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A Century of the McNaghten Rules

  • H. Barnes

Extract

The subject falls conveniently into two parts, (I) comment made during the century since McNaghten's Case in 1843 on the answers given by the judges to the questions put to them by the House of Lords, and (II) discussion of the defence of irresistible impulse. For the convenience of readers the Questions and Answers are reprinted from the tenth volume of Clark and Finnelly's Keports, 200, 209–212.

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References

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1 See any of 10 Cl. & F. at p. 205; 4 St. Tr. (N. S.) at p. 296; 31 Arch. 14; 1923, Cmd. 2005, at p. 23; East, Forensic Psychiatry, 55; Kenny, Select Cases, 44; Stephen, II History of Criminal Law, 155.

2 State v. Jones (1871) 50 N. H. 369.

3 4 St. Tr. (N. S.) at p. 925.

4 Hadfield (1800) 27 St. Tr. at pp. 1313—1314; 67 Hansard, 719.

5 Bellingham (1812) 1 Collinson on Lunatics, 636.

6 E.g., Indian Penal Code, s. 84. In nearly all the United States of America: Weihofen, Insanity as a Defence in Criminal Law, 46.

7 Sodeman (1936) 55 Comm. L. R. 230; W. N. 190; 2 All E. R. 1138. The State of Alabama established this Eule by cases, and changed it by the 1928 Code, ‘to the reasonable satisfaction of the jury.’

8 Phipson, , Evidence, 10.

9 Phipson, , 34.

10 Hadfield (1800) 27 St. Tr. at p. 1354.

11 Hewart, , Essays and Observations, 213; 5 Journal of Criminal Law, at p. 267.

12 Oxford (1840) 9 C. & P. at p. 533.

13 Stokes (1848) 3 Car. & Kir. 185.

14 A.-G. v. Boylan [1937] I. R. at p. 456; and A.-G. v. Fennell [1940] I. R. at p. 449.

15 Phipson, , 34; and cites Bigham J. in Jefferson (1908) Times, 20 July.

16 Godere (1016) 12 C. A. R. at p. 27.

17 E.g., Schwartz v. State (1902) 65 Nebraska, 196 (S.C.).

18 Lockhart (1939) Telegraph, 20 Nov.

19 Stephen, , II Hist. 149; and Digest of the Criminal Law, s. 38 (b), and note 6.

20 1 Taylor, Medical Jurisprudence, 807.

21 Codere (1916) 12 C. A. R. at pp. 27—28.

22 Proprietary Articles Trade Association v. A.-G. for Canada [1931] A. C. at p. 324.

23 See also IV Criminal Law Journal, at p. 87.

24 People v. Schmidt (1915) 216 N. Y. 324.

25 XCI Review of Amer. J. Psych. 137.

26 Indian Penal Code, s. 84. See also for Scotland, H.M. Advocate v. Sharp [1927] S. C. (J.) 66.

27 1 Taylor, 815.

28 Stephen, II Hist. 162. Also 2 Journ. Crim. Law, 539.

29 Hewart, , Essays, 224.

30 East, Medical Aspects of Crime, Cap. VII, for a careful description, with charts.

31 East, , Forensic Psych. 58; 1 Taylor, 815.

32 British Medical Journal, 1924, 16 Feb.

33 Waring v. Waring (1848) 6 Moo. P. C. 341.

34 Gilbert (1914) 11 C. A. R. at p. 25.

35 Wright (1821) R. & R. 456.

36 Francis (1842) 4 Cox, 57.

37 4 St. Tr. (N. S.) at p. 923.

38 Stephen, , II Hist. 183.

39 Mason (1912) 76 J. P. 184.

40 Aveson v. Kinnaird (1805) 6 East, 188.

41 1923, Cmd. 2005, at p. 10.

42 Mass. Acts, 1929, Cap. 105.

43 State v. Strasburg (1910) 60 Wash. 106.

44 See Arridy v. People (1938) 82 Pac. (2nd) 757; where, in spite of the experts' opinion, popular opinion was too strong, and accused was convicted and executed.

