, 11 10, 1934, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv (Vienna), Neue Politische Akten, carton 293, zu no. 37085/13, fol. 317Google Scholar.

144 Vlcek, “Der republikanische Schutzbund,” 178–87; Carsten, Fascist Movements in Austria, 119–23; Kaufmann, Sozialdemokratie in Österreich, 235–48; Botz, Gewalt in der Politik, 162–84, 236–37; Lewis, Fascism and the Working Class in Austria, 147.

145 Gerhard Botz, “Die österreichische Nationalsozialisten,” in Österreich 1934–1984, ed. Desput, 205–6;Carsten, Fascist Movements in Austria, 189–201; Zernatto, Guido, Die Wahrheit in Österreich (New York, 1939), 6365Google Scholar.

146 See also Veiter, “Das 34er Jahr,” 72–74.

147 For the changes in the control of and the spirit of the Austrian army in the 1920s, see especially Jedlicka, Ludwig, Ein Heer im Schatten der Parteien. Die militär-politische Lage Österreichs 1918–1938 (Graz, 1955), 131, 5685Google Scholar; Huemer, Peter, Sektionschef Robert Hecht und die Zerstörung der Demokratie in Österreich. Eine historisch-politische Studie (Munich, 1957), 24112Google Scholar; Kollman, Theodor Körner, Militär und Politik, 157–77; Rauchensteiner, Manfried, “Bundesheer und Wehrverbände auf dem Weg zum Bürgerkrieg,” Christliche Demokratie 2, no. 1 (02 1984): 1934–1984Google Scholar. Konflikt und Versöhnung, 42–48; Luigi Mondini, “Die Wiederaufrüstung des Bundesstaates Österreichs” in Innsbruck-Venedig, ed. Wandruszka and Jedlicka, 273–83; and Feldmarschalleutnant Alfred Jansa, “Aus meinem Leben” (typewritten manuscript), Akt Nr. R101 in the Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes in Vienna.

148 For an interesting evaluation of the prerequisites for successful democratic government by an Austrian conservative of that era, see Schmitz, “Biographische Memoiren”: (A) “Aus dem Leben eines politischen Gefangenen”; (B) “Im Konzentrationslager Dachau,” 14.

149 For a harsh (and unfair) criticism of the failings of the Social Democrats, see especially Generalsekretariat der christlichsozialen Partei Österreichs, Regierung DollfuβVaterländische Front, Rednerskizze (Vienna, n.d.), 11–13.

150 Schumy Nachlaβ, pt. 2: “Landbund,” 77; Winter, Ernst Karl, Christentum und Zivilisation (Vienna, 1936), 405Google Scholar.

151 See especially Kluge, Ulrich, Der österreichische Ständestaat 1934–1938. Entstehung und Scheitern (Vienna, 1984), 4351Google Scholar.

152 On the control of party leaders over deputies, see MacDonald, The Republic of Austria, 51–52, and Zernatto, Die Wahrheit in Österreich, 85. For just a few examples of rhetorical fervor, see Renner's, speech in the Nationalrat on Dec. 5, 1930, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 3rd session on Dec. 5, 1930, of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 1, 24Google Scholar; Wallisch's speech on Feb. 18, 1931, ibid., 18th session on Feb. 18, 1931, of the 4th legislative period (1930–32), vol. 1, 553–54; and the debates on July 14, 1931, ibid., 42nd session of the 4th legislative period (1930–32), vol. 4, 1085–87.

153 See especially Wandruszka, “Österreich⋅ politische Struktur,” in Geschichte der Republik Österreich, ed. Benedikt, 480–81; Karl Dietrich Bracher, “ ‘Austrofaschismus’ und die Krise der Demokraten,” in Österreich 1934–1984, ed. Desput, 16–20; Desput, “Geschichtsbewußtsein und Erste Republik,” in ibid., 34–42; von Schuschnigg, Kurt, Dreimal Österreich, 2nd ed. (Vienna, 1937), 104–25Google Scholar; and Kluge, Der österreichische Ständestaat, 19–43.

