Canadian Journal of Law and Society / La Revue Canadienne Droit et Société
Labour and environmental law operate in silos. This is equally true in the transnational sphere, despite the 2011 endorsement of UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Labour rights as human rights appear easier to grasp than environmental human rights, and the UNGPs specifically highlight the work of the ILO. Due to egregious events such as the Bangladesh Rana Plaza factory collapse, transnational governance regimes have emerged to better ensure building safety and respect for labour rights. Yet the process of production of “fast fashion” is not only a problem for workers whose health and safety are put at risk, but also for children and families who live in the vicinity of polluting factories and experience “slow death” as a result of contaminated air and water. This paper will explore how a reconceptualization of the worker as a relational being and corporeal citizen might bridge the silos.
Le droit du travail et de l’environnement fonctionnent en silos. Malgré l’approbation, en 2011, des Principes directeurs relatifs aux entreprises et aux droits de l’homme de l’Organisation des Nations Unies, il semble également que la sphère transnationale soit caractérisée par ce type de travail en silo. Les droits du travail en tant que droits de la personne semblent d’ailleurs plus faciles à saisir que les droits de la personne liés à l’environnement, et les Principes directeurs mettent surtout en exergue le travail de l’Organisation internationale du travail. En raison d’évènements flagrants tels que l’effondrement de l’usine Rana Plaza au Bangladesh, des régimes de gouvernance transnationaux ont vu le jour afin de garantir la sécurité des bâtiments et le respect des droits des travailleurs. Or, le processus de production de la « mode rapide » ne s’avère pas uniquement problématique pour les travailleurs dont la santé et la sécurité sont menacées, elles touchent également les enfants et les familles qui vivent à proximité des usines polluantes et qui, sous l’effet de l’air et l’eau contaminés, connaissent une « mort lente ». Cet article explore comment une reconceptualisation du travailleur en tant qu’être relationnel et citoyen corporel pourrait bâtir des ponts entre les silos.
I would like to thank Adelle Blackett for inviting me to contribute to this special issue, and for the opportunity to give a talk on the subject at McGill in 2017. My thanks are also due to the Centre for International Governance Innovation’s International Law Research Program, where I am a Senior Fellow, for providing financial support for me to attend the 2017 UN Forum on Business and Human Rights, which informed my understanding of recent developments of importance to the final section of this article. Finally, I am grateful to the anonymous peer reviewers for their insightful suggestions.
1 Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, John Ruggie: Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework, UNOHCHR, 17th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/17/31, (2011), online: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Business/A-HRC-17-31_AEV.pdf [UNGPs]
2 Report of the Independent Expert on the Issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Environment, John H. Knox: Mapping Report, UNOHCHR, 25th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/25/53, (2014), online: United Nations Mandate on Human Rights and the Environment http://srenvironment.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/A-HRC-25-53-clean-final-version-1.doc [Knox, Mapping]; Report of the Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy, and sustainable environment: Framework principles on human rights and the environment, UNOHCHR, 37th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/37/59, (2018), online: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G18/017/42/PDF/G1801742.pdf?OpenElement [Knox, Principles]. See also the work of the Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, online: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Environment/ToxicWastes/Pages/SRToxicWastesIndex.aspx.
3 United Nations General Assembly, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 21 October 2015, UN DOC A/RES/70/1. United Nations Sustainable Development Platform, available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/summit (the 2030 Agenda).
4 Doorey, David, “Just Transitions Law: Putting Labour Law to Work on Climate Change” Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 30, no. 2 (2017): 201–203. See also Doorey, David J, “A transnational law of just transitions for climate change and labour,” in Research Handbook on Transnational Labour Law, ed. Blackett, Adelle and Trebilcock, Anne (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2015), 551.
5 Doorey, “Just Transitions Law,” 204, 213–220. But see Doorey, “Just Transitions Law,” 218, note 81 citing Wexler (2006) and other sources that suggest there is not agreement that environmental law is a distinct discipline.
6 Doorey, “Just Transitions Law,” 205, 220–222.
7 Ibid., 205. See, for example, s. 3 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which defines “environment” as: “the components of the Earth and includes:
(a) air, land and water
(b) all layers of the atmosphere
(c) all organic and inorganic matter and living organisms; and
(d) the interacting natural systems that include components referred to in paragraph (a) to (c).”
