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Thr Dollguß Ministry: The Intensification of Animosities and the Drift toward Authoritarianism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2009

Extract

When Engelbert Dollfuss became chancellor of Austria in May 1932, no one dreamed that he would become a fascist dicator.1 Even his bitter opponents in 1933 and 1934 admitted that he was genuine democrat when he became chancellor. He had friendly relations with the leaders of the Social Democratic Party. In May 1932, the Social Democratic Party leader Otto Bauer felt that when the time was ripe Dollfuß intended to form a coalition with his party.

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Articles
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Copyright © Center for Austrian Studies, University of Minnesota 1999

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References

1 Despite considerable research on various aspects of the history of the first Austrian Republic and the Ständestaat, the current generation of scholars has devoted surprisingly little attention to the crucial half year prior to Dollfufiß's abolition of parliament. For writings about the Dollfuß regime in general, see Laura, Gellott, “Recent Writings on the Ständestaat, 1934–1938,” Austrian History Yearbook 26(1995): 207–38Google Scholar, and Rath, R. John, “Writings on Contemporary Austrian History, 1918–1934,” in The Austrian Socialist Experiment: Social Democracy and Austromarxism, 1918–1938 ed. Anson, Rabinbach (Boulder, Colo., 1985), 4755Google Scholar. For the most part, modern scholarship has concerned itself only with specific aspects of Dollfuß's democratic prelude. Hungarian historian Lajos, Krekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie. Mussolini, Gömbös und die Heimwehr (Vienna, 1966)Google Scholar, makes a significant new contribution to our understanding of Dollfuß's handling of the Heimwehr. The substantial Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz. Studien und Dokumentationen 1927 bis 1938, ed. Ludwig, Jedlicka and Rudolf, Neck (Vienna, 1975)Google Scholar, contains just two articles on the subject: Anton, Staudinger, “Christlichsoziale Partei und Errichtung des ‘Autoritären Ständestaates’ in Österreich,” which briefly discusses Emil Fey's appointment to the ministry in October 1932, and Rudolf, Neck, “Simmering 16. Oktober 1932 - Vorspiel zum Bürgerkrieg.”Google ScholarPeter, Huemer, Sektionschef Robert Hecht und die Zerstörung der Demokratie in Österreich (Vienna, 1975)Google Scholar, analyzes Dollfuß's employment of the 1917 wartime emergency decree in October 1932 and the resulting protests by the Social Democrats. Grete, Klingenstein, Die Anleihe von Lausanne. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Ersten Republik in den Jahren 1931–1934 (Vienna, 1965)Google Scholar, focuses on an important phase of the early months of Dollfuß's ministry, which I have discussed in an earlier article, “The Dollfuß Ministry: The Democratic Prelude,” Austrian History Yearbook 29 (1998). Siegfried, Beer, Der “unmoralische” Anschluβ. Britische Österrtichpolitik zwischen Containment und Appeasement 1931–1934 (Vienna, 1988)Google Scholar, includes a lengthy discussion of the Hirtenberg weapons affair, based largely on British documents. Both Ulrich, Kluge, Bauern, , Agrarkrise und Volksernährung in der europäischen Zwischenkriegszeit, Studien zur Agrargesellschaft und Wirtschaft der Republik Osterreich 1918 bis 1938 (Wiesbaden, 1988)Google Scholar, and Miller, James W., Engelbert Dollfuβ als Agrarfachmann. Erne Analyse bauerlicher Fuhrungsbegriffe und österreichischer Agrarpolitik 1918-1934 (Vienna, 1989)Google Scholar, treat Dollfuß's agricultural policies immediately after he became chancellor. Gordon, Brook-Shepherd, Dollfuβ (London, 1961)Google Scholar—simultaneously published in New York as Prelude to Infamy: The Story of Chancellor Dollfuss of Austria—remains the only biography in the past half-century, but gives short shrift to the period between the summer of 1932 and March 1933, as do Anson, Rabinbach, The Crisis of Austrian Socialism: From Red Vienna to Civil War, 1927-1934 (Chicago, 1983)Google Scholar, and Emmerich, Táalos and Waltr, Manoschek, “Zum Konstituierungsprozeß des Austrofaschismus,” in “Austrofaschismus”. Beiträge über Politik, Ökonomie und Kultur 1934-1938, ed. Emmerich, Tálos and Wolfgang, Neugebauer, 3rd ed. (Vienna, 1985).Google Scholar