154 Veiter, “Das 34” Jahr,” 80–81.

155 As quoted in Funder, Als Österreich den Sturm bestand, 55.

156 Bauer, Otto, “Wir werden unsere bedrohte Freiheit verteidigen,” summary of three of Bauer's speeches printed in Arbeiterwille (Graz), 02. 10, 1932Google Scholar, as reprinted in Otto Bauer. Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, 4:828.

157 Kernbauer, Hans and Weber, Fritz, “Von der Inflation zur Depression. Österreichs Wirtschaft 1918–1934,” in “Austrofaschismus”. Beiträge üer Politik, Ökonomie und Kultur 1934–1938 ed. Tálos, Emmerich and Neugebauer, Wolfgang, 3rd ed. (Vienna, 1985), 23Google Scholar.

158 Dieter Stiefel, “Vom Inflationsschock zum Arbeitslosenschock—Die Wirtschaftliche Situation in der Zwischenkriegszeit,” in Österreich 1934–1984, ed. Desput, 68–69.

159 Haas, Karl, “Industrielle Interessenspolitik in Österreich zur Zeit der Weltwirtschaftskrise,” in Zeitschrift für Zeitgeschichte, 1978, 102Google Scholar.

160 See tables 2 and 3 (production) and table 8 (exports and imports) in Fritz Weber, “Die Weltwirtschaftskrise und das Ende der Demokratie in Österreich,” in Der 4. März 1933, ed. Fröschl and Zoitl, 39–40, 42. During the same period industrial production fell 50 percent in the United States, 42 percent in Germany, 28 percent in Europe in general, and 36 percent for the world as a whole. See ibid., table 4, p. 40.

161 On employment and economic policies, see Fritz Bock, Das Schicksalsjahr 1934. Wie es dazu gekommen ist und seine Nachwirkungen (Vienna, n.d.), 23, and Stiefel, “Vom Inflationsschock zum Arbeitslosenschock,” 69. On unemployment subsidies, see Weber, “Die Weltwirtschaftskrise,” in Der 4. März 1933, ed. Fröschl and Zoitl, table 1, p. 38. For examples of the difficulty in procuring poor relief funds, see especially the speeches in the Nationalrat by Josef Resch on Oct. 22, 1931, by Norbert Horvatik and Anton Falle on Dec. 4, 1931, and by Pölzer, Johann on 12 11, 1931, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 52nd session on Oct. 22, 59th session on Dec. 4, and 62nd session on Dec. 11, 1931, of the 4th legislative period (1930–32), 4, 1078, 1310–11, 1533, 1536–37Google Scholar.

162 Dr. Alexander Hrynschak, “Erinnerungen” (manuscript in the archive of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte in Vienna), 69.

163 “Bauer spricht zu den steirischen Wählern,” Arbeiterwille (Graz), Apr. 20, 1932, as reprinted in Otto Bauer. Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, 4:1009.

164 Haurmann, Hans and Kropf, Rudolf, Die österreichische Arbeiterbewegung vom Vormärz bis 1945, 2nd ed. (Vienna, 1976), 161Google Scholar.

165 See also Stiefel, “Vom Inflationsschock zum Arbeitslosenschock,” 69–71.

166 Schneidemadl, Über Dollfuβ zu Hitler, 15–16.

167 For details, see Mattl, Siegfried, “Krise und sozialer Protest. Die Widerstandshandlungen österreichischer Bauern gegen das behördliche Exekutionssystem in den Jahren 1931 bis 1933,” Zeitgeschichte 20, no. 1–2 (0102 1993): 122Google Scholar.