8 But see efforts by groups to bridge this divide: Jeremy Brecher and Brendan Smith, “Pipeline Climate Disaster: The Keystone XL Pipeline and Labor,” online: Labor Network for Sustainability http://www.labor4sustainability.org/articles/pipeline-climate-disaster-the-keystone-xl-pipeline-and-labor/
9 “What is the Global Compact,” United Nations Global Compact: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/what-is-gc
10 “The Ten Principles” United Nations Global Compact https://www.unglobalcompact.org/what-is-gc/mission/principles. Principle 10 concerns anti-corruption.
12 “About” OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, http://mneguidelines.oecd.org/about.htm
13 Ibid. Each adhering country also commits to creating a National Contact Point charged with promoting the Guidelines and resolving disputes.
14 OECD MNE Guidelines (2011) http://www.oecd.org/daf/inv/mne/48004323.pdf
15 Ibid. paragraph 48.
16 Ibid. paragraph 60. Infra note 33.
17 International Finance Corporation (IFC), Social and Environmental Performance Standards (World Bank, 2012), online: http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/115482804a0255db96fbffd1a5d13d27/PS_English_2012_Full-Document.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. However, the IFC Performance Standards have been critiqued for failing to fully align with business responsibilities for human rights. See Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises: “Human Rights Impact Assessments – Resolving Key Methodological Questions,” UN HRCOR, 4th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/4/74 (5 February 2007), paras 22, 25–26.
18 Seck, Sara L., “Emerging-Market Multinational Enterprises, Human Rights, and Sustainable Development: Lessons from the Canadian Experience,” Transnational Corporations 22 (2013) 73–100.
19 Ibid. In addition, an independent Compliance Advisor Ombudsman responds to complaints from project-affected communities.
20 Compare IFC Performance Standard 2 (Labor and Working Conditions) with IFC Performance Standard 3 (Resource Efficiency and Pollution Prevention) and IFC Performance Standard 6 (Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources), supra note 17.
21 IFC Performance Standard 4 (Community Health, Safety, and Security), supra note 17. See also International Finance Corporation, “Environmental, Health, and Safety General Guidelines,” online: http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/554e8d80488658e4b76af76a6515bb18/Final%2B-%2BGeneral%2BEHS%2BGuidelines.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
22 IFC Performance Standard 5 (Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement), supra note 17.
23 Doorey, “Just Transitions Law,” 220.
24 Trebilcock, Anne, “Using Development Approaches to Address the Challenge of the Informal Economy for Labour Law,” in Boundaries and Frontiers of Labour Law, ed. Davidov, Guy and Langille, Brian (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2006), 63–86.
25 Blackett, Adelle, “Decolonizing Labour Law: A Few Comments,” in Labour Law and Social Progress: Holding the Line or Shifting the Boundaries, ed. Blanpain, Roger and Hendrickx, Frank, guest ed. D’Arcy du Toit (Frederick, MD: Kluwer Law International, 2016)
26 Ibid., 91–92.
27 On the contested boundaries of labour law, see Davidov, Guy and Langille, Brian, ed., Boundaries and Frontiers of Labour Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2006).
28 See Aagard, T., “Environmental Law as a Legal Field: An Inquiry in Legal Taxonomy” Cornell Law Review 95 (2010): 221; Ruhl, J. and Salzman, J., “Climate Change Meets the Law of Horse,” Duke Law Journal 62 (2013): 975; Tarlock, D., “Is There a There in Environmental Law?” Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law 19 (2004): 21.
29 See generally Alam, Shawkat, Atapattu, Sumudu, Carmen, G, Gonzalez, , and Razzaque, Jona, ed., International Environmental Law and the Global South (Cambridge University Press, 2015).
30 International Labour Organization, International Labour Standards: Rules of the Game, 3rd Revised edition, 2014, online: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/publication/wcms_318141.pdf
31 See for example Ruth Gordon, “Unsustainable Development,” in Alam et al., supra note 29, 50–73; Karin Mickelson, “The Stockholm Conference and the Creation of the South-North Divide in International Environmental Law and Policy,” in Alam et al., supra note 29, 109–129. See further Mickelson, Karin, “South, North, International Environmental Law, and International Environmental Lawyers,” Yearbook of International Environmental Law 11 (2000): 52.
32 Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment, in Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, UN Doc.A/CONF.48/14, 2 and Corr.1 (1972).
33 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, in Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I), 12 August 1992, Annex I.
34 United Nations General Assembly, The Future We Want, Rio de Janeiro, 11 September 2011, UNGA 66th Sess., UN Doc. A/RES/66/288, 3–10.
35 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, supra note 3, 5 (para 12): “We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as set out in principle 7 thereof.”
