Published online by Cambridge University Press: 01 January 2009
I would like to share some reflections on how bioethics fosters dialogue between the sciences and humanities by talking a bit about my work as a physician-ethicist collaborating with neuroscientists studying severe brain injury and mechanisms of recovery. If I am successful in this Pilgrim's Progress, I hope I will convince you that the injured brain can teach us much about ourselves. It is not something I was prepared to believe as a medical student, when I was more certain of things than I am now.
1. Jennett B, Plum F. Persistent vegetative state after brain damage. A syndrome in search of a name. Lancet 1972;1(7753):734–7.
2. Fins JJ. Rethinking disorders of consciousness: New research and its implications. The Hastings Center Report 2005;35(2):22–24.
3. Fins JJ. A Palliative Ethic of Care: Clinical Wisdom at Life's End. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2006.
4. In re Quinlan, 355 A 2d 647 (NJ 1976); cert denied 429 US 1992, 1976.
5. Posner J, Saper C, Schiff ND, Plum F. Plum and Posner's Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
6. Annas GJ. The “right to die” in America: Sloganeering from Quinlan and Cruzan to Quill and Kevorkian. Duquesne Law Review 1996;34(4):875–97.
7. Cantor NL. Twenty-five years after Quinlan: A review of the jurisprudence of death and dying. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 2001;29(2):182–96.
8. Fins JJ. Constructing an ethical stereotaxy for severe brain injury: Balancing risks, benefits and access. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 2003;4:323–7.
9. Plato. Apology. In: The Last Days of Socrates. Tredennick H, Tarrant H, trans. New York: Penguin Books; 1993.
10. Laureys S, Owen AM, Schiff ND. Brain function in coma, vegetative state and related disorders. Lancet Neurology 2004;3(9):537–46.
11. Fins JJ. Clinical pragmatism and the care of brain injured patients: Towards a palliative neuroethics for disorders of consciousness. Progress in Brain Research 2005;150:565–82.
12. Fins JJ, Plum F. Neurological diagnosis is more than a state of mind: Diagnostic clarity and impaired consciousness. Archives of Neurology 2004;61(9):1354–5.
13. Ambrose S. Undaunted Courage: Merriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson and the Opening of the American West. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1997.
14. Cohen IB. Science and the Founding Fathers: Science in the Political Thought of Jefferson, Franklin, Adams and Madison. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.; 1995.
15. Schiff N, Ribary U, Plum F, Llinas R. Words without mind. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1999;11(6):650–6.
16. Schiff ND, Ribary U, Moreno DR, Beattie B, Kronberg E, Blasberg R, et al. Residual cerebral activity and behavioural fragments can remain in the persistently vegetative brain. Brain 2002;125:1210–34.
17. The Multi-Society Task Force on PVS. Medical aspects of the persistent vegetative state (1 and 2). New England Journal of Medicine 1994;330(21):1499–508 and(22):1572–9.
18. Giacino JT, Ashwal S, Childs N, Cranford R, Jennett B, Katz DI, et al. The minimally conscious state: Definition and diagnostic criteria. Neurology 2002;58(3):349–53.
19. Fins JJ. Border zones of consciousness: Another immigration debate? American Journal of Bioethics 2007;7(1):51–4.
20. Schiff ND, Fins JJ. Hope for “comatose” patients. Cerebrum 2003;5(4):7–24.
21. Fins JJ, Master MG, Gerber LM, Giacino JT. The minimally conscious state: A diagnosis in search of an epidemiology. Archives of Neurology 2007;64(10):1400–5.
22. Fins JJ. Affirming the right to care, preserving the right to die: Disorders of consciousness and neuroethics after Schiavo. Palliative & Supportive Care 2006;4(2):169–78.
23. Schiff ND, Rodriguez-Moreno D, Kamal A, Kim KH, Giacino JT, Plum F, et al. fMRI reveals large-scale network activation in minimally conscious patients. Neurology 2005;64:514–23.
24. Carey B. New signs of awareness seen in some brain-injured patients. The New York Times 2005 Feb 8:A1.
25. Fins JJ. Neuroethics & neuroimaging: Moving towards transparency. American Journal of Bioethics. In press.
26. Fins JJ. Truth telling and reciprocity in the doctor–patient relationship: A North American perspective. In: Bruera E, Portenoy RK, eds. Topics in Palliative Care, vol. 5. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001:81–94.
27. Schiff ND, Fins JJ. Deep brain stimulation and cognition: Moving from animal to patient. Current Opinion in Neurology 2007;20(6):638–42.
28. Voss HU, Uluc AM, Dyke JP, Watts R, Kobylarz EJ, McCandliss BD, et al. Possible axonal regrowth in late recovery from minimally conscious state. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2006;116:2005–11.
29. Fins JJ, Schiff ND, Foley KM. Late recovery from the minimally conscious state: Ethical and policy implications. Neurology 2007;68:304–7.
30. O'Connor A. Brain-injured fireman's recovery takes science into a murky area. The New York Times 2005 May 4. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/04/nyregion/04brain.html?_r=1&scp=5&sq=don+herbert+buffalo&st=nyt&oref=slogin.
31. Blake R. The Day Donny Herbert Woke Up. New York: Harmony Books, 2007; Fins JJ. A review of The Day Donny Herbert Woke Up by Rich Blake. JAMA 2008;299(8):959–60.
32. Joyce J. Ulysses. New York: Vintage, 1990; Schwaber P. The Cast of Characters: A Reading of Ulysses. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1999.
33. Martin RT, Whyte J. The effects of methylphenidate on command following and yes/no communication in patients with severe disorders of consciousness: A meta-analysis of n-of-1 studies. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2007;86(8):613–20; Whyte J, Katz D, Long D, DiPasquale MC, Polansky M, Kalmar K, et al. Predictors of outcomes in prolonged posttraumatic disorders of consciousness and assessment of medication effects: A multicenter study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2005;86(3):453–62.
34. Schiff ND, Giacino JT, Kalmar K, Victor JD, Baker K, Gerber M, et al. Behavioral improvements with thalamic stimulation after severe traumatic brain injury. Nature 2007;448(7153):600–3.
35. Thomas L. Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher. New York: Penguin; 1978.
36. Lewis CS. The “Cardinal Virtues.” In: Mere Christianity. New York: Touchstone; 1996.
Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.