2 Gulick, Charles A.Austria from Hasburg to Hitler 2vols.(Berkeley, Calif, 1948), 2:994Google Scholar. See also Otto, Leichter, Glanz und Ende der Ersten Republik. Wie es zum österreichischen Bürgerkrieg kam (Vienna, 1964), 145–46.Google Scholar

3 Rath, , “ Democratic Prelude,” 165, 173-78, 181-84.Google Scholar

4 Rath, R. John, “The Deterioration of Democracy in Austria, 1927” Austrian History Yearbook 27(1996), 254–55.Google Scholar

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6 From a speech in Vienna on May 21, 1932, as excerpted in Ss sprach der Kanzler. Dollfuβ' Vermächtnis, comp. Anton Tautscher (Vienna, 1935), 125.Google Scholar

7 As printed in Edmund, Weber, Dollfuß an Oesterreich. Eines Mannes Wort und Ziel(Vienna, 1935), 150.Google Scholar

8 For examples, seeBundesgeslzeblatt für die Republik Österreich, Jahrgang 1932, 53 Stück, dated July 16, 1932, no. 189, pp.647-48;Google ScholarIbid., 58. Stück, dated Aug. 3, 1932, no. 209, p. 668; Ibid., 65. Stück, dated Aug. 22, 1932, no. 23, p. 705-6;; ibid., 70 Stück, dated Aug. 30, 1932, no. 263, p. 855; and ibid., 76. Stuuml;uck, dated Sept. 28, 1932, no. 297, p. 1095.

9 SeeSiegfried, Mattl, “Die Finanzdikktatur. Wirstchaftspolitik in Österreich 1933-1938,” in “Austrofaschismus”. Beiträge über Politik, Öknonomie und Kultur 1934-1938, ed. Emmerich, Tálos and Wolfgang, Neugebauer, 150-51.Google Scholar

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11 Minister Resch's recommendation on how to deal with the unemployment situation, Kabinett Dollfuβ vol.1, no 815, dated July 7, 1932, appendix B, p.331; Ibid., no. 802, dated June. 8, 1932, para. 8. pp.113-15.

12 Ibid., no. 802, dated June 8, 1832, para. 7, pp. 111-13, and appendix F. pp. 123-25.

13 Ibid., no. 115, dated July 7, 1932, para. 3. p. 328; Ibid., appendix B. p.331

14 Bachinger to Dollfuβ, Vienna, July 8, 1932, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv (Vienna) (hereafter, AVA), Präsidium, no. 5475- Pr./32.

15 Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol.1, no. 816, dated July 12, 1932, para. 10, pp. 352-54.Google Scholar

16 Federal law of Aug. 18, 1932, concerning voluntary labor service, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahragang 1932, 80. Stück, dated Oct. 14, 1932, no. 304, pp. 1105-7. See also the note of the federal ministry of social administration in regard to voluntary labor serivce dated Oct 18, 1932, in Ibid., 81. Stück, dated Oct10 20, 1932, no. 311, pp. 1112-13. for debate surrounding the issue, see Josef Reach's speech in the Nationalrat on July 1, 1932, Nationalrat, 89th session, 4:2341-42; Adolf Müller's and Johann Böhm's responses, Ibid., 2343-52; Viktor Stein' speech on Aug 17. 1932, Ibid., 98th session, 4:2565-74. See also minutes of the metting of the executive committe of the Social Democratic Party on June 18, 1932 (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters office in Vienna), fol. 2336.

17 Resch's speech in the Nationalrat on July 1, 1932, Nationalrat, 89th session, 4:2242-43.

18 Aug. 18, 1932, law concerning the crisis tax on wines, Bundesgesetzblatt, 64. Stück, dated Aug. 21, 1932, no. 228, p. 701; Aug. 18, 1932, law over levying a crisis supplement to the valueadded tax, Ibid., no. 227, p. 700; Aug 18, 1932, law concerning an increase in duties for colonial wares, Ibid., no. 229, pp. 701-3; ministry of finance order dated Aug. 21, 1932, concerning the levying of supplementary duties for colonial wares, Ibid., 65. Stück, dated Aug. 22, 1932, no. 231, pp. 708-9.

