Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs): their impact on conservation policy, advocacy and action

  • ZOLTAN WALICZKY (a1), LINCOLN D. C. FISHPOOL (a2), STUART H. M. BUTCHART (a2), DAVID THOMAS (a2), MELANIE F. HEATH (a2), CAROLINA HAZIN (a2), PAUL F. DONALD (a2), AIDA KOWALSKA (a2), MARIA P. DIAS (a2) and TRISTRAM S. M. ALLINSON (a2)...
Summary

BirdLife International´s Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) Programme has identified, documented and mapped over 13,000 sites of international importance for birds. IBAs have been influential with governments, multilateral agreements, businesses and others in: (1) informing governments’ efforts to expand protected area networks (in particular to meet their commitments through the Convention on Biological Diversity); (2) supporting the identification of Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) in the marine realm, (3) identifying Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention; (4) identifying sites of importance for species under the Convention on Migratory Species and its sister agreements; (5) identifying Special Protected Areas under the EU Birds Directive; (6) applying the environmental safeguards of international finance institutions such as the International Finance Corporation; (7) supporting the private sector to manage environmental risk in its operations; and (8) helping donor organisations like the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund (CEPF) to prioritise investment in site-based conservation. The identification of IBAs (and IBAs in Danger: the most threatened of these) has also triggered conservation and management actions at site level, most notably by civil society organisations and local conservation groups. IBA data have therefore been widely used by stakeholders at different levels to help conserve a network of sites essential to maintaining the populations and habitats of birds as well as other biodiversity. The experience of IBA identification and conservation is shaping the design and implementation of the recently launched Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) Partnership and programme, as IBAs form a core part of the KBA network.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs): their impact on conservation policy, advocacy and action
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs): their impact on conservation policy, advocacy and action
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs): their impact on conservation policy, advocacy and action
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence; e-mail: zoltan.waliczky@birdlife.org
References
Hide All
Allinson, T. (2017) Introducing a new avian sensitivity mapping tool to support the siting of wind farms and power lines in the Middle East and Northeast Africa. Pp. 207218 in Köppel, J., ed. Wind energy and wildlife interactions. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
Ancrenaz, M., Dabek, L. and O’Neil, S. (2007) The costs of exclusion: recognizing a role for local communities in biodiversity conservation. PLoS Biol. 5(11): 24432448. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050289.
Bennun, L. (2013) Important Bird Areas on land and sea: A global inventory of key sites for conservation. In Brooks, L. A. and Arico, S., eds. Tracking key trends in biodiversity science and policy. Based on the proceedings of a UNESCO International Conference on Biodiversity Science and Policy. UNESCO.
Beresford, A. E., Buchanan, G. M., Sanderson, F. J., Jefferson, R. and Donald, P. F. (2016) The contributions of the EU Nature Directives to the CBD and other multilateral environmental agreements. Conserv. Lett. 9: 479488.
Birch, J. C., Thapa, I., Balmford, A., Bradbury, R. B., Brown, C., Butchart, S. H. M., Gurung, H., Hughes, F. M., Mulligan, M., Pandeya, B., Peh, K. S., Stattersfield, A. J., Walpole, M. and Thomas, D. H. L. (2014) What benefits do community forests provide, and to whom? A rapid assessment of ecosystem services from a Himalayan forest, Nepal. Ecosyst. Servs. 8: 118127.
BirdLife International (2004a) State of the world’s birds 2004: indicators for our changing world. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
BirdLife International (2004b) Identification of Lo Go Xa Mat as an IBA in Vietnam resulted in its being declared a national park. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/248. Checked: 21/05/2017.
BirdLife International (2004c) Protected area designation may not be the full, or best, solution for conserving African IBAs. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/250. Checked: 24/05/2017.
BirdLife International (2008a) The impact of Important Bird Area directories. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/219. Checked: 21/05/2017.
BirdLife International (2008b) In Africa, recognition of the value of IBAs is resulting in the designation of new protected areas. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/246. Checked: 21/05/2017.
BirdLife International (2008c) In Timor-Leste, in 2007, three IBAs were linked and protected as the first National Park. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://datazone.birdlife.org/sowb/casestudy/birdlife-worked-with-the-timor-leste-government-to-create-the-country%E2%80%99s-first-national-park. Checked: 07/06/2018.
BirdLife International (2010a) Biodiversity conservation and local communities. http://www.birdlife.org/sites/default/files/attachments/Biodiversity-conservation-local-communities.pdf
BirdLife International (2011a) Empowering the grassroots – BirdLife, participation, and local communities. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
BirdLife International (2011b) BirdLife Australia is bringing together residents and land managers to protect beach-nesting birds. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://datazone.birdlife.org/birdlife-australia-is-bringing-together-residents-and-land-managers-to-protect-beach-nesting-birds Checked: 30/03/2017.
BirdLife International (2011c) Local self-regulation can be more effective at ensuring sustainable resource use than outright ban. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://datazone.birdlife.org/sowb/casestudy/local-self-regulation-can-be-more-effective-at-ensuring-sustainable-resource-use-than-outright-ban. Checked: 30/03/2017.
BirdLife International (2011d) In Denmark, voluntary ‘Caretaker’ groups have been instrumental in the designation of SPAs. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/434. Checked: 21/05/2017.
BirdLife International (2012) Environmental advocacy at work: Lessons learnt from the campaign to save Lake Natron from plans to build a soda ash factory. Nairobi, Kenya: BirdLife International, Africa Partnership Secretariat.
BirdLife International (2013) Using IBAs in planning the protection of the oceans. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from http://datazone.birdlife.org/using-ibas-in-planning-the-protection-of-the-oceans
BirdLife International (2014a) Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas: a global network for conserving nature and benefiting people. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. Available at http://datazone.birdlife.org/sowb/sowbpubs#IBA.
BirdLife International (2014b) Upper Bay of Panamá IBA—saved for now, but big challenges remain. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world’s birds website. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/594. Checked: 31/08/2015.
BirdLife International (2016) Making a difference: The conservation impact of the BirdLife Partnership. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
BirdLife International (2017) World database of Key Biodiversity Areas. Developed by the KBA Partnership: BirdLife International, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Amphibian Survival Alliance, Conservation International, Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, Global Environment Facility, Global Wildlife Conservation, NatureServe, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Wildlife Conservation Society and World Wildlife Fund. Available at www.keybiodiversityareas.org. Accessed 01/05/2017.
BirdLife International (2018a) State of the world´s birds: taking the pulse of the planet. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
Boyd, C., Brooks, T. M., Butchart, S. H. M., da Fonseca, G. A. B., Hawkins, A. F. A., Hoffmann, M., Sechrest, W. W., Stuart, S. N., van Dijk, P. P. and Edgar, G. J. (2008) Spatial scale and the conservation of threatened species. Conserv. Lett. 1: 3743.
Brauneder, K., Montes, C., Blyth, S., Bennun, L., Butchart, S. H. M., Hoffmann, M., Burgess, N. D., Cuttelod, A., Jones, M. I., Kapos, V., Pilgrim, J., Tolley, M. J., Underwood, E. C., Weatherdon, L. D. and Brooks, S. E. (in press) Global screening for critical habitat in the terrestrial realm. Conserv. Lett.
Bruner, A. G., Gullison, R. E., Rice, R. E. and Fonseca, G. A. B. (2001) Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science 291: 125128.
Butchart, S. H. M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Almond, R. E. E., Baillie, J. E. M., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K. E., Carr, G. M., Chanson, J., Chenery, A. M., Csirke, J., Davidson, N. C., Dentener, F., Foster, M., Galli, A., Galloway, J. N., Genovesi, P., Gregory, R. D., Hockings, M., Kapos, V., Lamarque, J.-F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M. A., McRae, L., Minasyan, A., Morcillo, M. H., Oldfield, T. E. E., Pauly, D., Quader, S., Revenga, C., Sauer, J. R., Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D., Stuart, S. N., Symes, A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T. D., Vié, J. C. and Watson, R. (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328: 11641168.