45 See Hay (1911) 22 Cox, 268.

46 See Jefferson (1908) 1 C. A. R. 95.

47 J. W. and Tibbie, Anne, Clare, John, 385, 393, 397, 417.

48 1 Taylor, 759, 811.

49 G. Bernard Shaw.

50 Brazol, , Elements of Crime, 302.

51 Kindred, , 1934, Amer. Jour. Psych. 137.

52 For a good example, see 1923, Cmd. at pp. 31 and 4.

53 1923, Cmd. 2005, at pp. 9 and 21.

54 Sullivan, , Crime and Insanity, 122.

55 10 Cl. & F. 201; 4 St. Tr. (N. S.) 923.

56 10 Cl. & F. 202. The case of True in 1922 brought about the appointment of Lord Birkenhead's Committee of that year.

57 Stephen, , II Hist. 154; Sullivan, , 230.

58 E.g., in 1865, 1874, 1879, 1922.

59 E.g., Bramwell B., Insanity and Crime, Nineteenth Century, Deo. 1885; Hewart, , Essays and Observations, 215.

60 E.g., 1923, Cmd. 2005, p. 21.

61 True (1922) 16 C. A. R. at p. 170.

62 Notably, Bramwell B., and Hewart L.C.J.

63 Stephen, , II Hist. 152; 1 Taylor, 801; Theobald, , Law Relating to Lunacy, 244.

64 See discussion, post.

65 Sullivan, , Crime and Insanity, 231.

66 Felstead [1914] A. C. 534; 10 C. A. R. 129.

67 Weihofen, , 46.

68 Marjoribanks, , Life of Sir Edward Marshall Hall, 390.

69 ProfJefferson, , Lecture, ‘Manchester Guardian,’ 20 01 1944.

70 Dr. Bay. Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity.

71 A.-G. v. O'Brien [1936] I. R. at p. 269.

72 See references to it, post.

73 1923, Cmd. 2005.

74 XVII Parl. Debates (5th Series); Hewart, , Essays and Observations, 225; also Cap. XXIX.

75 Like Baron Bramwell, Lord Hewart appears to have been a firm believer in tlio efficacy of the threat of punishment.

76 Armstrong (1922) 16 C. A. R. at p. 160. See also on juries, Morris, , Criminology, 283.

77 1 Taylor, 812; Gour, , Indian Penal Code, 321.

78 Maule J. in Tucker (1844) 1 Cox, 103; Cox J. in U. S. v. Guiteau (1882) 10 Fed. 161.

79 DrMonro, , 4 St. Tr. (N. S.) 847.

80 Christie, , 10 Medico-Legal and Criminological Review, 13.

81 East, , Forensic Psych. 83; Perry (1919) 14 C. A. R. 48.

82 1 Taylor, 814.

83 1 Taylor, 828.

84 4 Criminal Law Jour. 82.

85 1 Taylor, 815—819.

86 1 Taylor, 843.

87 De Quiros, , Modern Theories of Criminality, 8, 49; Burton (1863) 3 F. & F. 772.

88 Darling J. in Harding (1908) 1 C. A. R. at p. 223; State v. Soper (1899), 148 Mo. at p. 237.

89 1 Taylor, 762; Vaughan (1844) 1 Cox, 80.

90 Alexander (1913) 9 C. A. R. at p. 141; Lesbini (1914) 11 C. A. R. 7.

91 East, , Forensic Psych. 21—22.

92 U. S. v. Guiteau (1882) 10 Fed. 161.

93 Southey (1865) 4 F. & F. 864.

94 Stroud, , Mens Bea, 195—209.

95 1923, Cmd. 2005, at p. 9.