19 Aug. 18, 1932, law on changing the unemployment insurance law and on extraordinary measures for unemployment relief, Ibid., no. 226, p.698.

20 Resch's,speech in the Nationalrat on Nov. 24, 192, Nationalrat, 106th session,4:2773–74.

21 Kabinett Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 839, dated Jan. 4, 1933, para. 17. 183;Google ScholarIbid., no. 840, dated Jan. 11, 1933, paras. 10 and 11, pp. 197–99; Ibid., para. 15. pp. 202–3.

22 Ibid., vol. 3, no. 869, dated Apr. 25–26, 193, para. 2, pp. 231–32.

23 Schorsch's, Johann speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 16 193, Nationalrat, 119th session, 4:3120. See also Emmy Freundlich's speech on Aug. 17, 1932,Google Scholaribid., 98th session, 4:2542.

24 Johann, Schorsch's speech in the Nationalrat on Nov. 9, 1932,Google ScholarIbid., 105th session, 4:2730;Pius Schneeberger's speech on Nov. 24, 1932, Ibid., 106th session, 4:2768; Johann B:hm' speech on . 17, 1932, Ibid., 98th session, 4:2532.

25 Paul Richter' speech in the Nationalrat on July 14, 1932,Ibid., 92nd session, 4:2395.

26 Pius Schnneberger's speech in the Nationalrat on Nov 24, 1932, Ibid., 106th session, 4:2768.

27 Michael Fr's speech in the Nationalrat on Jan. 26, 1933., Ibid., 114th session, 4:2933.

28 Johann Böhm's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 15, 1933., Ibid., 118th session, 4:3044.

29 Paul Richter's speeches in the Nationalrat on July 14, 1932, Ibid., 92nd session, 4:2392, and on Nov. 24, 1932, Ibid., 106th session, 4:2777.

30 Johann, Schorschi's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 16, 1933,Google ScholarIbid., 119th session, 4:3120-21.

31 Stenographiche Protokolle ü die sitzungen des Bundesrates, 179th session on Aug. 19, 1932, of the 4th legislative period, p.1915. See also Emmy Freundlich' speech in the Nationalrat on Aug. 19, 1932, Ibid., 106th session, 4:2768.

32 Nationalrat, 92nd session, July 14, 1932, 4:2400.

33 Julius Deutsch's speech in the Nationalrat on Nov. 30, 1932, Ibid., 108th session, 4:2817.

34 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Sept. 22, 1932, I documenti diplomatici italiani (hereafter, Documenti), 7th ser., vol.12 (Rome, 1987), doc. no. 277, p.383.Google Scholar

35 Hugues de Barthou, de Montbas to Herriot, , Vienna Nov. 11, 1932, Documents diplomatiques franqais 1932-1939 (hereafter, DDF), 1st ser. (1932-35) vol.1 (Paris,1964), doc. no. 322, p. 695Google Scholar

36 Karl Seitz's speech in the Nationalrat on Nov. 24, 1932. Nationalrat, 106th session, 4:2780.

37 Otto, Bauer, “Die grofie Mission der oumlsterreichischen Arbeiter,” Arbeiterwille (Graz), 11. 1, 1932, as reprinted in Otto Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Hugo, Pepper, 9 vols. (Vienna, 1975–80), 6:842.Google Scholar

38 Raimund Sussik's speech in the Nationalrat on Dec. 22, 1932, Nationalrat, 113th session,4:2911-12.

39 Johann Polzer's speech in the Nationalrat on June 30, 1932, Ibid., 88th session, 4:2329.

40 Ibid., 2331; Raimund Sussik's speech in the Nationalrat on Dec. 22, 1932, Ibid., 113th session, 4:2911; Laurenz, Genner's speech on Feb. 22, 1933,Google ScholarIbid., 122nd session, 4:3271.