36 Rio Declaration, supra note 33.
37 See for example the Basel Convention (transboundary movements of hazardous wastes) and Rotterdam Convention (chemicals management), although the Stockholm Convention takes a slightly stricter approach for persistent organic pollutants (ban/reduction, with exceptions). See further the relationship between these three treaties, online: http://www.brsmeas.org/Decisionmaking/Overview/AboutSynergies/tabid/2614/language/en-US/Default.aspx
38 See for example Gonzalez, Carmen G., “Environmental Justice, Human Rights, and the Global South” Santa Clara. Journal of International Law 13 (2015): 151.
39 Mickelson, “South, North,” 62–66.
40 Seck, Sara L., “Transnational Business and Environmental Harm: A TWAIL Analysis of Home State Obligations,” Trade, Law and Development 3 (2011): 192, citing Mickelson, ibid., 65.
41 Seck, Sara L., “Human Rights and Extractive Industries: Environmental Law and Standards,” Human Rights Law and the Extractive Industries, Paper No. 12, Page No. 12-1 – 12–42 (Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation, 2016).
42 For example, standards such as respect for freedom of association are open to interpretation. The author is grateful to an anonymous reviewer for this insight. See further ILO, Rules of the Game, supra note 30, 28–30.
43 For example, there is no agreed upon fixed “minimum wage” in international labour instruments, because it is recognized that countries are at vastly different levels of economic development. I am grateful to an anonymous reviewer for this insight. See further ILO, Rules of the Game, supra note 30, 19.
44 Trebilcock, Anne, “Due diligence on labour issues – Opportunities and limits of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights” in Blackett, Adelle and Trebilcock, Anne, Research Handbook on Transnational Labour Law (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2015), 93, and 97–98 citing Kolben, Kevin, “Labor Rights as Human Rights?” Virginia Journal of International Law 50 (2010): 484.
45 UNGPs, supra note 1.
46 See generally Deva, Surya and Bilchitz, David, ed., Human Rights Obligations of Business: Beyond the Corporate Responsibility to Respect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
47 United Nations Open-ended intergovernmental working group on transnational corporations and other business enterprises with respect to human rights, online: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/WGTransCorp/Pages/IGWGOnTNC.aspx
48 United Nations Working group on the issue of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with respect to human rights, online: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Business/Pages/WGHRandtransnationalcorporationsandotherbusiness.aspx
49 Seck, Sara, “Business, Human Rights, and Canadian Mining Lawyers,” Canadian Business Law Journal 56 (2015): 208–237.
50 UNGPs, supra note 1, Principle 11, Commentary.
51 Ibid., Principle 23 (a).
52 United Nations General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 999, p. 171; United Nations General Assembly, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 993, p. 3; International Labour Organization (ILO), ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, June 1988.
53 Compare, the work of the UN Environment Programme, with that of the ILO. See UNEP, “Why Does UNEP Matter?” online: https://www.unenvironment.org/about-un-environment/why-does-un-environment-matter
54 Shin-ichi, AGO, “Whether to Adopt a Convention or a Recommendation – The Experience of International Labour Legislation,” in The Future of Business and Human Rights: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for a UN Treaty, ed. Černič, Jernej Letnar and Carrillo-Santarelli, Nicolás (Cambridge, UK: Intersentia, 2018), 253–272.
55 UN HRC Resolution 19/10 Human Rights and the Environment, A/HRC/RES/19/10 (19 April 2012) (resolution appointing Knox to his mandate); Knox, Mapping, supra note 2, 6.
56 UN HRC Resolution 19/10, ibid., para. 2(a); Knox, Mapping, ibid. See generally Seck, “Human Rights and Extractive Industries,” supra note 41.
57 Knox, Mapping, supra note 2, 8 (para 27).
58 Ibid., 8 (para 29). See further paras 30–35 (duties to assess environmental impacts and make information public); paras 36–40 (duties to facilitate public participation in environmental decision-making); and paras 41–43 (duty to provide access to legal remedies) (pages 9–12).
59 Ibid., 11 (para 39), referring to the work of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders.
60 Knox, Mapping, supra note 2, 12–13, paras. 79–84.
61 Ibid., 19–22.
62 Ibid., para 58. See further paras 58–61.
63 Ibid, citing United Nations General Assembly, “Corporations and human rights: a survey of the scope and patterns of alleged corporate-related human rights abuse,” 23 May 2008, Human Rights Council, Addendum to the Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, UN DOC A/HRC/8/5/Add.2, para. 67.
