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Comparisons of the composition of foliage-dwelling spider assemblages in apple orchards and adjacent deciduous forest

  • T.E. Sackett (a1), C.M. Buddle (a1) and C. Vincent (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

Previous studies have shown that annual crops have different spider (Araneae) assemblages than adjacent relatively natural habitats, suggesting that spider recolonization of crops occurs via long-distance ballooning and that spider species in crops are mainly agrobionts. However, in perennial crops, e.g., apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosaceae)), which are subject to less physical disturbance than annual crops, overlap in spider species has been observed between tree foliage and adjacent habitats, suggesting that spiders colonize orchards from adjacent vegetation. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition of assemblages of foliage-dwelling spiders in apple orchards with that in adjacent deciduous forest and to determine whether spider assemblages in orchards are dominated by agrobiont species. Spiders were collected from four apple orchards and adjacent deciduous forest in southern Quebec from May until August 2004. The similarity of assemblages between the orchard and forest habitats was evaluated using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and multiresponse permutation procedures and spider species richness in the two habitat types was compared using rarefaction. Although spider species richness was higher in the forest than in the orchards, the composition of the spider assemblages in apple orchards was not significantly different from that in adjacent deciduous forest at three of the four sites. Therefore, adjacent deciduous forest, which is similar to orchards in vegetation structure and frequency of structural disturbance, is likely the main source of spiders found in apple orchards.

Résumé

Des études antérieures ont montré que les cultures annuelles abritent des peuplements d’araignées différents de ceux des habitats à peu près naturels adjacents, ce qui laisse croire que la recolonisation des cultures se fait par parachutage de longue distance et que les espèces d’araignées qui habitent les cultures sont des agrobiontes. Cependant, dans les cultures permanentes (par ex., les vergers), qui connaissent des niveaux moins élevés de perturbation physique que les cultures annuelles, on observe un chevauchement entre les espèces d’araignées du feuillage des arbres et celles des habitats adjacents, ce qui laisse penser que les araignées colonisent les vergers à partir de la végétation environnante. L’objectif de notre étude est de comparer la composition spécifique des peuplements d’araignées vivant dans le feuillage de pommeraies (Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosaceae)) et dans celui de la forêt décidue adjacente et de déterminer si les peuplements d’araignées des vergers sont dominés par des espèces agrobiontes. Nous avons récolté des araignées dans quatre pommeraies du sud du Québec, Canada, et dans la forêt décidue adjacente de mai à août 2004. Le cadrage multidimensionnel non métrique (NMDS) et des procédures de permutation à réponses multiples (MRPP) nous ont servi à évaluer la similarité des peuplements dans les vergers et les habitats forestiers; une procédure de raréfaction a permis de comparer la richesse spécifique dans les habitats. Bien que la richesse spécifique des araignées soit plus élevée dans les forêts que dans les vergers, la composition des peuplements d’araignées des pommeraies ne diffère pas significativement de celle de la forêt décidue adjacente à trois des quatre sites. En conséquence, il est vraisemblable que la forêt décidue adjacente, qui ressemble aux vergers par la structure de sa végétation et la fréquence de ses perturbations structurales, soit une source majeure des araignées dans les pommeraies.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

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2Corresponding author (e-mail: tara.sackett@mail.mcgill.ca).
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The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
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