We report new observations of the globally threatened Minas Gerais Tyrannulet Phylloscartes roquettei from two areas in the São Francisco Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between July 1993 and February 2002. Four pairs, one fledged young and two lone individuals were observed in the course of our fieldwork. It was previously known only from a female taken in the mid-1920s and sight records and tape-recordings in 1977. Our records extend the species' known range 250 km south and west of the type-locality region. Details of the first-known male specimen are presented, along with novel data concerning its vocalizations and behaviour. We draw attention to the possible relationship of the species to a group of four other Phylloscartes tyrannulets with similarly patterned faces and overall plumage, which exhibit a similar circum-Amazonian distribution pattern to three Phyllomyias tyrannulets. We also take the opportunity to draw more attention to the imperilled conservation status of the dry forests upon which P. roquettei and a host of other threatened and Near-threatened avian taxa depend.
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