41 Minutes of the meeting of the party representatives in the Nationalrat and Bundesrat together with the free-trade unions and the club's executive committee of the Social Democratic Party on July 9, 1932, in minutes of the meetings of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters office in Vienna), fols.2332-33

42 Eva, Dollfufbeta, Mein Vater, Hitlers erstes Opfer (Vienna, 1994), 122–26.Google Scholar

43 Theo, Habicht, ed., Das Dienstbuch der NSDAP Oesterreichs. Hitlerbewegung (Wels, [1932]), 1Google Scholar,as translated in Kindermann, Gottfried-Karl, Hitler's Defeat in Austria, 1933–1934: Europe's First Containment of Nazi Expansion, trans. Sonia, Brough and David, Taylor (Boulder, Colo., 1988), 10Google Scholar

44 Rath, , “Democratic Prelude,” 173-74;Google Scholar and Ernst Rudiger, Prince Starhemberg, Between Hitlerand Mussolini: Memoirs (New York, 1942), 7784Google Scholar

45 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 05 28, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 65, 12:8586Google Scholar

46 Undated anonymous report, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv (Vienna) (HHStA), Neue Poiitische Akten (NPA), carton 247 (Hornbostel Akten), fol. 540

47 Gerhard, Botz, Gewalt in der Politik. Attentate, Zusammenstoumlbetae, Putschversuche, Unruhen in Oumlsterreich 1918 bis 1934 (Munich, 1976), 187.Google Scholar

48 197-99.

49 Guido, Zernatto, Die Wahrheit uumlcber Oumlsterreich (New York, 1939), 68Google Scholar; Rudolf, Brandstoumltter, “Dr.Walter Riehl und die Geschichte der Nationalsozialistischen Bewegung in Ouml;sterreich” (D.Phil,diss., University of Vienna, 1969), 294.Google Scholar

50 Botz, ,Gewalt in der Politik, 200-201;Google ScholarLeichter, , Glanz und Ende, 149-50Google Scholar; Rudolf, Neck, “Simmering—16. Oktober 1932 (Symptom und Auftakt der österreichischen Tragödie),” in Beitrauml;gezur Zeitgeschichte. Festschrift Ludwig Jedlicka zum 60. Geburtstag, ed.Rudolf, Neck and Adam, Wandruszka (St. Pölten, 1976), 9899Google Scholar (a somewhat shorter version is “Simmering—16. Oktober 1932. Vorspiel zum Buumlrgerkrieg,” in Vom Justizpakst zum Heldenplatz, ed. Jedlicka and Neck,94-102 [here, 95–96]). On brawls at the University of Vienna, see especially Simon, Joseph T., Augenzeuge (Vienna, 1979), 8183.Google Scholar

51 As quoted in Botz, Gewalt in der Politik, 202

52 Minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party (headquarters office in Vienna), fol.2357.

53 Alfred, Frauenfeld, Und trage keine Reu'. Vom Wiener Gauleiter zum Generalkommissar der Krim.Erinnerungen und Aufzeichnungen (Leoni am Starnberger See, 1978), 7981Google Scholar; Botz, , Gewalt in der Politik, 202-6;Google ScholarLeichter, , Glanz und Ende, 149-50;Google ScholarNeck, , “Simmering—16. Okotober 1932,” 100-103 (or 97-99 in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz).Google Scholar

54 As quoted in Franz, Oswald, “Die Stellung von Major a. D. Emil Fey in der Politik der ErstenRepublik und des Staumlndestaates” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1964), 56“Democratic Prelude,” 184, 191-92Google Scholar

55 Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol. 1, no. 830, dated Oct. 18,1932, para. 12, pp. 639-40.Google Scholar

56 Nationalrat, 102nd session, Oct. 20, 1932, 4:2643

57 Dollfuβ, Kabinett, vol.1, no. 828, dated Oct. 5, 1932, paras. 2 and 3, pp. 596-98. For details,see Rath, , “Democratic Prelude,” 193-94.Google Scholar

58 Minutes of the Verband der sozialdemokratischen Abgeordneten und Bundesraumlte, Oct. 5 and 18, 1932 (housed in the archives of the Association for the History of the Labor Movement,Vienna).

59 Seitz's speech in the Nationalrat on Oct. 20, 1932, Nationalrat, 102nd session, 4: 2656-59 (quote, 2659). At this juncture Dollfuβ interrupted Seitz's speech to remark: “A very interestingconfession, Mr. Mayor”.