Butchart, S. H. M., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Evans, M., Quader, S. Arinaitwe, J., Bennun, L. A., Besançon, C., Boucher, T., Bomhard, B., Brooks, T. M., Burfield, I. J., Burgess, N. D., Clay, R. P., Crosby, M. J., Davidson, N. C. De Silva, N., Devenish, C., Dutson, G. C. L., Díaz Fernández, D. F., Fishpool, L. D. C., Foster, M., Hockings, M., Hoffmann, M., Knox, D., Larsen, F., Lamoreux, J. F., Loucks, C., May, I., Millett, J. Parr, M., Skolnik, B., Upgren, A. & Woodley, S. (2012) Protecting important sites for biodiversity contributes to meeting global conservation targets. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32529. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032529.
Butchart, S. H. M., Clarke, M., Smith, R. J., Sykes, R. E., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Harfoot, M., Buchanan, G. M., Angulo, A., Balmford, A., Bertzky, B., Brooks, T. M., Carpenter, K. E., Comeros-Raynal, M. T., John Cornell, J., Ficetola, G. F., Fishpool, L. D. C., Fuller, R. A., Geldmann, J., Harwell, H., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoffmann, M., Joolia, A., Joppa, L., Kingston, N., May, I., Milam, A., Polidoro, B., Ralph, G., Richman, N., Rondinini, C., Segan, D. B., Skolnik, B., Spalding, M. D., Stuart, S. N., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Visconti, P., Watson, J. E. M., Louisa Wood, L. and Burgess, N. D. (2015) Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets. Conserv. Lett. 8: 329337.
CBD (2006) COP Decision VIII/24. Protected areas. Convention on Biological Diversity. https://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/default.shtml?id=11038 Accessed 01/05/2017.
CBD (2008) COP Decision IX/20. Marine and costal biodiversity. Convention on Biological Diversity. https://www.cbd.int/decisions/cop/?m=cop-09 Accessed 01/05/2017.
CBD (2010) COP Decision X/2. Strategic plan for biodiversity 2011-2020. Convention on Biological Diversity. http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=12268. Accessed 10/05/012.
CBD (2014) Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs). Special places in the world’s oceans. Volume 1: Western South Pacific Region. Convention on Biological Diversity.
CBD (2016) COP/13/INF/17. Protected Areas: Facilitating the achievement of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. Convention on Biological Diversity. https://www.cbd.int/conferences/2016/cop-13/documents Accessed 01/05/2017.
CMS (2008) Annex 3 to the MoU on the conservation of migratory birds of prey in Africa and Eurasia: Action plan for the conservation of migratory birds of prey in Africa and Eurasia. http://www.cms.int/sites/default/files/document/Raptors_Action_Plan_E_0.pdf accessed 01/05/2017.
Coulthard, N. D. (2002) Impacts and lessons learned from the ‘African NGO-Government Partnerships for Sustainable Biodiversity Action’ Project. Unpublished report.
Dias, M. P., Oppel, S., Bond, A. L., Carneiro, A. P. B., Cuthbert, R. J., González-Solís, J., Wanless, R. M., Glass, T., Lascelles, B., Small, C., Phillips, R. A. and Ryan, P. G. (2017) Using globally threatened pelagic birds to identify priority sites for marine conservation in the South Atlantic Ocean. Biol. Conserv. 211: 7684.
Dickson, I. M., Butchart, S. H. M., Dauncey, V., Hughes, J., Jefferson, R., Merriman, J. C., Munroe, R., Pearce-Higgins, J. P., Stephenson, P. J., Sutherland, W. J., Thomas, D. H. L. and Trevelyan, R. (2017) PRISM – Toolkit for evaluating the outcomes and impacts of small/medium-sized conservation projects. Version 1. Available from www.conservationevaluation.org.
Donald, P. F., Fishpool, L. D. C, Ajagbe, A., Bennun, L. A., Bunting, G., Burfield, I. J., Butchart, S. H. M., Capellan, S., Crosby, M. J., Dias, M. P., Diaz, D., Evans, M. I., Grimmett, R., Heath, M., Jones, V. R., Lascelles, B. G., Merriman, J. C., O´Brien, M., Ramirez, I., Waliczky, Z. and Wege, D. C. (in press) Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs): the development and characteristics of a global inventory of key sites for biodiversity. Bird Conserv. Internatn. doi:10.1017/S0959270918000102.
EBRD (2014) Environmental and social policy. London, UK: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
European Commission (1979) Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds. Official Journal L 103.