168 Schneidemadl, Über Dollfuβ zu Hitler, 16; Hrynschak, “Erinnerungen,” 68; Deutsch, Julius, The Civil War in Austria: A First-Hand Account from Eye-Witnesses and Participants, trans. Berenberg, David P. (Chicago, 1934), 910Google Scholar; Kun, Béla, Die Februarkämpfe in Österreich und ihre Lehren (Moscow, 1934), 1011Google Scholar.

169 For a more detailed analysis, see my article “The First Austrian Republic—Totalitarian, Fascist, Authoritarian, or What?” in Beiträge zur Zeitgeschichte. Festschrift Ludwig Jedlicka zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Neck, Rudolf and Wandruszka, Adam (Sankt Polten, 1976), 163–88Google Scholar; and Rath, R. John and Schum, Carolyn W., “The Dollfuss-Schuschnigg Regime: Fescist or Authoritarian?” in Who Were the Fascists? Social Roots of European Fascism, ed. Larsen, Stein Ugelvik, Hagtvet, Bernt, and Mykelbust, Jan Petter (Bergen, 1980), 249–56Google Scholar.

170 von Schuschnigg, Kurt, The Brutal Takeover: The Austrian Ex-Chancellor's Account of the Anschluss of Austria by Hitler, trans. Barry, Richard (New York, 1971), 35Google Scholar.

171 See especially Germani, G., “Fascism and Class,” in The Nature of Fascism, ed. Woolf, S. J. (New York, 1968), 7377Google Scholar; Trevor-Roper, H. R., “The Phenomenon of Fascism,” in European Fascism, ed. Woolf, S. J. (London, 1968), 2024Google Scholar; Mosse, George L., “Introduction: The Genesis of Fascism,” Journal of Contemporary History 1, no.1 (1966): 1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar; idem, “Fascism and the Intellectuals,” in The Nature of Fascism, ed. Woolf, 216; Buchheim, Hans, Totalitarian Rule, Its Nature and Characteristics (Middletown, Conn., 1968), 2324Google Scholar.

172 Hugh, Seton-Watson, “Fascism, Right and Left,” Journal of Contemporary History 1, no. 1 (1966): 183–84Google Scholar. For the whole argument on middle-class extremism, see especially Lipset, Seymour Martin, Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics (Garden City, N.Y., 1963), 127–48, 176–78Google Scholar. See also Carsten, Francis L., Der Aufstieg des Faschismus in Europa (Frankfurt am Main, 1968), 273–81Google Scholar, and especially Erika, Weinzierl-Fischer, “Österreichs Katholiken und der Nationalsozialismus,” Wort und Wahrheit 18, no. 5 (1963): 418–19Google Scholar.

173 T. W. Mason, “The Primacy of Politics—Politics and Economics in National Socialist Ger-many,” in The Nature of Fascism, ed. Woolf, 165–95; J. Solé-Tura, “The Political ‘Instrumentality’ of Fascism,” in ibid., 42–44.

174 Nolte, Ernst, Three Faces of Fascism: Action Francaise, Italian Fascism, National Socialism, trans, from German by Vennewitz, Leila (New York, 1966), 2021Google Scholar. The author's italics have been omitted.

175 For good summaries of Nolte's six conditions, see Hanisch, Ernst, “Neuere Faschismustheorien,” Zeitgeschichte 1, no. 1 (1973): 19Google Scholar; and Clemenz, Manfred, Gesellschaftliche Ursprunge des Faschismus (Frankfurt am Main, 1972), 206Google Scholar. For a brief but thoughtful analysis of the effects of wartime experiences on the development of right-wing attitudes, see especially Adam Wandruszka, “Die Erbschaft von Krieg und Nachkrieg,” in Österreich 1927 bis 1938, 23.

176 For good summaries of Kühnl's basic ideas, see Hanisch, “Neuere Faschismustheorien,” 21–22, and Clemenz, Gesellschaftliche Ursprünge des Faschismus, 206. For Clemenz's “generative dimensions,” see ibid., 213–32.

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