96 Davies, D. Seaborne, 17 Can. Bar Review, 147.

97 Stokes (1848) 3 C. & K. 185.

98 Barton (1848) 3 Cox, 275.

99 Brough (1856) 1 F. & F, 667 n.

100 Haynes (1859) 1 F. & F. 666.

101 Burton (1863) 3 F. & F. 772.

102 Thomas (1911) 7 C. A. R. 36.

103 Pank (1919) Times, 22 May.

104 Holt (1920) 15 C. A. R. 10.

105 Quarmby (1921) 15 C. A. R. 163.

106 True (1922) 16 C. A. R. at p. 170.

107 Kopsch (1925) 19 C. A. R. at p. 51.

108 Flavell (1926) 19 C. A. R. at p. 143.

109 Weihofen, , 32.

110 Rhode Island.

111 New Hampshire.

112 Creighton (1909) 14 Can. Crim. C. 349.

113 Jessamime (1912) 32 C. L. T. 280.

114 Deighton (1900) 18 N. Z. L. R. 891.

115 A.-G. v. O'Brien [1936] I. R. 263.

116 Sodeman [1936] 2 All E. R. 1138; W. N. 190. Por a full discussion, see Barry, , Insanity in the Criminal Law of Australia; Can. Bar. Review, 427; or English Studies in Criminal Science Pamphlet, 8—12.

117 Stephen, , II Hist. Cap. XIX.

118 Stephen, , II Hist. 149; Digest, Stephen, Art. 38.

119 Sullivan, , Crime and Insanity, 229; East, , Forensic Psych. 61; Noyer, , Text-book on Psychiatry, 58; Mercier, , Crime and Insanity. 240; 1 Taylor, 815.

120 Sullivan, , Crime and Insanity, 231.

121 Lees-Smith (1943) Daily Telegraph, 17 and 18 March.

122 27 St. Tr. 1281.

123 67 Hansard, 719—20.

124 Oxford (1840) 9 C. & P. at p. 546.

125 Jorden (1872) 1 Taylor, 881.

126 Gill (1883) Oppenheimer, Criminal Responsibility.

127 Duncan (1890) Renton, Law and Practice of Lunacy, 908.

128 Prince (1898) 1 Taylor, 881.

129 Jones (1910) 4 C. A. R. at pp. 217—218.

130 Hay (1911) 22 Cox, 268.

131 Jolly (1919) 83 J. P. 296.

132 True (1922) Daily Telegraph, 6 May; Notable British Trials, The Trial of Ronald True, 255; 16 C. A. R. at p. 165.

133 Burton (1936) 100 J. P. 306.

134 Lees-Smith (1943) Daily Telegraph, 17 and 18 March.

135 Conybeare, , Text-book of Medicine, 307. See also Hyslop, , The Borderland, 28.

136 State v. Thompson (1834) Wright's Ohio Reps, at p. 622.

137 Clark v. State (1843) 12 Ohio, at p. 495.

138 Comm. v. Rogers (1844) 7 Metc. (Mass.) 500.

139 Bradley v. State (1869) 31 Ind. 492.

140 Parsons v. State (1886) 31 Ala. 577.

141 Weihofen, , 15.

142 1923, Cmd. 2005, p. 9.

143 Hay (1899) 16 Cape of Good Hope (S. C.) 290.

144 Smit (1906) T. S. 783.

145 1923, Cmd, 2005, p. 9: 24.

146 See reference 116, above.

147 They have not been brought up in the belief of Baron Bramwell in the effectiveness of punishment.

148 Stephen, , II Hist, 155.

149 1 Taylor, 801; Sullivan, , 231; 1 Wharton, and Stillé, , Medical Jurisprudence, 555.

150 Notably Bramwell B. and Hewart L.C.J.

151 Bellingham (1812) 1 Collinson on Lunatics, 636. See also Ray, , Treatise on Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity.

152 E.g. Bowler (1812) East, Forensic Psychiatry, 51; 1 Taylor, 804.

153 Jefferson (1908) 1 C. A. R. 95.

154 1 Taylor, 821.

155 gee notes 133 and 134.

156 Parsons v. State (1886) 81 Ala. 577.

157 Sodeman (1936) 55 Comm. L. R. 192.

A Century of the McNaghten Rules

  • H. Barnes

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