64 Knox, Mapping, supra note 2, para 59.
65 Knox, Principles, supra note 2, Annex.
66 Ibid., para 18.
67 Ibid., Commentary to Principle 8, para 22.
68 Ibid., Commentary to Principle 12, para 35.
69 Grear, Anna, “The Vulnerable Living Order: Human Rights and the Environment in a Critical and Philosophical Perspective,” Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 2, no. 1 (2011): 23–44.
70 See for example Gianolla, Cristiano, “Human rights and nature: intercultural perspectives and international aspirations” Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 1 (2013): 58–78; Boyd, David R., The Rights of Nature: A Legal Revolution that Could Save the World (ECW Press, 2017); Ruru, Jacinta, “A Treaty in Another Context: Creating Reimagined Treaty Relationships in Aotearoa New Zealand,” in The Right Relationship: Reimagining the Implementation of Historical Treaties, ed. Borrows, John and Coyle, Michael (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017), 305–324.
71 Knox, John, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment: biodiversity, UNHRC, 34th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/34/49 (2017), online: <https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/009/97/PDF/G1700997.pdf?OpenElement>, 3.
72 Seck, Sara, “Reflections on Business, Human Rights, the Environment, and Climate Justice” (December 4, 2017), Dalhousie Environmental Law News blog, online: https://blogs.dal.ca/melaw/2017/12/04/reflections-on-business-human-rights-the-environment-and-climate-justice-december-4-2017/ (reflecting on the 2017 UN Forum on Business and Human Rights).
73 Dauvergne, Peter and Lister, Jane, “Big brand sustainability: Governance prospects and environmental limits,” Global Environmental Change 22 no. 1 (2012): 36–45. I am grateful to an anonymous reviewer for drawing my attention to the work of Dauvergne, LeBaron, and Lister.
74 Ibid., 38.
75 Ibid., 45.
76 LeBaron, Genvieve and Lister, Jane, “Ethical Audits and the Supply Chains of Global Corporations” Sheffield Political Economy Research Institute (SPERI), (2016) University of Sheffield. SPERI Global Political Economy Briefs (1), Report, 5, online: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/96303/1/Global-Brief-1-Ethical-Audits-and-the-Supply-Chains-of-Global-Corporations.pdf.
77 See for example Backer, Larry Catá, “Are Supply Chains Transnational Legal Orders? What We Can Learn from the Rana Plaza Factory Building Collapse” UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law 1, no. 11 (2016): 11–65.
78 Ibid., 22–23.
79 Yardley, Jim, “Bangladesh Pollution, Told in Colors and Smells,” New York Times, 14 July 2013: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/15/world/asia/bangladesh-pollution-told-in-colors-and-smells.html
80 Ibid. (citing a top-ranked student at the school 2 miles from Rana Plaza).
81 Backer, supra note 77, 23–24.
82 Ibid., 24–25.
83 Ibid., 25–26.
84 Ibid., 27. See for example Chen, Michelle, “A Western Company Could Finally Be Held Accountable for the Rana Plaza Disaster,” The Nation, April 29, 2016, online: https://www.thenation.com/article/a-western-company-could-finally-be-held-accountable-for-the-rana-plaza-disaster/.
85 Backer, supra note 77, 28–30. See Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety, online: http://www.bangladeshworkersafety.org
86 Ibid., 31–33. See Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh, online: http://bangladeshaccord.org
87 Ibid., 33–34.
88 Ibid., 35–36.
89 Ibid., 45.
90 Ibid., 19–20, citing Walmart’s Standards for Suppliers Manual (April 2014).
91 See Climate Change Cell, DoE, MoEF, Climate Change, Gender and Vulnerable Groups in Bangladesh (Dhaka: 2009), online: http://lib.icimod.org/record/13786/files/4600.PDF; and more generally Seck, Sara L., “Revisiting Transnational Corporations and Extractive Industries: Climate Justice, Feminism, and State Sovereignty,” Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 26, no. 1 (2017): 384–413.
92 See for example Joanne Conaghan, “Gender and the Idea of Labour Law,” feminists@law 4, no. 1 (2014) (citing numerous scholars).
93 Nedelsky, Jennifer, Law’s Relations: A Relational Theory of Self, Autonomy, and Law (Oxford University Press, 2011), 120.
94 Ibid., 121.
95 Ibid., 117.
96 Scott, Dayna Nadine, Haw, Jennie, and Lee, Robyn, “Wannabe Toxic-Free? From precautionary consumption to corporeal citizenship” Environmental Politics (2016), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09644016.2016.1232523
97 Ibid., 331.
101 Ibid., 334. See further Gabrielson, T. and Parady, K., “Corporeal citizenship: rethinking green citizenship through the body” Environmental Politics 19, no. 3 (2010): 374–391.
