Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Coetzee, Julie A. and Hill, Martin P. 2012. The role of eutrophication in the biological control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in South Africa. BioControl, Vol. 57, Issue. 2, p. 247.

    Reeves, Justin L. and Lorch, Patrick D. 2012. Biological control of invasive aquatic and wetland plants by arthropods: a meta-analysis of data from the last three decades. BioControl, Vol. 57, Issue. 1, p. 103.

    Albano Pérez, E. Ruiz Téllez, T. and Sánchez Guzmán, J. M. 2011. Influence of physico-chemical parameters of the aquatic medium on germination of Eichhornia crassipes seeds. Plant Biology, Vol. 13, Issue. 4, p. 643.

    Center, Ted D. and Dray, F. Allen 2010. Bottom-up control of water hyacinth weevil populations: do the plants regulate the insects?. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 329.

    Wang, Yangzhou Wilson, John R.U. Zhang, Jun Zhang, Jialiang and Ding, Jianqing 2010. Potential impact and non-target effects of Gallerucida bifasciata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a candidate biological control agent for Fallopia japonica. Biological Control, Vol. 53, Issue. 3, p. 319.

    Irfanullah, Haseeb Md. Adrika, Ahana Ghani, Abdul Khan, Zakir Ahmed and Rashid, Md. Abdur 2008. Introduction of floating gardening in the north-eastern wetlands of Bangladesh for nutritional security and sustainable livelihood. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, Vol. 23, Issue. 02,

    Jadhav, Ashwini Hill, Martin and Byrne, Marcus 2008. Identification of a retardant dose of glyphosate with potential for integrated control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach. Biological Control, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 154.

    Coetzee, Julie A. Byrne, Marcus J. and Hill, Martin P. 2007. Impact of nutrients and herbivory by Eccritotarsus catarinensis on the biological control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Aquatic Botany, Vol. 86, Issue. 2, p. 179.

    Wilson, John R.U. Ajuonu, Obinna Center, Ted D. Hill, Martin P. Julien, Mic H. Katagira, Francisca F. Neuenschwander, Peter Njoka, Stephen W. Ogwang, James Reeder, Rob H. and Van, Thai 2007. The decline of water hyacinth on Lake Victoria was due to biological control by Neochetina spp.. Aquatic Botany, Vol. 87, Issue. 1, p. 90.


Population regulation of a classical biological control agent larval density dependence in Neochetina eichhorniae Coleoptera Curculionidae, a biological control agent of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes

  • J.R.U. Wilson (a1) (a2), M. Rees (a3) and O. Ajuonu (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2007

The release of classical biological control agents has reduced the economic, environmental and social problems caused by water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes; however, additional control measures are needed in some locations. Water hyacinth plants were treated with different densities of eggs of the weevil Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, one of the main control agents, under different nutrient regimes in a controlled experiment. Plants were destructively sampled and the development of N. eichhorniae was assessed. The survival of first and second instars declined as larval density increased. Plant nutrient status did not directly affect the mortality rate of larvae, but at higher nutrient concentrations larvae developed faster and were larger at a given developmental stage. It is argued that the density dependence operating in N. eichhorniae occurs through an interaction between young larvae and leaf longevity. Consequently, events which disrupt water hyacinth leaf dynamics, e.g. frost or foliar herbicides, will have a disproportionately large effect on the control agents and may reduce the level of control of the host.

Corresponding author
*DST-NRF Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa: Fax +27 (0) 21 808 2995 E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Z.E. Abjar & M.O. Bashir (1984) Biology and life-tables of Neochetina bruchi Hustache Coleoptera, Curculionidae introduced to the White Nile, Sudan for the biological control of water hyacinth. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 97, 282286.

M.O. Bashir , Z.E. El Abjar , N.S. Irving (1984) Observations on the effect of the weevils Neochetina eichhorniae Warner and Neochetina bruchi Hustache on the growth of water hyacinth. Hydrobiologia 110, 9598.

T.D. Center (1987) Do water hyacinth and ontogeny affect intra-plant dispersion of Neochetina eichhorniae Coleoptera Curculionidae eggs and larvae. Environmental Entomology 16, 699707.

T.D. Center & T.K. Van (1989) Alteration of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms leaf dynamics and phytochemistry by insect damage and plant density. Aquatic Botany 35, 181195.

T.D. Center & A.D. Wright (1991) Age and phytochemical composition of water hyacinth Pontederiaceae leaves determine their acceptability to Neochetina eichhorniae Coleoptera Curculionidae. Environmental Entomology 20, 323334.

T.D. Center , F.A. Dray , Jubinsky Jr. , Grodowitz M.J. G.P. (1999a) Biological control of water hyacinth under conditions of maintenance management can herbicides and insects be integrated. Environmental Management 23, 241256.

T.D. Center , F.A. Dray , Jubinsky Jr. , Leslie J. G.P. (1999b) Water hyacinth weevils Neochetina eichhorniae and N. bruchi inhibit water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes colony development. Biological Control 15, 3950.

H. DeGroote , O. Ajuonu , S. Attignon , R. Djessou & P. Neuenschwander (2003) Economic impact of biological control of water hyacinth in southern Benin. Ecological Economics 45, 105117.

C.J. DeLoach & H.A. Cordo (1976b) Life cycle and biology of Neochetina bruchi, a weevil attacking water hyacinth in Argentina, with notes on N. eichhorniae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 69, 643652.

C.J. Deloach & H.A. Cordo (1983) Control of water hyacinth by Neochetina bruchi Coleoptera Curculionidae Bagoini in Argentina. Environmental Entomology 12, 1923.

M.J. Grodowitz , R.M. Stewart & A.F. Cofrancesco (1991) Population dynamics of water hyacinth and the biological control agent Neochetina eichhorniae Coleoptera Curculionidae at a southeast Texas location. Environmental Entomology 20, 652660.

T.A. Heard & S.L. Winterton (2000) Interactions between nutrient status and weevil herbivory in the biological control of water hyacinth. Journal of Applied Ecology 37, 117127.

K.P. Jayanth (1988) Successful biological control of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes by Neochetina eichhorniae Coleoptera Curculionidae in Bangalore, India. Tropical Pest Management 34, 263266.

A.J. McConnachie , M.P. Hill & M.J. Byrne (2004) Field assessment of a frond-feeding weevil, a successful biological control agent of red waterfern, Azolla filiculoides, in southern Africa. Biological Control 29, 326331.

R.E.C. McFadyen (1998) Biological control of weeds. Annual Review of Entomology 43, 369393.

W.W. Murdoch & C.J. Briggs (1996) Theory for biological control recent developments. Ecology 77, 20012013.

Q. Paynter & G.J. Flanagan (2004) Integrating herbicide and mechanical control treatments with fire and biological control to manage an invasive wetland shrub, Mimosa pigra. Journal of Applied Ecology 41, 615629.

J.C. Pinheiro & D.M. Bates (2000) Mixed-effects models in S and S-PLUS. 528 New York, Springer-Verlag.

P.M. Room , K.L.S. Harley , I.W. Forno , D.P.A. Sands (1981) Successful biological control of the floating weed Salvinia. Nature 294, 7880.

P.M. Room , M.H. Julien & I.W. Forno (1989) Vigorous plants suffer most from herbivores – latitude, nitrogen and biological control of the weed Salvinia molesta. Oikos 54, 92100.

G.S. Wheeler (2001) Host plant quality factors that influence the growth and development of Oxyops vitosa, a biological control agent of Melaleuca quinquenervia. Biological Control 22, 256264.

G.S. Wheeler , T.K. Van , T.D. Center (1998) Herbivore adaptations to a low-nutrient food weed biological control specialist Spodoptera pectiniccornis Lepidoptera Noctuidae fed the floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes. Environmental Entomology 27, 9931000.

J.R. Wilson , N. Holst & M. Rees (2005) Determinants and patterns of population growth in water hyacinth. Aquatic Botany 81, 5167.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *