1. Ackerman TF. The role of an ethicist in health care. In: Anderson GR, Glesnes-Anderson VA, eds. Health Care Ethics. Rockville, MD: Aspen Publishing Company; 1987:308–20; Avorn J. A physician's perspective. Hastings Center Report 1982;12(3):11–2; Baker R. The skeptical critique of clinical ethics. In: Hoffmaster B, Freedman B, Fraser G, eds. Clinical Ethics: Theory and Practice. Clifton, NJ: Humana Press; 1989:27–57; Barnard D. Reflections of a reluctant clinical ethicist: Ethics consultation and the collapse of critical distance. Theoretical Medicine 1992;13:15–22; Beauchamp T. What philosophers can offer. Hastings Center Report 1982;12(3):13–4; Noble CN. Ethics and experts. Hastings Center Report 1982;12(3):7–9; Noble CN. Response. Hastings Center Report 1982;12(3):15; LaPuma J, Schiedermayer DL. The clinical ethicist at the bedside. Theoretical Medicine 1992;12:285–92; Scofield GR. Ethics consultation: The least dangerous profession? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1993;2:417–48; Singer P. Ethical experts in a democracy. In: Rosenthal DM, Shehadi F, eds. Applied Ethics and Ethical Theory. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press; 1988:149–61; Wikler D. Ethicists, critics, and expertise. Hastings Center Report 1982;12(3):12–3; Wildes KM. Healthy skepticism: The emperor has very few clothes. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1997;22(4):365–71.
2. Aulisio MP, Arnold RM, Youngner SJ. Health care ethics consultation: Nature, goals, and competencies. A position paper from the Society for Health and Human Values—Society for Bioethics Consultation Task Force on Standards for Bioethics Consultation. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000;133:59–69; The report of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. Core competencies for health care ethics consultation. In: Aulisio MP, Arnold RM, Youngner SJ, eds. Ethics Consultation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2003:165–209; Fournier V, Pousset M. [Cochin Hospital Clinical Ethics Center: The first two years] (in French). La Presse Médicale 2006;35:960–6; Glasa J. Establishment and work of ethics committees in central and eastern European countries. Medical Ethics & Bioethics 2002;9:9–12; Hurst SA, Reiter-Theil S, Perrier A, Forde R, Slowther AM, Pegoraro R, Danis M. Physicians' access to ethics support services in four European countries. Health Care Analysis 2007;15:321–35; Reiter-Theil S. Ethics consultation on demand: Concepts, practical experiences and a case study. Journal of Medical Ethics 2000;26:198–203; Reiter-Theil S. Ethics consultation in Germany: The present situation. HEC Forum 2001;13:265–80; Slowther A, Bunch C, Woolnough B, Hope T. Clinical ethics support services in the UK: An investigation of the current provision of ethics support to health professionals in the UK. Journal of Medical Ethics 2001;27:12–8; Steinkamp N, Gordijn B. Ethical case deliberation on the ward. A comparison of four methods. Medical Health Care and Philosophy 2003;6:235–246; Steinkamp N, Gordijn B, Borovecki A, Gefenas E, Glasa J, Guerrier M, et al. Regulation of healthcare ethics committees in Europe. Medical Health Care and Philosophy 2007;10:461–75.
3. This conference in Basel was part of a series of International Conferences on Clinical Ethics and Consultation (ICCEC) that began in Cleveland, Ohio, April 4–6, 2003, followed by a meeting held in conjunction with the Canadian Bioethics Society in Toronto, Canada, on June 1–3, 2007; in 2008 the series continued with a conference in Rijeka, Croatia, September 4, 2008, in conjunction with the Ninth World Congress of Bioethics.
4. Reiter-Theil S, Agich GJ, eds. Thematic section on research on clinical ethics and consultation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. A European Journal 2008;11(1):3–42.
5. Agich GJ, Spielman B. Ethics expert testimony: Against the skeptics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1997;22:381–403. See note 1, Avorn 1982, Beauchamp 1982, and Noble 1982; Paris JJ. An ethicist takes the stand, Hastings Center Report 1984;14(1):32–3; Pellegrino ED, Sharpe VA. Medical ethics in the courtroom: The need for scrutiny. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 1989;32:547–64; Sharpe VA, Pellegrino ED. Medical ethics in the courtroom: A reappraisal. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1997;22(4):373–9; Spielman B, Agich GJ. The future of bioethics testimony: Guidelines for determining qualifications, reliability, and helpfulness. San Diego Law Review 1999;36(4):1043–75. Also see note 1, Singer 1988, Wikler 1982, and Wildes 1997.
6. Agich GJ. Joining the team: Ethics consultation at the Cleveland Clinic. HEC Forum 2003;15(4):310–22.