102 Ibid., 335.
103 Ibid., 331–332 citing Alaimo, S. and Hekman, S., ed., Material feminisms (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008), and others.
104 Scott, Haw, and Lee, 12, citing N. Tuana, “Viscous porosity: witnessing Katrina,” in Alaimo and Hekman.
105 Ibid., 334.
107 UNICEF, Global Compact, and Save the Children, “The Children’s Rights and Business Principles,” online: https://www.unicef.org/csr/css/PRINCIPLES_23_02_12_FINAL_FOR_PRINTER.pdf. See also https://www.unicef.org/csr/theprinciples.html
108 Children’s Rights and Business Principles, ibid., 11.
109 Ibid., 3, 28–29.
110 UNICEF, CSR, “Global Supply Chains,” online: https://www.unicef.org/csr/global-supply-chains.html
111 “Children’s Rights and Business Principles,” supra note 107, 11, 20–21.
112 UNICEF, The Ready-Made Garment Sector and Children in Bangladesh (2015), 3, online: https://www.unicef.org/csr/files/CSR_BANGLADESH_RMG_REPORT.PDF
114 Ibid., 10–11.
115 Report of the Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy, and sustainable environment, John Knox: children’s rights OHCHR 37th Sess UN Doc A/HRC/37/58 (2018), online: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G18/017/29/PDF/G1801729.pdf?OpenElement
116 OHCHR, “The Rights of the Child and Hazardous Substances and Wastes,” online: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Environment/ToxicWastes/Pages/RightsoftheChildHazardousSubstancesWastes.aspx. See further Report of the Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes and substances, UN Doc A/HRC/33/41 (2 August 2016), online: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/169/26/PDF/G1616926.pdf?OpenElement
117 SDGs, supra note 3; United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Human Rights and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, online: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/issues/MDG/Pages/The2030Agenda.aspx
118 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, supra note 3 (Preamble). On gender, see ibid., Goal 5.
119 Ibid. (Preamble).
120 Ibid., para 9.
122 Ibid., para 10.
123 Ibid., para 67.
124 Ibid., Goal 8. See especially Goal 8.8.
125 Ibid., Goal 16. See further Knox, John H., “Human Rights, Environmental Protection, and the Sustainable Development Goals,” Washington International Law Journal 24 (2015): 517 (commenting on an earlier draft of the SDGs).
126 See especially 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, ibid., Goals 6 (water), 13 (climate change), 14 (marine resources), 15 (terrestrial ecosystems).
127 Ibid., Goals 1 (poverty), 2 (hunger), 3 (health), 12 (consumption and production).
128 UN Global Compact, Sustainable Development, online: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/what-is-gc/our-work/sustainable-development
129 Business, Human Rights and the Sustainable Development Goals: Forging a Coherent Vision and Strategy, A paper from Shift commissioned by the Business and Sustainable Development Commission (November 2016), 34–35.
130 Hirtenstein, Anna, “Fast Fashion Goes Green with Mushrooms, Lumber Scraps, and Algae: Inditex and H&M are developing textiles to reduce the environmental cost of throwaway clothes,” Bloomberg (1 May 2018), online: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-05-01/fast-fashion-goes-green-with-mushrooms-lumber-scraps-and-algae
131 Blackett, “Decolonizing Labour Law,” supra note 25, 93–94.
132 Natarajan, Usha and Khoday, Kishan, “Locating Nature: Making and Unmaking International Law,” Leiden Journal of International Law 27 (2014): 573–593.
133 See further Doorey, supra note 4, 24–30, citing among others Sen, Amartya, “The Ends and Means of Sustainability” Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 14 (2013): 6; And Roesler, Shannon, “Addressing Environmental Injustices: A Capability Approach to Rulemaking” West Virginia Law Review 114 (2011): 49, 78. See also Trebilcock, supra note 24, 63–86 (outlining three development paradigms: the sustainable livelihoods approach; human capability perspective; and the empowerment approach).
* I would like to thank Adelle Blackett for inviting me to contribute to this special issue, and for the opportunity to give a talk on the subject at McGill in 2017. My thanks are also due to the Centre for International Governance Innovation’s International Law Research Program, where I am a Senior Fellow, for providing financial support for me to attend the 2017 UN Forum on Business and Human Rights, which informed my understanding of recent developments of importance to the final section of this article. Finally, I am grateful to the anonymous peer reviewers for their insightful suggestions.
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