European Commission (1992) Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Official Journal L 206, 22.7.1992 Amended by Council Directive 97/62/EC, Official Journal L 305/42.
European Court of Justice (1998) Judgment of the Court of 19 May 1998. Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of the Netherlands. Conservation of wild birds - Special protection areas. Case C-3/96.
European Court of Justice (2000) Judgment of the Court (Sixth Chamber) of 6 March 2003. Commission of the European Communities v République de Finlande. Directive 79/409/EEC - Protection of wild birds and their habitats - Special protection areas. Case C-240/00.
European Court of Justice (2002) Judgment of the Court (Sixth Chamber) of 26 November 2002. Commission of the European Communities v French Republic. Failure by a Member State to fulfil its obligations - Directive 79/409/EEC - Conservation of wild birds - Classification as special protection areas - Plaine des Maures. Case C-202/01.
European Court of Justice (2003) Judgment of the Court (Sixth Chamber) of 20 March 2003. Commission of the European Communities v Italian Republic. Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations - Directive 79/409/EEC - Special protection areas - Conservation of wild birds. Case C-378/01.
European Court of Justice (2007a) Judgment of the Court (Second Chamber) of 28 June 2007. Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Spain. Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations - Directive 79/409/EEC - Conservation of wild birds - Special protection areas - IBA 98 - Value - Quality of the data - Criteria - Margin of discretion - Manifest inadequacy as to number and size of areas classified. Case C-235/04.
European Court of Justice (2007b) Judgment of the Court (Second Chamber) of 25 October 2007. Commission of the European Communities v Hellenic Republic. Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations - Directive 79/409/EEC - Annex I - Conservation of wild birds - Special protection areas - IBA 2000-Value - Quality of the data - Criteria - Margin of discretion - Manifestly insufficient classification - Wetlands. Case C-334/04.
European Court of Justice (2007c) Judgment of the Court (Second Chamber) of 13 December 2007. Commission of the European Communities v Ireland. Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations - Directive 79/409/EEC - Conservation of wild birds - Articles 4 and 10-Transposition and application - IBA 2000-Value - Quality of the data - Criteria - Margin of discretion - Directive 92/43/EEC - Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora - Article 6-Transposition and application. Case C-418/04.
European Court of Justice (2007d) Judgment of the Court (Second Chamber) of 20 September 2007. Commission of the European Communities v Italian Republic. Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations - Conservation of natural habitats - Wild fauna and flora - Special Protection Area ‘Valloni e steppe pedegarganiche’. Case C-388/05.
European Court of Justice (2007e) Judgment of the Court (Second Chamber) of 18 December 2007. Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Spain. Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations - Directive 79/409/EEC - Conservation of wild birds - Irrigable area of the Segarra-Garrigues Canal (Lleida). Case C-186/06.
European Court of Justice (2016a) Judgment of the Court (Third Chamber) of 14 January 2016. European Commission v Republic of Bulgaria. Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations — Directive 2009/147/EC — Conservation of wild birds — Kaliakra and Belite Skali special protection areas — Directive 92/43/EEC — Conservation of natural habitats and wild species — Kompleks Kaliakra site of Community importance — Directive 2011/92/EU — Assessment of the effects of certain projects on the environment — Temporal applicability of the system of protection — Deterioration of natural habitats of species and disturbance of species — Wind power — Tourism. Case C-141/14.
European Court of Justice (2016b) Judgment of the Court (Fifth Chamber) of 24 November 2016. European Commission v Kingdom of Spain. Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations — Directive 2009/147/EC — Conservation of wild birds — Special protection areas — Directive 85/337/EEC — Assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment — Directive 92/43/EEC — Conservation of natural habitats. Case C-461/14.
EIB (2013) Environmental and social handbook. Version 9.0. Luxembourg: European Investment Bank, Environment, Climate and Social Office.
Ferraro, P. J. (2009) Counterfactual thinking and impact evaluation in environmental policy. New Directions for Evaluation. Volume 2009, issue 122.
Gardner, R. C., Finlayson, C. M., Davidson, N., Stroud, D., Perennou, C., Barchiesi, S., Okuno, E., Dema, M. (2017) Responses. In First order draft of the global wetland outlook. Gland Switzerland: Ramsar Secretariat.