60 Ibid., 2660-61. Subsequent quotations from 2662ndash;70.

61 Nationalrat, 102nd session, Oct. 20, 1932, 4:2670-71.Google Scholar

62 Schuschnigg's speech in the Nationalrat on Oct. 21, 1932, Ibid., 2673-76; Dollfuß's and Fey's speeches,Ibid., 2676.

63 Two days after Dollfuß referred to Bauer as a Bolshevik, Bauer published an article entitled “Wir Bolschewiken. Eine Antwort an Dollfuß” in the Arbeiter-Zeitung, which has been reprinted in Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, 7:485-89, and in Julius, Braunthal,Otto, BauerEine Auswahlaus seinem Lebenswerk (Vienna, 1961), 306–10.Google Scholar Bauer asserted that he had nothing but contempt for “everyone who uses ‘Bolshevik’ as an adjective” (Bauer, Werkausgabe, 7:485). “What separates me from Bolshevism,” he explained, “is something much more important on which the development of human culture is founded: my assessment of the irreparable worth of individual,intellectual freedom” (Ibid., 486). “For the sake of intellectual freedom I am a democrat. For me democracy is something more important than parliamentarianism, more a sum of judicial institutions. For me it is the state's constitution, which gives the best possible guarantee of individual, intellectual freedom” (Ibid., 487).

64 Nationalrat, 103rd session, Oct. 21, 1932, 4:2677.Google Scholar

65 Seitz's speech in the Nationalrat on Oct. 21, 1932, Ibid., 2678-79, 2681.

66 Richard, Schmitz's speech in the Nationalrat on Oct. 21, 1932Google Scholar, Ibid., 2681-82, 2654.

67 Nationalmt, 103rd session, Oct. 21,1932, 4:2695-96.Google Scholar See also Deutsch's speech, Ibid., 2693.

68 Otto, Bauer,“Die grobetae Mission der oumlsterreichischen Arbeiter,” Arbeiterwille (Graz), as rereprinted in Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, , 6:841–44, 847–48Google Scholar

69 Bauer's speech at the Social Democratic Party congress on Nov. 13-15, 1932, as reprinted in Ibid., 5:648. The entire speech is on 641-67.

70 Kurt, Schuschnigg, Dreimal Oumlsterreich, 2nd ed. (Vienna, 1937), 197.Google Scholar

71 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Oct. 18, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 351,12:451.Google Scholar

72 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Dec. 1, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 494, p. 608. See also Auriti's letter to Mussolini on Nov. 25, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 469, p. 586.

73 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Aig. 31, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 234, p. 332; Auriti to Mussolini,Vienna, Oct. 20, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 360, pp. 458-59; Mussolini to Auriti, Rome, Nov. 28, 1932, Ibid.,doc.no.480, p.594.

74 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Dec. 12, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 537, p. 646; Auriti to Mussolini,Vienna, Dec. 19, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 561, p. 675.

75 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Aug. 29, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 227, pp. 327-28; Aloisi to Mussolini,Rome, Nov. 5, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 395, p. 511; Buti to Mussolini, Rome, Nov. 9, 1932, Ibid., doc.no. 408, p. 524.

76 Minutes of a conference between the Italian undersecretary of state, Suvich, and the Hungarian minister in Rome, Hory, Rome, Oct. 10, 1932,Ibid., doc. no. 317, p. 419.

77 Colonna to Mussolini, Budapest, Nov. 5, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 392, p. 502.

78 Kerekes, , Abenddiimmerung einer Demokratie, 117.Google Scholar

79 Minutes of a conference between Mussolini and Goumlmboumls, Rome, Nov. 10, 1932, Documenti,doc. no. 414,12:532-36.Google Scholar

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81 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Nov. 25, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 469, pp. 586-87. See also Colonna to Mussolini, Budapest, Nov. 22,1932, Ibid., doc. no. 451, p. 568.

82 See Rath, , “Deterioration,” 223-24, 24-46.Google Scholar

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84 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, July 21, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 169, pp. 247-50; Auriti to Mussolini,Vienna, Nov. 23, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 483, pp. 596-97; Buti to Mussolini, Rome, 11. 9, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 408, p. 525.

