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Within-crown distribution, attack, and germination of Curculio occidentis-damaged and Cydia latiferreana-damaged Garry oak acorns in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 May 2012

Imre S. Otvos
Affiliation:
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V8Z 1M5 Canada
Doris A. Mills
Affiliation:
1111 Lakeshore Drive SW, Salmon Arm, British Columbia, V1E 4P1 Canada
Nicholas Conder*
Affiliation:
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V8Z 1M5 Canada
*
1Corresponding author (e-mail: nconder@nrcan.gc.ca).

Abstract

Garry oak, Quercus garryana Douglas ex Hooker (Fagaceae), is part of a unique ecosystem in British Columbia, Canada, which is rich in rare and endangered plant species. Garry oak recruitment is critical to the existence of this ecosystem, therefore, the effect of Curculio occidentis (Casey) (filbert weevil; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (filbertworm; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on acorn germination is of great interest. Together these two insects infested 80.7%, 75.1%, and 51.3% of acorns collected in 1996, 1997 (low crop years), and 1998 (high crop year), respectively. Filbertworm infestation did not vary with crown level. Filbert weevil infestation did not vary with crown level during poor crop years, but significantly more filbert weevil-infested acorns were found in the lower than the middle and upper portions of the trees during the high crop year. Severely damaged acorns did not germinate, and acorns with light to moderate feeding damage had lower germination success than undamaged acorns, but growth of germinated seedlings in the light to moderate damage category was unaffected. This study showed, for the first time, that these two insect species infested a large proportion of Garry oak acorns on the tree in British Columbia, and that light to moderate damage of the acorn has relatively low impact on seedling growth.

Résumé

Le chêne blanc de Garry, Quercus garryana Douglas ex Hooker (Fagaceae), fait partie d'un écosystème unique de Colombie-Britannique, Canada, qui est riche en espèces de plantes rares et en péril. Le recrutement du chêne de Garry est essentiel à la survie de cet écosystème; c'est pourquoi les effets de Curculio occidentis (Casey) (charançon du noisetier; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) et de Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (mélissope des glands; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sur la germination des glands deviennent de grand intérêt. Ensemble ces deux insectes infestent respectivement 80.7%, 75.1% et 51.3% des glands récoltés en 1996, 1997 (années de production faible) et 1998 (année de production élevée). L'infestation des mélissopes des glands ne varie pas en fonction de la hauteur de la cime des arbres. L'infestation du charançon du noisetier ne varie pas en fonction de la hauteur de la cime durant les années de faible production; cependant, on trouve plus de glands infestés par le charançon du noisetier dans les étages inférieurs des arbres que dans les étages moyens et supérieurs durant les années de forte production. Les glands fortement endommagés ne germent pas et les glands qui sont légèrement à modérément endommagés par l'alimentation des insectes ont un succès de germination inférieur à celui des glands intacts, mais la croissance des jeunes plants issus des glands légèrement à modérément endommagés n'est pas affectée. Notre étude montre, pour la première fois, que ces deux espèces d'insectes infestent une forte proportion des glands du chêne de Garry encore sur les arbres en Colombie-Britannique et que des dommages faibles à modérés ont relativement peu d'impacts sur la croissance des jeunes plants.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 2012

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Footnotes

*

Retired.

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