GEF (2014) GEF-6 Programming Directions. Global Environment Facility, GEF Assembly Document GEF/A.5/07/Rev.01
Grimmett, R. F. A. and Jones, T. A. (1989) Important Bird Areas in Europe. Cambridge, UK: International Council for Bird Preservation (Technical Publication 9).
Heath, M. F. and Evans, M. I., eds. (2000) Important Bird Areas in Europe: priority sites for conservation. 2 vols. Cambridge UK: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 8).
IFC (2012) IFC Performance standards on environmental and social sustainability. International Finance Corporation. https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/c8f524004a73daeca09afdf998895a12/IFC_Performance_Standards.pdf?MOD=AJPERES accessed on 01/05/2017.
IPBES (2018a) Summary for policymakers of the regional and subregional assessment of biodiversity and ecosystem services for Africa. Available at: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9cu6sv14gik0k9m/AACVxk_gMRP6IG_7NG2Qeug7a/Africa%20Assessment%20Media%20Resources/1%20Africa%20Assessment%20Report%20Summary%20for%20Policymakers?dl=0&preview=ipbes-6-l4_pdf_en.pdf.
IPBES (2018c) Summary for policymakers of the regional and subregional assessment of biodiversity and ecosystem services for Asia and the Pacific. Available at: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9cu6sv14gik0k9m/AACCCXzcl2eftuDHTzbwIDYia/Asia-Pacific%20Assessment%20Media%20Resources/1%20Asia-Pacific%20Assessment%20Report%20Summary%20for%20Policymakers?dl=0&preview=ipbes-6-l2_pdf_en_reissue.pdf.
IUCN (2016) A global standard for the identification of Key Biodiversity Areas. Version 1.0. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Juffe-Bignoli, D., Burgess, N. D., Bingham, H., Belle, E. M. S., de Lima, M. G., Deguignet, M., Bertzky, B., Milam, A. N., Martinez-Lopez, J., Lewis, E., Eassom, A., Wicander, S., Geldmann, J., van Soesbergen, A., Arnell, A. P., O’Connor, B., Park, S., Shi, Y. N., Danks, F. S., MacSharry, B. and Kingston, N. (2014) Protected planet report. Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC.
Kukkala, A. S., Santangeli, A., Butchart, S. H. M., Maiorano, L., Ramirez, I., Burfield, I. J. and Moilanen, A. (2016) Coverage of vertebrate species distributions by Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas and Special Protection Areas in the European Union. Biol. Conserv. 202: 19.
Lambrick, F. H., Brown, N. D., Lawrence, A. and Bebber, D. B. (2014) Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long Forest, Cambodia. Conserv. Biol. 28: 372381.
Martin, C. S., Tolley, M. J., Farmer, E, Mcowen, C. J., Geffert, J. L., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Thomas, H. L., van Bochove, J. H., Stanwell-Smith, D., Hutton, J. M., Lascelles, B., Pilgrim, J. D., Ekstrom, J. M. M. and Tittensor, D. P. (2015) A global map to aid the identification and screening of critical habitat for marine industries. Marine Policy 53: 4553.
Matiku, P. (2013) National action, advocacy and monitoring for Important Bird Areas in Kenya. In: Brooks, L. A. and Arico, S., eds. Tracking key trends in biodiversity science and policy. Based on the proceedings of a UNESCO International Conference on Biodiversity Science and Policy. UNESCO.
Mitchell, R. B. (2003) International environmental agreements: A survey of their features, formation, and effects. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28: 429461.
Mwangi, K., Butchart, S. H. M., Munyekenye, F. B., Bennun, L. A, Evans, M. I., Fishpool, L. D. C., Kanyanya, E., Madindou, I., Machekele, J., Matiku, P., Mulwa, R., Ngari, A., Siele, J. and Stattersfield, A. J. (2010) Tracking trends in key sites for biodiversity: a case study using Important Bird Areas in Kenya. Bird Conserv. Internatn. 20: 215230.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A. B. and Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853858.
Ramirez, I., Tarzia, M., Dias, M. P., Burfield, I. J., Ramos, J. A., Garthe, S. and Paiva, V. H. (2017) How well is the EU protecting its seabirds? Progress in implementing the Birds Directive at sea. Mar. Policy 81: 179184.
