1 Doob, Anthony and Cesaroni, Carla, Responding to Youth Crime in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004).
2 Bala, Nicholas, Youth Criminal Justice (Toronto: Irwin Law, 2003).
3 Hackler, Jim, “An Impressionistic View of Canadian Juvenile Justice: 1965 to 1999” (2001) 20 Canadian Journal of Mental Health 2; see also Hackler, Jim, “Youth Justice and the Legal Process” in Uhlemann, Max & Turner, David, eds., A Legal Handbook for the Helping Professional (Victoria: Law Foundation of British Columbia) [Legal Handbook] [forthcoming].
4 Tibbets, S.G. & Piquero, A.R., “The Influence of Gender, Low Birth Weight, and Disadvantaged Environment in Predicting Early Onset of Offending: A Test of Moffitt's Interactional Hypothesis” (1999) 75:4Criminology 1222–45.
5 Gordon, Robert M., “Criminal Business Organizations, Street Gangs, and ‘wanna-be’ Groups: A Vancouver Perspective” (2000) 42:1Can. J. Crim. 39–60.
6 Tanner, Julian & Wortley, S., The Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey: Overview Report (Toronto: Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto, 2002).
7 Gabor, Thomas, “Trends in Youth Crime: Some Evidence Pointing to Increases in the Severity and Volume of Violence on the Part of Young People” (1999) 41:3Can. J. Crim. 385–92.
8 Statistics Canada, Recidivism in Youth Court Histories, Part 1: The Likelihood and Rates of Recidivism 2000–2002 by Lee, N. (Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada, 2002).
9 Hillian, Doug, Reitsma-Street, Marge & Hackler, Jim, “Conferencing in the Youth Criminal Justice Act of Canada: Policy Developments in British Columbia” (2004) 46:3Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice.
10 Fox, James Alan, Trends in Juvenile Violence: A report to The United States Attorney General on Current and Future Rates of Juvenile Offending. (Washington, D.C.: Department of Justice, 1996).
11 Zimring, Frank, American Youth Violence (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
12 Carrington, Peter J. & Moyer, Sharon, “Trends in Youth Crime and Police Response, Pre and Post-YOA” (1994) 36:1Can. J. Crim. 1–28.
13 Carrington, Peter, “Has Violent Crime Increased? Comment on Corrado and Markwart” (1995) 37:1Can. J. Crim. 61–73.
14 Legal Handbook, supra note 4
15 Conly, D., Patterns of Delinquency and Police Action in the Major Metropolitan Areas of Canada During the Month of December 1976 (Ottawa: Solicitor General, Canada 1978).
16 U.K., Howard League for Legal Reform, Banged Up, Beaten Up, Cutting Up: Report of the Howard League Commission of Inquiry into Violence in Penal Institutions for Teenagers under Eighteen (London: Howard League for Penal Reform, 1995) at 13.
17 Olds, D.et al., “Long-term Efffects of Nurse Home Visistation on Children's Criminal and Antisocial Behaviour.” (1998) 280 Journal of American Medical Association 1238–44.
18 Hackler, James C., “The Manifest and Latent Functions of Legal Aid” (1992) 2:1International Criminal Justice Review 58–75.
19 Hackler, James C., “Practicing in France What Americans Have Preached: The Response of French Judges to Juveniles” (1988) 34 Crime and Delinquency 467–85.