85 Federal police commissioner at Wiener-Neustadt to the general director of public security in Vienna, Wiener-Neustadt, Jan. 8, 1933, AVA, Bundeskanzleramt. General Direktion fuumlr oumlffentliche Sicherheit, carton 4884, 22/gen, no. 106, 794-33.Google Scholar

86 Circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, 3. 13, 1933, Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, ser. C (1933-37): The Third Reich: First Phase (hereafter, DGFP), 3 vols. (Washington, D.C., 1957-59), doc. no. 81,1:156.Google Scholar

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88 Rainer, Stepan, “Dollfubeta, die Parlamentsausschaltung 1933 und das Jahr 1934,” Christliche Demokratie, 2. Jahrgang (2 1984): 1934-1984. Konflikt und Versoumlhnung, 122-23.Google Scholar

89 Baron, Aloisi, Journal (25 juillet 1932-14 juin 1936), translated from Italian to French by Maurice Vaussard (Paris, 1957), 47, entry of 01. 8,1933.Google Scholar

90 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, 8:00 PM. Jan. 9, 1933, Documenti 7th ser., vol. 13 (Rome, 1989), doc. no. 16, pp. 14-15Google Scholar; Auriri to Mussolini, Vienna, 10:00 P.M., Jan. 9, 1933, Ibid., doc. no. 17, p.15.

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94 preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Jan. 21, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 32,13: 38-39.

95 De Fleuriau to Paul-Boncour, London, Jan. 20, 1933. DDF, doc. no. 216,2:486. See also Beer,Der “unmoralische” Anschluβ, 157-61.Google Scholar

96 As quoted in Beer, Der “unmoralische” Anschluβ, 162 The wording of the list is slightly different but the contents are essentially the same in the note that Paul-Boncour sent to De Fleuriau from Paris on Jan. 23, 1933, as published in DDF, doc. no. 225, 2:498. For a copy in German translation, see HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fol. 450.Google Scholar

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100 Montbas to Paul-Boncour, Vienna, Feb. 1, 1933, DDF, doc. no. 252, 2colon; 544-45; Simon to Graham, foreign office, Mar. 8, 1933, DBFP, doc. no. 38, 5:58.Google Scholar

101 Circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, Mar. 13, 1933, DGFP, doc. no. 81,1:158.Google Scholar

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103 Amtsvermerk, Bundeskanzleramt, Auswartige Angelegenheiten, Vienna, Feb. 11, 1933, HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fol. 470.

104 A copy of the French note can be found in Clauzel to the Austrian foreign ministry, Vienna, Feb. 11, 1933, Ibid., fols. 424-25. A German translation of the note can be found in Kabinett Dollfubeta, vol. 2, no. 844, dated Feb. 21, 1933, appendix A, pp. 266-67. A copy of the British note is in Beer, Der “unmoralischerdquo; Anschlubeta, 165-66. See also ministry of foreign affairs to its diplomatic representatives at Prague, Belgrade, Bucharest, and Vienna, Feb. 10, 1933, DDF, doc.no.283,2:601–3.

105 Aloisi, , Journal, 61, entry for 02. 12, 1933.Google Scholar

106 Secret telegram, Egger to general secretary, Rome, Feb. 12, 1933, HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fol.461.

107 Mussolini to Grandi, Rome, Feb. 13, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 84, 13:89 (quote); Aloisi,Journal, 62, entry for Feb. 13, 1933.Google Scholar

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109 Aloisi, , Journal, 65-66, entry for Feb. 17, 1933; circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, 3. 13, 1933, DGFP, doc. no. 81,1:157-58; Beer, Der “unmoralische” Anschlubeta, 167; Pignatti, the Italian ambassador in France, to Mussolini, Paris, Feb. 22, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 124,13:126;Clauzel to Paul-Boncour, Vienna, Fen. 20, 1933, DDF, doc. no. 323, 2:661-62.Google Scholar

110 Amtsvermerk, n.d., HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hombostel 1933), fol. 431. A copy can also be found in Kabinett Dollfubeta, no. 844, dated Feb. 21, 1933, 2:251.Google Scholar

111 Kabinett Dollfubeta, no. 844, dated Feb. 21, 1933, 2:250-52.Google Scholar

112 Amtserinnerung, Bundeskanzleramt, Auswartige Angelegenheiten, Vienna, Feb. 20, 1933 ,HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hombostel 1933), fol. 429; Amtserinnerung of the same office, Vienna, Feb. 21, 1933Google Scholar, Ibid., fol. 430; Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 20, 1933, Documenti, doc. no 116, 13:120.

113 Beer, Der “unmoralischerdquo; Anschluβ, 170; Kabinett Dollfuβ, doc. no. 844, dated Feb. 21,1933,2:256-57,266.Google Scholar

114 Minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party on Feb.20, 1933 (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters in Vienna), fol. 2403; minutes of the meeting of the chief committee of the Nationalrat on Feb. 21, 1933, AVA, Chr. Soz. Partei,Parlaments Klub, carton 63 (Hauptausschubeta, Staats-Korrespondenz), no. 17a.Google Scholar

115 Simon to Graham, foreign office, Mar. 8,1933, DBFP, doc. no. 38, 5:58. See also Massigili to the ministry of foreign affairs, Geneva, Feb. 22,1933, DDF, doc. no. 330, 2:673–75.Google Scholar

116 See Julius Deutsch–s speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 24, 1933, Nationalrat, 124th session,3339-41; Kabinett Dollfubeta, doc. no. 845, dated Feb. 23,1933, para. 1, 2:281-82; and circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, Mar. 13,1933, DGFP, doc. no. 81,1:158.

117 De Fleuriau to Paul-Boncour, London, Feb. 24 and Feb. 25,1933, DDF, doc. no. 341, 2:692, and doc. no. 342, p. 693; minister of foreign affairs to Clauzel, Paris, Feb. 24, 1933,Google ScholarIbid., doc.no. 340, p. 691; Clauzel to Paul-Boncour,Vienna, Feb. 25,1933, Ibid., doc. no. 344, p. 695.

118 Kerekes, Abenddaumlmmerung einer Demokratie, 125.Google Scholar

119 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Dec. 7, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 520, 12:630; Auriti to Mussolini,Vienna, Dec. 12,1932,Google ScholarIbid., doc. no. 537, pp. 645-46.

120 Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 8,1933Google Scholar, Ibid., doc. no. 75,13:80-81.

121 Minutes of a conference between Suvich and Starhemberg at Rome on Feb. 16,1933, Ibid.,doc. no. 98, pp. 101-2.

122 Minutes of a conference between Suvich and Starhemberg at Rome on Feb. 17,1933, Ibid.,doc. no. 103, pp. 109-10.

123 Clauzel to Paul-Boncour, Vienna, Feb. 20,1933, DDF, doc. no. 323, 2:662.Google Scholar

124 Aloisi, , Journal, 96-97, entry of Mar. 18,1933.Google Scholar

125 Rieth to Bulow, Vienna, Feb. 15,1933, DGFP, doc. no. 25,1:54.Google Scholar

126 Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 27,1933, Documenti, doc. no. 142,13:141.Google Scholar

127 See especially Karl, Pick's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 16, 1933, Nationalrat, 119th session, 3123-27; Hermann Fischner's speech on the same day,Google Scholaribid., 3090-92; Laurenz Genner's speech on the same day, Ibid., 3108; Koloman Wallisch's speech on Feb. 15, 1933, Ibid., 3080-83.

128 Ernst, Koref's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 14,1933Google Scholar, Ibid., 117th session, 3021-27 (quote, 3021).

129 Seitz, 's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 14,1933Google Scholar, Ibid., 106th session, p. 2782.

130 Rosa, Mauser, “Die Genesis des politischsozialen Ideengutes des Bundeskanzlers Dr. Engelbert Dollfuβ” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1959), 28. See also Montbas to Herriot,Vienna, Nov. 11, 1932, DDF, doc. no. 322,1:694-95.Google Scholar

131 Aloisi, Journal, 64.Google Scholar

132 DGFP, doc. no. 25, 1:53.

133 Fritz, Braun, “Der politische Lebensweg des Bumlrgermeisters Richard Schmitz. Beitraumlge zur Innenpolitik der Ersten Republik Österreich und zur Geschichte der Christlichsozialen Partei” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1968), 246.Google Scholar

134 Schumy, Nachlaβ: “Landbund” (unpublished manuscript in the library of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Vienna), p 134.Google Scholar

135 Ibid.

136 Schuschnigg, Dreimal Österreich, 197.Google Scholar

137 Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 27 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 142, 13:142.Google Scholar

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