Roe, D., Nelson, F. and Sandbrook, C. (2009 ) Community management of natural resources in Africa: Impacts, experiences and future directions. London, UK: IIED.
Sachs, J., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kroll, C., Durand-Delacre, D. and Teksoz, K. (2016) SDG index and dashboards - global report. New York: Bertelsmann Stiftung and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN).
Secretariat of the CBD (2014) Global biodiversity outlook 4. Montréal, Canada: Convention on Biological Diversity.
Sheil, D., Boissière, M. and Beaudoin, G. (2015) Unseen sentinels: local monitoring and control in conservation’s blind spots. Ecol. Soc. 20: 39. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-07625-200239
SPNL (2016) Homat Al Hima guidelines. Beirut, Lebanon: Society for the Protection of Nature in Lebanon (SPNL).
Thapa, I., Butchart, S. H. M., Gurung, H., Stattersfield, A. J., Thomas, D. H. L. and Birch, J. C. (2014) Using information on ecosystem services in Nepal to inform biodiversity conservation and local to national decision-making. Oryx 50: 147155.
Thomas, D. (2011) Poverty, biodiversity and local organisations: Lessons from BirdLife International. IIED Gatekeeper Series 152.
Tittensor, D. P., Walpole, M., Hill, S. L. L., Boyce, D. G., Britten, G. L., Burgess, N. D., Butchart, S. H. M., Leadley, P. W., Regan, E. C., Alkemade, R., Baumung, R., Bellard, C., Bouwman, L., Bowles-Newark, N. J., Chenery, A. M., Cheung, W. W. L., Christensen, V., Cooper, H. D. Crowther, A. R., Dixon, M. J. R., Galli, A., Gaveau, V., Gregory, R. D., Gutierrez, N. L., Hirsch, T. L., Höft, R., Januchowski-Hartley, S. R., Karmann, M., Krug, C. B., Leverington, F. J., Loh, J., Lojenga, R. K., Malsch, K., Marques, A., Morgan, D. H. W., Mumby, P. J., Newbold, T., Noonan-Mooney, K., Pagad, S. N., Parks, B. C., Pereira, H. M., Robertson, T., Rondinini, C., Santini, L., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Schindler, S., Sumaila, U. R., Teh, L. S. L., van Kolck, J., Visconti, P. and Ye, Y. (2014) A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets. Science 6206: 241244.
Trainor, C. R., Santana, F., RudyantoAlmeida, A. F. Almeida, A. F., Pinto, P. and de Oliveira, G. F. (2007) Important Bird Areas in Timor-Leste: key sites for conservation. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
Trathan and Lascelles (2014) 600 marine IBAs have been recognised and included within EBSA descriptions. Darwin Annual Report, available online at: www.darwininitiative.org.uk/documents/.../DPLUS009%20AR1%20-%20Edited.pdf
UNEP/CMS (2014) UNEP/CMS/Resolution 11.25 (2014) Advancing ecological networks to address the needs of migratory species. http://www.cms.int/en/document/cms-resolution-1125-advancing-ecological-networks-address-needs-migratory-species accessed 01/05/2017.
UNEP-WCMC and IUCN (2016) Protected planet report 2016. Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN.
UN (2016) SDG Indicators: Global database. United Nations. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/database/
United Nations General Assembly (2005) A/RES/60/30-Oceans and the Law of the Sea. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N05/489/34/PDF/N0548934.pdf?OpenElement accessed 01/05/2017.
Vermeulen, S. and Sheil, D. (2007) Partnerships for tropical conservation. Oryx 41: 434440.
UNEP-GEF African-Eurasian Flyways Project “Wings Over Wetlands” (2011) The Critical Site Network: Conservation of internationally important sites for waterbirds in the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement area. Ede, the Netherlands and Cambridge, UK: Wetlands International and BirdLife International.
World Bank (2015) Environmental, health, and safety guidelines for wind energy. Washington DC: World Bank Group.
World Bank (2017) The World Bank environmental and social framework. Washington DC: World Bank Group.
World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (2007) Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund. IEG Global Program Review 2(1).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bird Conservation International
  • ISSN: 0959-2709
  • EISSN: 1474-0001
  • URL: /core/journals/bird-conservation-international
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed