Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-cfpbc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-18T17:56:42.387Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The swamp-breeding mosquitos of Uganda: records of larvae and their habitats

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 July 2009

L. K. H. Goma
Nuffield Swamp Research Scheme, Makerere University College, Kampala, Uganda.


Some 246 species of mosquitos are known to occur in Uganda. Of these, 92 (37·4%) have been recorded as breeding in swamps, and the present paper brings together published data and the results of work on the collection and identification of larvae from habitats in a wide variety of types of swamp between 1955 and 1958. Notes on the occurrence and habitats of the larvae are given under each species.

In the present work, only 58 species were found breeding, but these included six new swamp records. Only 26 species appear to breed exclusively in swamps. In addition to the species identified, larvae representing some 14 unrecognised and probably undescribed species were collected. The majority of the swampbreeding species are Culicines, the Anophelines comprising only 21·7 per cent.

The swamp environment in Uganda, with respect to the breeding of mosquitos, is extremely varied. Some possible classifications of the many and various swamps found in the country are given. The distribution of certain species of mosquitos is more or less limited to certain types of swamp This is briefly discussed and examples are given. There is also a definite zonal distribution of some species within a swamp, e.g., Culex (Culex) grahami Theo., C. (C.) guiarti Blanch, and Ficalbia (Ficalbia) malfeyti Newst. occur only in peripheral zones. In general, the interior of the large swamps is unfavourable to the breeding of Anophelines, but Culicines are very abundant there.

Breeding of mosquitos is profoundly affected when swamps are altered by human interference. In certain cases this has resulted in increased production of Anophelines, with the consequent aggravation of the malaria situation.

It is concluded that, from the point of view of human disease, the swamps of Uganda (especially in their natural untouched state) are not as dangerous as previously thought.

Research Paper
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1960

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Beadle, L. C. (1954). The biology of papyrus swamps.—Publ. Cons. sci. Afr. S. Sahara no. 6 pp. 107111.Google Scholar
Beadle, L. C. (1957). Respiration in the African swampworm Alma emini Mich.—J. exp. Biol. 34 pp. 110.Google Scholar
Beadle, L. C. (1958). Hydrobiological investigations on tropical swamps.—Verh. int. Ver. Limnol. 13 pp. 855857.Google Scholar
Carter, G. S. [1955]. The papyrus swamps of Uganda.—25 pp. Cambridge, Heffer.Google Scholar
De Meillon, B. (1947). The Anophelini of the Ethiopian geographical region.—Publ. S. Afr. Inst. med. Res. no. 49, 272 pp.Google Scholar
Edwards, F. W. & Gibbins, E. G. (1939). Mosquitoes.—Ruwenzori Exped. 1934–35 1 no. 2 pp. 2933. London, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.).Google Scholar
Evans, A. M. (1938). Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian region. II. Anophelini, adults and early stages.—404 pp. London, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.).Google Scholar
Garnham, P. C. C., Wilson, D. B. & Wilson, M. E. (1948). Malaria in Kigezi, Uganda.—J. trop. Med. Hyg. 51 pp. 156159.Google Scholar
Gillett, J. D. (1946). Notes on the subgenus Coquillettidia Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae).—Bull. ent. Res. 36 pp. 425438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillett, J. D. (1949). Further notes on the Ethiopian species of Taeniorhynchus Arribalzaga (Diptera, Culicidae).—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 18 pp. 97102.Google Scholar
Gillett, J. D. (1955). The male of Anopheles (Myzomyia) distinctus var. ugandae Evans (Diptera: Culicidae).—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 24 p. 36.Google Scholar
Goma, L. K. H. (1958). The productivity of various mosquito breeding places in the swamps of Uganda.—Bull. ent. Res. 49 pp. 437448.Google Scholar
Haddow, A. J., Van Someren, E. C. C., Lumsden, W. H. R., Harper, J. O. & Gillett, J. D. (1951). The mosquitoes of Bwamba County, Uganda. VIII. Records of occurrence, behaviour and habitat.—Bull. ent. Res. 42 pp. 207238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hancock, G. L. R. (1930). Some records of Uganda mosquitoes and the oecological associations of their larvae.—Bull. Soc. R. ent. Egypte 1930 pp. 3856.Google Scholar
Hancock, G. L. R. (1934). The mosquitoes of Namanve Swamp, Uganda.—J. Anim. Ecol. 3 pp. 204221.Google Scholar
Hancock, G. L. R. & Soundy, W. W. (1931). Notes on the fauna and flora of Northern Bugishu and Masaba (Elgon).—J. E. Afr. Ug. nat. Hist. Soc. no. 36 pp. 165183.Google Scholar
Hopkins, G. H. E. (1940). Afforestation as a method of drying up swamps.—E. Afr. med. J. 17 pp. 189194.Google Scholar
Hopkins, G. H. E. (1952). Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian region. I. Larval bionomics of mosquitoes and taxonomy of Culicine larvae.—2nd edn., 355 pp. London, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.).Google Scholar
Leeson, H. S. (1937). The mosquitos of the funestus series in East Africa.—Bull. ent. Res. 28 pp. 587603.Google Scholar
Lind, E. M. (1956). Studies in Uganda swamps.—Uganda J. 20 pp. 166176.Google Scholar
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C. (1951). Mosquito behaviour in relation to malaria transmission and control in the tropics.—219 pp. London, Arnold.Google Scholar
Van Someren, E. C. C. (1956). Undescribed Culicine larvae and pupae from Uganda.—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 25 pp. 312.Google Scholar
Steyn, J. J. (1946). The effect on the Anopheline fauna of cultivation of swamps in Kigezi District, Uganda.—E. Afr. med. J. 23 pp. 163169.Google Scholar
Uganda, (1933). Report of the Government Entomologist … during the year 1932.—Ann. med. sanit. Rep. Uganda 1932 pp. 8690.Google Scholar
Uganda, . (1950). Malaria in the African population.—Rep. med. Dep. Uganda 1949 pp. 1315.Google Scholar