Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 19
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Arikan, Gizem Stopa, Lusia Carnelley, Katherine B. and Karl, Anke 2016. The associations between adult attachment, posttraumatic symptoms, and posttraumatic growth. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Le, J and Dorstyn, D 2016. Anxiety prevalence following spinal cord injury: a meta-analysis. Spinal Cord,

    Park, Crystal L. Riley, Kristen E. George, Login S. Gutierrez, Ian A. Hale, Amy E. Cho, Dalnim and Braun, Tosca D. 2016. Assessing Disruptions in Meaning: Development of the Global Meaning Violation Scale. Cognitive Therapy and Research,

    Diehle, Julia de Roos, Carlijn Meiser-Stedman, Richard Boer, Frits and Lindauer, Ramón J. L. 2015. The Dutch version of the Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory: validation in a clinical sample and a school sample. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, Vol. 6,

    Zhou, Xiaobo Song, Hui Hu, Min Li, Xiaolin Cai, Ying Huang, Guoping Li, Jun Kang, Lin and Li, Jing 2015. Risk factors of severity of post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors with physical disabilities one year after the Wenchuan earthquake. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 228, Issue. 3, p. 468.

    Diehle, Julia Schmitt, Katja Daams, Joost G. Boer, Frits and Lindauer, Ramón J. L. 2014. Effects of Psychotherapy on Trauma-Related Cognitions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. 257.

    Schönenberg, Michael Reimitz, Martina Jusyte, Aiste Maier, Doris Badke, Andreas and Hautzinger, Martin 2014. Depression, Posttraumatic Stress, and Risk Factors Following Spinal Cord Injury. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 169.

    Boyer, Bret A. Matour, Susan J. Crittenden, Kia B. Larson, Kimberly A. Cox, Jennifer Mayer and Link, Darlene D. 2013. Appraisals of Fear, Helplessness, and Perceived Life-Threat During Emergent Cardiac Surgery: Relationship to Pre-surgical Depression, Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 173.

    Kimble, Matthew Batterink, Laura Marks, Elizabeth Ross, Cordelia and Fleming, Kevin 2012. Negative expectancies in posttraumatic stress disorder: Neurophysiological (N400) and behavioral evidence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 7, p. 849.

    Müller, R Peter, C Cieza, A and Geyh, S 2012. The role of social support and social skills in people with spinal cord injury—a systematic review of the literature. Spinal Cord, Vol. 50, Issue. 2, p. 94.

    Otis, Catherine Marchand, André and Courtois, Frédérique 2012. Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 253.

    Post, M W M and van Leeuwen, C M C 2012. Psychosocial issues in spinal cord injury: a review. Spinal Cord, Vol. 50, Issue. 5, p. 382.

    van Leeuwen, C M C Kraaijeveld, S Lindeman, E and Post, M W M 2012. Associations between psychological factors and quality of life ratings in persons with spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Spinal Cord, Vol. 50, Issue. 3, p. 174.

    Ford, Elizabeth Ayers, Susan and Bradley, Robert 2010. Exploration of a cognitive model to predict post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 353.

    Krause, James S. Saunders, Lee L. and Newman, Susan 2010. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Spinal Cord Injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 91, Issue. 8, p. 1182.

    Ayers, Susan Copland, Claire and Dunmore, Emma 2009. A preliminary study of negative appraisals and dysfunctional coping associated with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following myocardial infarction. British Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 459.

    Hatcher, Mal B. Whitaker, Chris and Karl, Anke 2009. What predicts post-traumatic stress following spinal cord injury/. British Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 541.

    Karl, Anke Rabe, Sirko Zöllner, Tanja Maercker, Andreas and Stopa, Lusia 2009. Negative self-appraisals in treatment-seeking survivors of motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 23, Issue. 6, p. 775.

    Field, Emma Louise Norman, Paul and Barton, Jane 2008. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between cognitive appraisals and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following stroke. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 62.

  • Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Volume 34, Issue 4
  • October 2006, pp. 437-452

The Role of Negative Cognitive Appraisals in PTSD Symptoms Following Spinal Cord Injuries

  • Elenor Agar (a1), Paul Kennedy (a2) and Nigel S. King (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 October 2006

This study aimed to investigate factors associated with persistent Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in people with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). In the context of a cognitive model, it sought to determine how influential cognitive appraisals were in predicting persistent PTSD when compared to other known predictor variables in the literature such as injury severity. A sample of 50 inpatients receiving rehabilitation for SCI who were 3–24 months post-injury were interviewed using a series of standardized measures of PTSD symptoms and diagnosis, post-traumatic cognitive appraisals, social support, and injury severity. For PTSD symptoms, significant relationships were found for greater injury severity, lower satisfaction with social support and more negative cognitions. Negative cognitions were found to predict variance in PTSD symptoms over and above the non-cognitive variables, although gender and injury severity were also predictors. The only significant predictor of PTSD diagnosis was the cognitive sub-scale “negative cognitions about the self”. Cognitive appraisals were found to be important predictors of persisting PTSD in an SCI population. This supports the cognitive model of PTSD and the development of cognitive therapies for PTSD in this population.

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Paul Kennedy, Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology, University of Oxford, Isis Education Centre, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *