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Crossroads of East and West: Lemberg, Lwów, Ľviv on the Threshold of Modernity

  • Yaroslav Hrytsak

Recent surveys on post-soviet Eastern Europe reveal that ethnicity and ethnic differentiation are gradually losing their salience among local citizens, while social identification (for example, identities of workers or businesspeople) has become increasingly important as a way for people to perceive both themselves and ongoing political and economic changes. This tendency purports to herald the emergence of a society in which citizens compete for rewards and opportunities on the basis of merit rather than ethnic heritage. In Lithuania and Western Ukraine, however, this is not the case. National identification axes are the most important, and a strong national identity promotes democracy and opposition to communism.

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1 Miller, Arthur H. et al. , “Social Identities in Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania,” Post-Soviet Affairs 14, no. 3 (1998): 248-86.

2 Rogers, Brubaker, Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge, 1996), passim.

3 Stanislaw, Hoszowski, Ekonomiczny rozwój Lwowa w latach 1772–1914 (Economic developments in Ľviv, 1772–1914) (Ľviv, 1935), 107.

4 Walburga, Litschauer, ed., Neue Dokumente zum Schubert-Kreis. Aus Briefen und Tagebüchern seiner Freunde, vol. 2, Dokumente zum Leben der Anna von Revertera (Vienna, 1993), 16.

5 Edward, Crankshaw, The Fall of the House of Habsburg (London, 1981), 3.

6 Krzysztof, Pawlowski, Narodziny nowoczesnego miasta (Birth of a modern city), in Sztuka drugiej polowy XIX wieku (Arts in the second half of the nineteenth century) (Warsaw, 1973), 5758, 6168.

7 Myron, Kapraľ, Demohrafia Ľvova XV-pershoï polovyny XVI st. (Demography of Ľviv in the fifteenth century through the first half of the sixteenth century), in Ľviv. Istorychni narysy (Ľviv: Essays on history), ed. Iaroslav, Isaievych, Feodosii, Steblii, AND Mykola, Lytvyn (Ľviv, 1996), 72.

8 Maciej, Koztowski, Miedzy Sanem a Zbruczem. Walki o Lwów i Galicje Wschodnia 1918–1919(Between San and Zbruch: The struggle over Ľviv and Eastern Galicia) (Cracow, 1990), 160.

9 Kohl, J. G., Reisen im Inneren vom Ruβland und Polen. Die Bukovina. Galizien. Mähren, vol. 3 (Dresden, 1841), 88, 103–5; Myxajlo, Kriľ, Ľviv u opysax inozemciv (kine—persha polovyna XIX st.) (Ľviv in descriptions of foreigners [end of the eighteenth century through the first half of the nineteenth century]) in Ľviv: misto—suspiľstvo—kuľtura (Ľviv: City—society—culture), ed. Marian, Mudryi, vol. 3 (Ľviv, 1999), 300.

10 Cited in Vadym, Adadurov, “Ľviv u napoleonivs'ku epokhu” (Ľviv in the Napoleonic era), in Ľviv, ed. Mudryi, , 212.

11 On contemporary Ľviv, see the special issue of the the Kiev-based journal “‘Krytyka’: Strasti za Lvovom,” Krytyka, no. 7–8 (2002).

12 Walentyna, Najdus, Ksztaltowanie sie nowoczesnych wiezów spoleczno-organizacyjnych ludnosci ukrainskiej Galicji Wschodneij w dobie konstytucyjnej (Making of modern social and organizational bonds among the Ukrainian population of Eastern Galicia in the constitutional era), in Lwów. Miasto. Spoleczenstwo. Kultura (Ľviv. City. Society. Culture), ed. Zalinski, Henryk W. and Kazimierz, Karolczak, vol. 2 (Cracow, 1998), 166-67;Marian, Tyrowicz, Wspomnienia o zyciu kulturalnym i obyczajowym Lwowa 1918–1939 (Memoirs on cultural and habitual life in Ľviv, 1918–39) (Wroclaw, 1991), 186-87, 196-97, 200201.

13 Armstrong, John A., Myth and History in the Evolution of Ukrainian Consciousness, in Ukraine and Russia in Their Historical Encounter, ed. Potichnyj, Peter J. et al. (Edmonton, 1992), 129-30.

14 Shevelov, George Y., “Language,” in Encyclopedia of Ukraine, ed. Danylo Huzar, Struk (Toronto, 1993), 3: 36.

15 On these topics, see George, Schoepflin, “The Political Traditions of Eastern Europe,Daedalus 119, no. 1 (1990): 5590;Ihor, Sevcenko, Ukraine between East and West (Edmonton, 1996), passim.

16 Cited in Mykhailo, Hrushevskyi, Z pochyniv ukraïnskoho sochialstychnoho rukliu. Mykh. Drahomanoiv i zhenevskyi socialistychnyi hurtok (From the beginnings of the Ukrainian social movement: Mykh. Drahomanov and the Geneva Socialist Circle) (Vienna, 1922), 64.

17 John-Paul, Himka, “The Construction of Nationality in Galician Rus’: Icarian Flights in Almost All Directions” in Intellectuals and Articulation of the Nation, ed. Suny, Ronald G. and Kennedy, Michael D. (Ann Arbor, 1999), 109–64;Rudnytsky, Ivan L., Essays in Modern Ukrainian History (Edmonton, 1987), 315–52;Roman, Szporluk, Russia, Ukraine and the Breakup of the Soviet Union (Stanford, 2000), 361–94.

18 I tried to trace this pattern of nationalizing politics using the naming of children after “national heroes.” Yaroslav, Hrytsak, “History of Names: A Case of Constructing National Historical Memory in Galicia, 1830–1930s,” Jahrbücher üur Geschichte Osteuropas 49 (2001): 163–77.

19 See Szporluk, , Russia, Ukraine, passim; Geoffrey Hosking, Russia: People and Empire (Cambridge, 1997), passim; as well my article “National Identities in Post-Soviet Ukriane: The Case of Lviv and Donetsk’,” in Cultures and Nations of Central and Eastern Europe: Essays in Honor of Roman Szporluk, ed. Zvi, Gitelman et al. , Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 22 (Cambridge, 1998), 263–51.

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Austrian History Yearbook
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  • EISSN: 1558-5255
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