Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cashen, Katherine Hollis, Taemyn K. Delius, Ralph E. and Meert, Kathleen L. 2016. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric cardiac failure: Review with a focus on unique subgroups. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology,

    Chiletti, Roberto Butt, Warwick and MacLaren, Graeme 2015. Rapid Deployment ECMO. Current Treatment Options in Pediatrics, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 4.

    Choudhri, Omar Shah, Aatman Basarab-Tung, Jennifer Jaffe, Richard A. and Steinberg, Gary K. 2015. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac arrest during moyamoya cerebral revascularization surgery: case report. Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 123, Issue. 3, p. 693.

    Dalton, Heidi J. Garcia-Filion, Pamela Holubkov, Richard Moler, Frank W. Shanley, Thomas Heidemann, Sabrina Meert, Kathleen Berg, Robert A. Berger, John Carcillo, Joseph Newth, Christopher Harrison, Richard Doctor, Allan Rycus, Peter Dean, J. Michael Jenkins, Tammara and Nicholson, Carol 2015. Association of Bleeding and Thrombosis With Outcome in Extracorporeal Life Support*. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 167.

    Eastaugh, Lucas J. Thiagarajan, Ravi R. Darst, Jeffrey R. McElhinney, Doff B. Lock, James E. and Marshall, Audrey C. 2015. Percutaneous Left Atrial Decompression in Patients Supported With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Cardiac Disease*. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    Dalton, Heidi J. 2014. How Low Can We Go? The Changing Landscape of Extracorporeal Support in Infants*. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 88.

    Dalton, Heidi J. 2014. Extubation and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 15, Issue. 9, p. 907.

    Paden, Matthew L. Rycus, Peter T. and Thiagarajan, Ravi R. 2014. Update and outcomes in extracorporeal life support. Seminars in Perinatology, Vol. 38, Issue. 2, p. 65.

    Butt, Warwick Heard, Micheal and Peek, Giles J. 2013. Clinical Management of the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 14, p. S13.

    Dalton, Heidi J. Dodge-Khatami, Ali and MacLaren, Graeme 2013. Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 14, p. S94.

    Paden, Matthew L. Conrad, Steven A. Rycus, Peter T. and Thiagarajan, Ravi R. 2013. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Report 2012. ASAIO Journal, Vol. 59, Issue. 3, p. 202.


Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for post-operative cardiac arrest: indications, techniques, controversies, and early results – what is known (and unknown)

  • Paul J. Chai (a1), Jeffrey P. Jacobs (a1), Heidi J. Dalton (a2), John M. Costello (a3), David S. Cooper (a1), Roxanne Kirsch (a4), Tami Rosenthal (a4), Joseph N. Graziano (a2) and James A. Quintessenza (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 13 December 2011

Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be defined as the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of patients who do not respond to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Data from national and international paediatric databases indicate that the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is increasing. Guidelines from the American Heart Association suggest that any patient with refractory cardiopulmonary resuscitation and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest is a candidate for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. One possible framework for selection of patients for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation includes dividing patients on the basis of favourable or unfavourable characteristics. Favourable characteristics include cardiac disease, witnessed event in the intensive care unit, ability to deliver effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation, active patient monitoring present, favourable arterial blood gases, and early institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Unfavourable characteristics potentially include non-cardiac disease, an unwitnessed cardiac arrest, ineffective cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and severely acidotic arterial blood gases. Considering the significant resources and cost involved in the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, its use needs to be critically examined to improve outcomes, assess neurological recovery and quality of life, and help identify populations and other factors that may help guide in the selection of patients for successful extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Corresponding author
Correspondence to: Dr P. J. Chai, MD, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, The Congenital Heart Institute of Florida, 625 6th Avenue South, Suite 475, Saint Petersburg, Florida 33701, United States of America. Tel: (727) 822-6666; Fax: (727) 821-5994; E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.RR Thiagarajan , PC Laussen , PT Rycus , RH Bartlett , SL Bratton . Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to aid cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infants and children. Circulation 2007; 116: 16931700.

2.B Alsoufi , OO Al-Radi , RI Nazer , Survival outcomes after rescue extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric patients with refractory cardiac arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 134: 952959, e952.

3.C Ravishankar , TE Dominguez , J Kreutzer , Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after stage I reconstruction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2006; 7: 319323.

4.MC Morris , G Wernovsky , VM Nadkarni . Survival outcomes after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation instituted during active chest compressions following refractory in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004; 5: 440446.

5.DA Kane , RR Thiagarajan , D Wypij , MA Scheurer , F Fynn-Thompson , S Emani , PJ del Nido , P Betit , PC Laussen . Rapid-response extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children with cardiac disease. Circulation 2010; 122 (11 Suppl): S241S248.

6.T Chan , RR Thiagarajan , D Frank , SL Bratton . Survival after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infants and children with heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 136: 984992.

7.BW Duncan , AE Ibrahim , V Hraska , Use of rapid-deployment extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the resuscitation of pediatric patients with heart disease after cardiac arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 116: 305311.

8.ME Kleinman , L Chameides , SM Schexnayder , et al. Part 14: pediatric advanced life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010; 122 (18 Suppl 3): S876S908.

9.WT Mahle , JM Forbess , PM Kirshbom , AR Cuadrado , JM Simsic , KR Kanter . Cost-utility analysis of salvage cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005; 129: 10841090.

10.CK Allan , RR Thiagarajan , PJ del Nido , SJ Roth , MC Almodovar , PC Laussen . Indication for initiation of mechanical circulatory support impacts survival of infants with shunted single-ventricle circulation supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133: 660667.

11.TP Aufderheide , G Sigurdsson , RG Pirrallo , Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 2004; 109: 19601965.

12.KL Booth , SJ Roth , RR Thiagarajan , MC Almodovar , PJ del Nido , PC Laussen . Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support of the Fontan and bidirectional Glenn circulations. Ann Thorac Surg 2004; 77: 13411348.

13.KL Rood , SA Teele , CS Barrett , et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support after the Fontan operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011; 142: 504510.

14.GE Hardart , MK Hardart , JH Arnold . Intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation correlates with conceptional age. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 184189.

15.RA Samson , VM Nadkarni , PA Meaney , SM Carey , MD Berg , RA Berg . Outcomes of in-hospital ventricular fibrillation in children. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 23282339.

17.CK Allan , RR Thiagarajan , D Beke , et al. Simulation-based training delivered directly to the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit engenders preparedness, comfort, and decreased anxiety among multidisciplinary resuscitation teams. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 646652.

18.CS Barrett , SL Bratton , JW Salvin , PC Laussen , PT Rycus , RR Thiagarajan . Neurological injury after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use to aid pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009; 10: 445451.

19.SE Hamrick , DB Gremmels , CA Keet , Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery. Pediatrics 2003; 111: e671e675.

20.G Chow , B Koirala , D Armstrong , Predictors of mortality and neurological morbidity in children undergoing extracorporeal life support for cardiac disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2004; 26: 3843.

22.JP Jacobs , JW Ojito , T McConaghey , Rapid cardiopulmonary support for children with complex congenital heart disease. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70: 742749, discussion 749–750.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Cardiology in the Young
  • ISSN: 1047-9511
  • EISSN: 1467-1107
  • URL: /core/journals/cardiology-in-the-young
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *